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Patrick Frierson [30]Patrick R. Frierson [14]
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  1.  36
    Patrick Frierson (2003). Freedom and Anthropology in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    This book is the first comprehensive account of Kant's theory of freedom and his moral anthropology. The point of departure is the apparent conflict between three claims to which Kant is committed: that human beings are transcendentally free, that moral anthropology studies the empirical influences on human beings, and that more anthropology is morally relevant. Frierson shows why this conflict is only apparent. He draws on Kant's transcendental idealism and his theory of the will and describes how empirical influences can (...)
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  2.  11
    Patrick R. Frierson (2016). Making Room for Children's Autonomy: Maria Montessori's Case for Seeing Children's Incapacity for Autonomy as an External Failing. Journal of Philosophy of Education 50 (3):332-350.
    This article draws on Martha Nussbaum's distinction between basic, internal, and external capacities to better specify possible locations for children's ‘incapacity’ for autonomy. I then examine Maria Montessori's work on what she calls ‘normalization’, which involves a release of children's capacities for autonomy and self-governance made possible by being provided with the right kind of environment. Using Montessori, I argue that, in contrast to many ordinary and philosophical assumptions, children's incapacities for autonomy are best understood as consequences of an absence (...)
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  3.  26
    Patrick R. Frierson (2014). Maria Montessori's Epistemology. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (4):767-791.
    This paper lays out the epistemology of Maria Montessori . I start with what I call Montessori's ‘interested empiricism’, her empiricist emphasis on the foundational role of the senses combined with her insistence that all cognition is infused with ‘interest’. I then discuss the unconscious. Partly because of her emphasis on early childhood, Montessori puts great emphasis on unconscious cognitive processes and develops a conceptual vocabulary to make sense of the continuity between conscious and unconscious processes. The final sections turn (...)
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  4.  24
    Patrick Frierson (2015). Maria Montessori's Philosophy of Experimental Psychology. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (2):240-268.
    Through philosophical analysis of Montessori’s critiques of psychology, I aim to show the enduring relevance of those critiques. Maria Montessori sees experimental psychology as fundamental to philosophy and pedagogy, but she objects to the experimental psychology of her day in four ways: as disconnected from practice, as myopic, as based excessively on methods from physical sciences, and—most fundamentally—as offering detailed examinations of human beings (particularly children) under abnormal conditions. In place of these prevailing norms, Montessori suggests a model of the (...)
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  5.  34
    Patrick Frierson (2005). The Moral Importance of Politeness in Kant's Anthropology. Kantian Review 9 (1):105-127.
    In his Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals , Kant explains that ethics, like physics, ‘will have its empirical part, but it will also have a rational part, … though here [in ethics] the empirical part might be given the special name practical anthropology’ . In the Groundwork, Kant suggests that anthropology, or the ‘power of judgment sharpened by experience’, has two roles, ‘to distinguish in what cases [moral laws] are applicable’ and ‘to gain for [moral laws] access to the (...)
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  6.  33
    Patrick Frierson (2002). Learning to Love: From Egoism to Generosity in Descartes. Journal of the History of Philosophy 40 (3):313-338.
    Patrick Frierson - Learning to Love: From Egoism to Generosity in Descartes - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:3 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.3 313-338 Learning to Love: From Egoism to Generosity in Descartes Patrick R. Frierson The whole of philosophy is like a tree. The roots are metaphysics, the trunk is physics, and the branches emerging from the trunk are all the other sciences, which may be reduced to three principal ones, namely medicine, mechanics, and morals. (...)
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  7.  69
    Patrick Frierson (2005). Kant's Empirical Account of Human Action. Philosophers' Imprint 5 (7):1-34.
    In the first Critique, Kant says, “[A]ll the actions of a human being are determined in accord with the order of nature,” adding that “if we could investigate all the appearances . . . there would be no human action we could not predict with certainty.” Most Kantian treatments of human action discuss action from a practical perspective, according to which human beings are transcendentally free, and thus do not sufficiently lay out this Kant’s empirical, causal description of human action. (...)
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  8.  70
    Patrick Frierson (2006). Character and Evil in Kant's Moral Anthropology. Journal of the History of Philosophy 44 (4):623-634.
    In the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant explains that moral anthropology studies the “subjective conditions in human nature that help or hinder [people] in fulfilling the laws of a metaphysics of morals” and insists that such anthropology “cannot be dispensed with” (6:217).1 But it is often difficult to find clear evidence of this sort of anthropology in Kant’s own works. in this paper, i discuss Kant’s account of character as an example of Kantian moral anthropology.
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  9.  18
    Patrick R. Frierson (2015). The Virtue Epistemology of Maria Montessori. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94 (1):79-98.
