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  1. Stevan Harnad & Paul Bloom, In Response to This Article Rejection.
    Harmonic Resonance Theory: An alternative to the "Neuron Doctrine" paradigm of neurocomputation to address the Gestalt properties of perception.
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  2. Paul Bloom, Beauty is in the Ear of the Well Informed.
    A few months ago, a young man in jeans and a baseball cap took a violin into a subway station in Washington DC during morning rush hour. He opened the case in front of him, put some coins inside to encourage donations and played for 45 minutes. The young man was Joshua Bell, one of the world's greatest violinists, and he was playing his multimillion-dollar Stradivarius. He was incognito, as an experiment devised by The Washington Post to see whether people (...)
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  3. Paul Bloom, Causal Deviance and the Attribution of Moral Responsibility.
    Are current theories of moral responsibility missing a factor in the attribution of blame and praise? Four studies demonstrated that even when cause, intention, and outcome (factors generally assumed to be sufficient for the ascription of moral responsibility) are all present, blame and praise are discounted when the factors are not linked together in the usual manner (i.e., cases of ‘‘causal deviance’’). Experiment 4 further demonstrates that this effect of causal deviance is driven by intuitive gut feelings of right and (...)
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  4. Paul Bloom, Homer's Soul.
    What does The Simpsons have to say about this issue? Most likely, absolutely nothing. The Simpsons is a fine television show, but it’s not where to look for innovative ideas in cognitive neuroscience or the philosophy of mind. We think, however, that it can help give us insight into a related, and extremely important, issue. We might learn through this show something about common-sense metaphysics, about how people naturally think about consciousness, the brain and the soul.
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  5. Paul Bloom, How Specific is the Shape Bias?
    Children tend to extend object names on the basis of sameness of shape, rather than size, color, or materialFa tendency that has been dubbed the ‘‘shape bias.’’ Is the shape bias the result of well-learned associations between words and objects? Or does it exist because of a general belief that shape is a good indicator of object category membership? The present three studies addressed this debate by exploring whether the shape bias is specific to naming. In Study 1, 3-year-olds showed (...)
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  6. Paul Bloom, Preschoolers Are Sensitive to the Speaker's Knowledge When Learning Proper Names.
    Unobservable properties that are specific to individuals, such as their proper names, can only be known by people who are familiar with those individuals. Do young children utilize this “familiarity principle” when learning language? Experiment 1 tested whether forty-eight 2- to 4-year-old children were able to determine the referent of a proper name such as “Jessie” based on the knowledge that the speaker was familiar with one individual but unfamiliar with the other. Even 2-year-olds successfully identified Jessie as the individual (...)
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  7. Paul Bloom, Religion is Natural.
    Despite its considerable intellectual interest and great social relevance, religion has been neglected by contemporary develop- mental psychologists. But in the last few years, there has been an emerging body of research exploring children’s grasp of certain universal religious ideas. Some recent findings suggest that two foundational aspects of religious belief – belief in divine agents, and belief in mind–body dualism – come naturally to young children. This research is briefly reviewed, and some future directions..
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  8. Paul Bloom, The Duel Between Body and Soul.
    New Haven - What people think about many of the big issues that will be discussed in the next two months - like gay marriage, stem-cell research and the role of religion in public life - is intimately related to their views on human nature. And while there may be differences between Republicans and Democrats, one fundamental assumption is accepted by almost everyone. This would be reassuring - if science didn't tell us that this assumption is mistaken.
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  9. Paul Bloom, Word Learning, Intentions, and Discourse.
    I am very grateful to Aaron Cicourel, Penelope Brown, Max Louwerse, and Matthew Ventrura for their constructive comments. Aaron Cicourel provides a helpful summary of my book and his commentary offers a good place to enter the discussion for readers who have not yet read How Children Learn the Meanings of Words. Brown and Louwerse and Ventura raise some critical questions with regard to the text to which I will speak in turn.
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  10. Joshua Knobe, Paul Bloom & David Pizarro, College Students Implicitly Judge Interracial Sex and Gay Sex to Be Morally Wrong.
    College students implicitly judge interracial sex and gay sex to be morally wrong Some moral intuitions arise from psychological processes that are not fully accessible to consciousness. For instance, most people disapprove of consensual adult incest between siblings, but are unable to articulate why—they just feel that it is wrong (Haidt, 2001). More generally, there is evidence for at least two sources of moral judgment: explicit conscious reasoning and tacit intuitions, which are motivated by emotional responses (Greene et al., 2001) (...)
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  11. Mark Sheskin, Paul Bloom & Karen Wynn (2014). Anti-Equality: Social Comparison in Young Children. Cognition 130 (2):152-156.
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  12. Konika Banerjee & Paul Bloom (2013). Would Tarzan Believe in God? Conditions for the Emergence of Religious Belief. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 17 (1):7-8.