    This paper shows how Maria Montessori's thought can enrich contemporary virtue epistemology. After a short overview of her ‘interested empiricist’ epistemological framework, I discuss four representative intellectual virtues: sensory acuity, physical dexterity, intellectual love, and intellectual humility. Throughout, I show how Montessori bridges the divide between reliabilist and responsibilist approaches to the virtues and how her particular treatments of virtues offer distinctive and compelling alternatives to contemporary accounts. For instance, she emphasizes how sensory acuity is a virtue for which one (...)
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  10.  54
    Patrick R. Frierson (2006). Adam Smith and the Possibility of Sympathy with Nature. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87 (4):442–480.
    As J. Baird Callicott has argued, Adam Smith's moral theory is a philosophical ancestor of recent work in environmental ethics. However, Smith's "all important emotion of sympathy" (Callicott, 2001, p. 209) seems incapable of extension to entities that lack emotions with which one can sympathize. Drawing on the distinctive account of sympathy developed in Smith's Theory of Moral Sentiments, as well as his account of anthropomorphizing nature in "History of Astronomy and Physics," I show that sympathy with non-sentient nature is (...)
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  11.  1
    Patrick R. Frierson (2016). Making Room for Children's Autonomy: Maria Montessori's Case for Seeing Children's Incapacity for Autonomy as an External Failing. Journal of Philosophy of Education 50 (3):332-350.
    This article draws on Martha Nussbaum's distinction between basic, internal, and external capacities to better specify possible locations for children's ‘incapacity’ for autonomy. I then examine Maria Montessori's work on what she calls ‘normalization’, which involves a release of children's capacities for autonomy and self-governance made possible by being provided with the right kind of environment. Using Montessori, I argue that, in contrast to many ordinary and philosophical assumptions, children's incapacities for autonomy are best understood as consequences of an absence (...)
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  12.  23
    Patrick Frierson (2014). Kant, Individual Responsibility, and Climate Change. Ethics, Policy and Environment 17 (1):35-38.
  13.  20
    Patrick Frierson (2007). Corruption, Non-Ideal Theory, and Grace: A Response to Kant and the Ethics of Humility. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (3):624–631.
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  14.  58
    Patrick Frierson (2010). Two Standpoints and the Problem of Moral Anthropology. In James Krueger & Benjamin Bruxvoort Lipscomb (eds.), Kant's Moral Metaphysics. Walter Degruyter 83.
  15.  35
    Patrick Frierson (2007). Providence and Divine Mercy in Kant's Ethical Cosmopolitanism. Faith and Philosophy 24 (2):144-164.
    For Kant, cosmopolitan ethical community is a necessary response to humans’ radical evil. To be cosmopolitan, this community must not depend on particular historical religions. But Kant’s defense of ethical community uses Christian concepts such as providence and divine mercy. This paper explores two ways—one more liberal and the other more religious—to relate the theological commitments underlying ethical cosmopolitanism with the non-dogmatic nature of Kantian religion.
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  16. Patrick Frierson, Adam Smith and the Possibility of Sympathy with Nature Patrick R. Frierson.
    As J. Baird Callicott has argued, Adam Smith’s moral theory is a philosophical ancestor of recent work in environmental ethics. However, Smith’s “all important emotion of sympathy” (Callicott 2001: 209) seems incapable of extension to entities that lack emotions with which one can sympathize. Drawing on the distinctive account of sympathy developed in Smith’s Theory of Moral Sentiments , as well as his account of anthropomorphizing nature in “History of Astronomy and Physics,” I show that sympathy with non-sentient nature is (...)
     
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  17.  4
    Patrick Frierson (2015). How to Treat Persons, by Samuel Kerstein. Mind 124 (496):1312-1318.
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  18.  27
    Patrick Frierson (2008). Empirical Psychology, Common Sense, and Kant's Empirical Markers for Moral Responsibility. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (4):473-482.
    This paper explains the empirical markers by which Kant thinks that one can identify moral responsibility. After explaining the problem of discerning such markers within a Kantian framework, I briefly explain Kant’s empirical psychology. I then argue that Kant’s empirical markers for moral responsibility—linked to higher faculties of cognition—are not sufficient conditions for moral responsibility, primarily because they are empirical characteristics subject to natural laws. Next, I argue that these markers are not necessary conditions of moral responsibility. Given Kant’s transcendental (...)
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  19.  10
    Patrick Frierson (2007). Metastandards in the Ethics of Adam Smith and Aldo Leopold. Environmental Ethics 29 (2):171-191.
    Adam Smith is not an environmentalist, but he articulated an ethical theory that is increasingly recognized as a fruitful source of environmental ethics. In the context of this theory, Smith illustrates in a particularly valuable way the role that anthropocentric, utilitarian metastandards can play in defending nonanthropocentric, nonutilitarian ethical standpoints. There are four roles that an anthropocentricmetastandard can play in defending an ecocentric ethical standpoint such as Aldo Leopold’s land ethic. First, this metastandard helps reconcile ecocentrism with theodicy, either of (...)
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  20.  15
    Patrick Frierson, Rousseau.
    Angaben zur Person Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was born in the Calvinist city-state of Geneva on June 28, 1712. The epoch-making moment” in Rousseau’s life came in 1749, when he fell across the question of the Academy of Dijon which gave rise to my first writing” OC I, 1135). The question was “Whether the restoration of the Sciences and Arts has contributed to the purification of morals.” Rousseau’s answer to that question – a decisive No – was his Discourse on the (...)
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  21.  9
    Patrick Frierson (2007). Review: Dean, The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (4).
  22.  11
    Patrick Frierson, Applying Adam Smith: A Step Towards Smithian Environmental Virtue Ethics.
    A wealthy eccentric bought a house in a neighborhood I know.  The house was surrounded by a beautiful display of grass, plants, and flowers, and it was shaded by a huge old avocado tree. But the grass required cutting, the flowers needed tending, and the man wanted more sun. So he cut the whole lot down and covered the yard with asphalt. After all it was his property and he was not fond of plants. (Hill 1983: 98).
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  23.  8
    Patrick Frierson (2006). Symbolic Representation in Kant's Practical Philosophy. Faith and Philosophy 23 (2):232-238.
  24.  10
    Patrick Frierson, Anthropologie in Pragmatischer Hinsicht.
    In 1773, Kant cancelled a course in theoretical physics – due to lack of enrollment – and taught “Anthropology” in its place. From that time, Kant taught Anthropology every winter semester until he retired in 1796. The anthropology course was one of two courses in “Weltkenntnis” that Kant taught every year. The other, physical geography, was taught in the Summer semester. When he retired, Kant compiled the notes from his anthropology lecture course into Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht, the last publication (...)
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  25.  1
    Patrick Frierson (2015). Allen W. Wood, The Free Development of Each: Studies of Freedom, Right and Ethics in Classical German Philosophy Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014 Pp. 352 ISBN 9780199685530 £45.00. [REVIEW] Kantian Review 20 (3):506-512.
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  26.  8
    Patrick Frierson (2010). Review: McCarty, Richard, Kant's Theory of Action. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (6).
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  27.  7
    Patrick R. Frierson (2000). Ideas and Mechanism: Essays on Early Modern Philosophy (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 38 (1):125-126.
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  28.  7
    Patrick R. Frierson (2000). Descartes and Method: A Search for a Method in Meditations (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 38 (3):436-437.
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  29.  7
    Patrick Frierson (2005). Review: Grenberg, Kant and the Ethics of Humility. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (11).
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  30.  2
    Patrick R. Frierson (2001). Cartesian Metaphysics: The Scholastic Origins of Modern Philosophy (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 39 (2):292-294.
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  31. Patrick Frierson (2001). Anthropology and Freedom in Kant's Moral Philosophy: Saving Kant From Schleiermacher's Dilemma. Dissertation, University of Notre Dame
    Both neokantian moral theorists and Kant scholars have begun to incorporate Kant's moral anthropology. The result has been kantian moral theory that pays attention to character, virtue, and the richness of human life, and that takes seriously Kant's own conception of the importance for ethics of moral anthropology. But there is an apparent conflict between Kant's anthropological insights into empirical helps and hindrances to developing moral character and his insistence that transcendental freedom is a condition of the possibility of moral (...)
     
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  32. Patrick R. Frierson (2003). Freedom and Anthropology in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Originally published in 2003, this book offers a comprehensive account of Kant's theory of freedom and his moral anthropology. The point of departure is the apparent conflict between three claims to which Kant is committed: that human beings are transcendentally free, that moral anthropology studies the empirical influences on human beings, and that more anthropology is morally relevant. Frierson shows why this conflict is only apparent. He draws on Kant's transcendental idealism and his theory of the will and describes how (...)
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  33. Patrick R. Frierson (2009). Freedom and Anthropology in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    Originally published in 2003, this book offers a comprehensive account of Kant's theory of freedom and his moral anthropology. The point of departure is the apparent conflict between three claims to which Kant is committed: that human beings are transcendentally free, that moral anthropology studies the empirical influences on human beings, and that more anthropology is morally relevant. Frierson shows why this conflict is only apparent. He draws on Kant's transcendental idealism and his theory of the will and describes how (...)