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  13. Paul Bloom (2013). Just Babies: The Origins of Good and Evil. Crown.
    A leading cognitive scientist argues that a deep sense of good and evil is bred in the bone. From John Locke to Sigmund Freud, philosophers and psychologists have long believed that we begin life as blank moral slates. Many of us take for granted that babies are born selfish and that it is the role of society—and especially parents—to transform them from little sociopaths into civilized beings. In Just Babies, Paul Bloom argues that humans are in fact hardwired with a (...)
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  14. Paul Bloom (2012). IWho Cares About the Evolution of Stories? Critical Inquiry 38 (2):388-393.
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  15. Bruce Hood, Nathalia L. Gjersoe & Paul Bloom (2012). Do Children Think That Duplicating the Body Also Duplicates the Mind? Cognition 125 (3):466-474.
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  16. Christina Starmans & Paul Bloom (2012). Windows to the Soul: Children and Adults See the Eyes as the Location of the Self. Cognition 123 (2):313-318.
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  17. Eric Luis Uhlmann, Luke Lei Zhu, David A. Pizarro & Paul Bloom (2012). Blood is Thicker: Moral Spillover Effects Based on Kinship. Cognition 124 (2):239-243.
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  18. Thalia R. Goldstein & Paul Bloom (2011). The Mind on Stage: Why Cognitive Scientists Should Study Acting. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15 (4):141-142.
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  19. Yoel Inbar, David A. Pizarro & Paul Bloom (2009). Conservatives Are More Easily Disgusted Than Liberals. Cognition and Emotion 23 (4):714-725.
  20. Yoel Inbar, David A. Pizarro, Joshua Knobe & Paul Bloom (2009). Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Intuitive Disapproval of Gays. Emotion 9 (3): 435– 43.
    Two studies demonstrate that a dispositional proneness to disgust (“disgust sensitivity”) is associated with intuitive disapproval of gay people. Study 1 was based on previous research showing that people are more likely to describe a behavior as intentional when they see it as morally wrong (see Knobe, 2006, for a review). As predicted, the more disgust sensitive participants were, the more likely they were to describe an agent whose behavior had the side effect of causing gay men to kiss in (...)
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  21. Paul Bloom (2008). Children Prefer Certain Individuals Over Perfect Duplicates. Cognition 106 (1):455-462.
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  22. Paul Bloom (2008). Psychological Essentialism in Selecting the 14th Dalai Lama. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (7):243.
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  23. Paul Bloom (2008). Three- and Four-Year-Olds Spontaneously Use Others' Past Performance to Guide Their Learning. Cognition 107 (3):1018-1034.
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  24. Melissa Allen Preissler & Paul Bloom (2008). Two-Year-Olds Use Artist Intention to Understand Drawings. Cognition 106 (1):512-518.
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  25. Eric Luis Uhlmann, David A. Pizarro & Paul Bloom (2008). Varieties of Social Cognition. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 38 (3):293-322.
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  26. Paul Bloom (2007). Developmental Changes in the Understanding of Generics. Cognition 105 (1):166-183.
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  27. Paul Bloom (2007). More Than Words: A Reply to Malt and Sloman. Cognition 105 (3):649-655.
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  28. Paul Bloom (2007). Water as an Artifact Kind. In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representation. Oxford University Press. 150--156.
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  29. Paul Bloom (2006). My Brain Made Me Do It. Journal of Cognition and Culture 6 (1): 1567-7095.
    Shaun Nichols (this issue) correctly points out that current theories of the development of mindreading say nothing about children's intuitions concerning indeterminist choice. That is, there are numerous theories of how children make sense of belief, desire, and action, but none that appeal to any notion of free will. Nichols suggests two alternatives for why this is the case. It could either be (a) an --outrageous oversight-- on the part of developmental psychologists or (b) a principled omission, reflecting a consensus (...)
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  30. Paul Bloom (2006). The Chomsky of Morality? [REVIEW] Nature 443 (26):909-10.
    In Moral Minds, Marc Hauser makes an audacious claim about moral thought. He argues that morality is best understood in much the same way as Noam Chomsky described language: as the product of an innate and universal mental faculty. For Hauser, moral intuition is not the product of culture and education, nor is it the result of rational and deliberative thought, nor doesitreduce to the workings of the emotions. Instead, it is human nature to unconsciously and automatically evaluate the moral (...)
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  31. Paul Bloom (2006). What Does Batman Think About SpongeBob? Children's Understanding of the Fantasy/Fantasy Distinction. Cognition 101 (1):9-18.