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  34. Patrick R. Frierson (2011). Freedom and Anthropology in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    This book offers a comprehensive account of Kant's theory of freedom and his moral anthropology. The point of departure is the apparent conflict between three claims to which Kant is committed: that human beings are transcendentally free, that moral anthropology studies the empirical influences on human beings, and that more anthropology is morally relevant. Frierson shows why this conflict is only apparent. He draws on Kant's transcendental idealism and his theory of the will and describes how empirical influences can affect (...)
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  35. Patrick Frierson (2011). Immanuel Kant: Key Concepts. Acumen Publishing Limited.
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  36.  39
    Patrick Frierson (2014). Kant's Empirical Psychology. Cambridge University Press.
    Throughout his life, Kant was concerned with questions about empirical psychology. He aimed to develop an empirical account of human beings, and his lectures and writings on the topic are recognizable today as properly 'psychological' treatments of human thought and behavior. In this book Patrick R. Frierson uses close analysis of relevant texts, including unpublished lectures and notes, to study Kant's account. He shows in detail how Kant explains human action, choice, and thought in empirical terms, and how a better (...)
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  37. Patrick R. Frierson (2014). Kant's Empirical Psychology. Cambridge University Press.
    Throughout his life, Kant was concerned with questions about empirical psychology. He aimed to develop an empirical account of human beings, and his lectures and writings on the topic are recognizable today as properly 'psychological' treatments of human thought and behavior. In this book Patrick R. Frierson uses close analysis of relevant texts, including unpublished lectures and notes, to study Kant's account. He shows in detail how Kant explains human action, choice, and thought in empirical terms, and how a better (...)
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  38. Patrick Frierson (2010). Kantian Moral Pessimism. In Sharon Anderson-Gold & Pablo Muchnik (eds.), Kant's Anatomy of Evil. Cambridge University Press
     
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  39. Patrick Frierson & Paul Guyer (eds.) (2011). Kant: Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime and Other Writings. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume collects Kant's most important ethical and anthropological writings from the 1760s, before he developed his critical philosophy. The materials presented here range from the Observations, one of Kant's most elegantly written and immediately popular texts, to the accompanying Remarks which Kant wrote in his personal copy of the Observations and which are translated here in their entirety for the first time. This edition also includes little-known essays as well as personal notes and fragments that reveal the emergence of (...)
     
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  40. Patrick Frierson & Paul Guyer (eds.) (2011). Kant: Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime and Other Writings. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume collects Kant's most important ethical and anthropological writings from the 1760s, before he developed his critical philosophy. The materials presented here range from the Observations, one of Kant's most elegantly written and immediately popular texts, to the accompanying Remarks which Kant wrote in his personal copy of the Observations and which are translated here in their entirety for the first time. This edition also includes little-known essays as well as personal notes and fragments that reveal the emergence of (...)
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  41. Patrick Frierson (2011). Rational Faith: God, Immortality, Grace. In Immanuel Kant: Key Concepts. Acumen Publishing Limited
    This article offers an explanation and analysis of Kant’s philosophy of religion. It starts with Kant’s criticisms of the ontological, cosmological, and physico-teleological arguments for the existence of God from the ’Critique of Pure Reason’. It then explains Kant’s moral arguments in the ’Critique of Practical Reason’ for the existence and nature of God and for humans’ personal immorality. Finally, it lays out the argument for the necessity of grace from Kant’s ’Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reaso.'.
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  42. Patrick R. Frierson (2003). Theodor W. Adorno, Can One Live After Auschwitz? A Philosophical Reader, Trans. Rodney Livingstone and Others, Ed. Rolf Tiedmann (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003). Julian Baggini, Making Sense (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). [REVIEW] Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 24 (2).
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  43.  7
    Patrick Frierson (2013). What is the Human Being? Routledge.
    Philosophers, anthropologists and biologists have long puzzled over the question of human nature. It is also a question that Kant thought about deeply and returned to in many of his writings. In this lucid and wide-ranging introduction to Kant’s philosophy of human nature - which is essential for understanding his thought as a whole - Patrick R. Frierson assesses Kant’s theories and examines his critics. He begins by explaining how Kant articulates three ways of addressing the question ‘what is the (...)
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  44. Patrick R. Frierson (2013). What is the Human Being? Routledge.
    Philosophers, anthropologists and biologists have long puzzled over the question of human nature. It is also a question that Kant thought about deeply and returned to in many of his writings. In this lucid and wide-ranging introduction to Kant’s philosophy of human nature - which is essential for understanding his thought as a whole - Patrick R. Frierson assesses Kant’s theories and examines his critics. He begins by explaining how Kant articulates three ways of addressing the question ‘what is the (...)
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