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  32. Paul Bloom, Gareth B. Matthews, Scott MacDonald, Nicholas Wolterstorff, Paul Helm, Ishtiyaque Haji, Garry Wills & Richard Sorabji (2006). Augustine's Confessions. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  33. Deena Skolnick & Paul Bloom (2006). What Does Batman Think About Spongebob? Children's Understanding of the Fantasy/Fantasy Distinction. Cognition 101 (1):B9-B18.
  34. Helene Intraub, Adele E. Goldberg, Valerie A. Kuhlmeier, Paul Bloom, Karen Wynn, David H. Rakison & Jessica B. Cicchino (2005). Andrew P. Bayliss, Giuseppe di Pellegrino and Steven P. Tipper. Cognition 94:259-261.
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  35. Paul Bloom (2004). Understanding Children's and Adults' Limitations in Mental State Reasoning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (6):255-260.
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  36. Grant Gutheil, Paul Bloom, Nohemy Valderrama & Rebecca Freedman (2004). The Role of Historical Intuitions in Children's and Adults' Naming of Artifacts. Cognition 91 (1):23-42.
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  37. Helen Hodges, Stevan Harnad, Barbara L. Finlay & Paul Bloom (2004). In Memoriam: Jeffrey Gray (1934–2004). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):1-2.
    Many strands are woven into the ideas and work of Jeffrey Gray. From a background of classical languages and a spell in military intelligence spent honing skills in languages and typing, he took two BA degrees (in modern languages and psychology) at Oxford University. He then trained as a clinical psychologist at the Institute of Psychiatry (IOP), London, capping this with a PhD on the sources of emotional behaviour.
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  38. Valerie A. Kuhlmeier, Paul Bloom & Karen Wynn (2004). Do 5-Month-Old Infants See Humans as Material Objects? Cognition 94 (1):95-103.
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  39. Valerie A. Kuhlmeier, Karen Wynn & Paul Bloom (2004). People V. Objects: A Reply to Rakison and Cicchino. Cognition 94 (1):109-112.
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  40. Barbara Finlay, Paul Bloom & Jeffrey Gray (2003). A Message From the New Editors. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (1):2-2.
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  41. Paul Bloom (2002). Bookmark Today. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (12).
     
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  42. Paul Bloom (2002). Back to Nature. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (12):538-539.
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  43. Paul Bloom (2002). Enumeration of Collective Entities by 5-Month-Old Infants. Cognition 83 (3):55-62.
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  44. Paul Bloom (2002). Get Smart. In Robert J. Sternberg & J. Kaufman (eds.), The Evolution of Intelligence. Lawrence Erlbaum. 359--367.
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  45. Paul Bloom (2002). Mindreading, Communication and the Learning of Names for Things. Mind and Language 17 (1&2):37–54.
    There are two facts about word learning that everyone accepts. The first is that words really do have to be learned. There is controversy over how much conceptual structure and linguistic knowledge is innate, but nobody thinks that this is the case for the specific mappings between sounds (or signs) and meanings. This is because these mappings vary arbitrarily from culture to culture. No matter how intelligent a British baby is, for instance, she still has to learn, by attending to (...)
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  46. Valerie Kuhlmeier & Paul Bloom (2002). You Can Dance If You Want To. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):630-631.
    We argue that the dance metaphor does not appropriately characterize language. Indeed, language may be a red herring, distracting us from the intriguing question of the nature of apes' social interactions.
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  47. Paul Bloom (2001). Controversies in the Study of Word Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1124-1130.
    How Children Learn the Meanings of Words (HCLMW) defends the theory that words are learned through sophisticated and early-emerging cognitive abilities that have evolved for other purposes; there is no dedicated mental mechanism that is special to word learning. The commentators raise a number of challenges to this theory: Does it correctly characterize the nature and development of early abilities? Does it attribute too much to children, or too little? Does it only apply to nouns, or can it also explain (...)
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  48. Paul Bloom (2001). Novel Thinking. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (10):453-454.
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  49. Paul Bloom (2001). Précis of How Children Learn the Meanings of Words. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (6):1095-1103.
    Normal children learn tens of thousands of words, and do so quickly and efficiently, often in highly impoverished environments. In How Children Learn the Meanings of Words, I argue that word learning is the product of certain cognitive and linguistic abilities that include the ability to acquire concepts, an appreciation of syntactic cues to meaning, and a rich understanding of the mental states of other people. These capacities are powerful, early emerging, and to some extent uniquely human, but they are (...)
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  50. Paul Bloom & Frank C. Keil (2001). Thinking Through Language. Mind and Language 16 (4):351–367.
    What would it be like to have never learned English, but instead only to know Hopi, Mandarin Chinese, or American Sign Language? Would that change the way you think? Imagine entirely losing your language, as the result of stroke or trauma. You are aphasic, unable to speak or listen, read or write. What would your thoughts now be like? As the most extreme case, imagine having been raised without any language at all, as a wild child. What—if anything—would it be (...)
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