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  1. Eduoard Machery, Paul Griffiths & Stefan Linquist, The Vernacular Concept of Innateness.
    ‘inner natures’ of organisms was tested by examining the response of biologically naive participants to a series of realistic scenarios concerning the development of birdsong. Our results explain the intuitive appeal of existing philosophical analyses of the innateness concept. They simultaneously explain why these analyses are subject to compelling counterexamples. We argue that this explanation undermines the appeal of these analyses, whether understood as analyses of the vernacular concept or as explications of that concept for the purposes of science.
     
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  2. Paul Griffiths, Dancing in the Dark: Evolutionary Psychology and the Argument From Design.
    The Narrow Evolutionary Psychology Movement represents itself as a major reorientation of the social/behavioral sciences, a group of sciences previously dominated by something called the ‘Standard Social Science Model’ (SSSM; Cosmides, Tooby, and Barkow, 1992). Narrow Evolutionary Psychology alleges that the SSSM treated the mind, and particularly those aspects of the mind that exhibit cultural variation, as devoid of any marks of its evolutionary history. Adherents of Narrow Evolutionary Psychology often suggest that the SSSM owed more to ideology than to (...)
     
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  3. Paul Griffiths, 6 the Baldwin Effect and Genetic Assimilation: Contrasting Explanatory Foci and Gene Concepts in Two Approaches to an Evolutionary Process.
    David Papineau (2003; 2005) has discussed the relationship between social learning and the family of postulated evolutionary processes that includes ‘organic selection’, ‘coincident selection’, ‘autonomisation’, ‘the Baldwin effect’ and ‘genetic assimilation’. In all these processes a trait which initially develops in the members of a population as a result of some interaction with the environment comes to develop without that interaction in their descendants. It is uncontroversial that the development of an identical phenotypic trait might depend on an interaction with (...)
     
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  4. Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz, What is a Gene?
    We outline three very different concepts of the gene - 'instrumental', 'nominal', and 'postgenomic'. The instrumental gene has a critical role in the construction and interpretation of experiments in which the relationship between genotype and phenotype is explored via hybridization between organisms or directly between nucleic acid molecules. It also plays an important theoretical role in the foundations of disciplines such as quantitative genetics and population genetics. The nominal gene is a critical practical tool, allowing stable communication between bioscientists in (...)
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  5. Sahotra Sarkar & Paul E. Griffiths, Evolutionary Psychology: History and Current Status.
    The evolutionary study of the mind in the twentieth century has been marked by three self-conscious movements: classical ethology, sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology (capitalized to indicate that it functions here as a proper name). Classical ethology was established in the years immediately before the Second World War, primarily by Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen (Burckhardt, 1983). Interrupted by the war, the movement blossomed in the early 1950s, when ethologists established major research institutes in most developed countries and developed a successful (...)
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  6. Mark Colyvan, William Grey, Paul E. Griffiths, Jay Odenbaugh & Stefan Linquist, Philosophical Issues in Ecology: Recent Trends and Future Directions.
    A good philosophical understanding of ecology is important for a number of reasons. First, ecology is an important and fascinating branch of biology, with distinctive philosophical issues. Second, ecology is only one small step away from urgent political, ethical, and management decisions about how best to live in an apparently fragile and increasingly-degraded environment. Third, philosophy of ecology, properly conceived, can contribute directly to both our understanding of ecology and help with its advancement. Philosophy of ecology can thus be seen (...)
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  7. Jay Odenbaugh, Mark Colyvan, Stefan Linquist, William Grey, Paul E. Griffiths & and Hugh P. Possingham, A Field Guide to the Philosophy of Ecology.
    Mark Colyvan (University of Sydney)∗ Stefan Linquist (University of Queensland) William Grey (University of Queensland) Paul E. Griffiths (University of Sydney) Jay Odenbaugh (Lewis and Clark College).
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  8. Elias Bongmba, Toyin Falola, Paul Griffiths, Jeff Levin, Gilbert Meilaender, Margaret Somerville, Daniel Sulmasy, John Swinton & S. Kay Toombs (forthcoming). Human Dignity and the Future of Health Care. Bioethics.
     
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  9. Paul E. Griffiths & John S. Wilkins (forthcoming). Darwin in the 21st Century.
  10. Paul E. Griffiths & John S. Wilkins (forthcoming). When Do Evolutionary Explanations of Belief Debunk Belief? In Darwin in the 21st Century.
    Ever since Darwin people have worried about the sceptical implications of evolution. If our minds are products of evolution like those of other animals, why suppose that the beliefs they produce are true, rather than merely useful? In this chapter we apply this argument to beliefs in three different domains: morality, religion, and science. We identify replies to evolutionary scepticism that work in some domains but not in others. The simplest reply to evolutionary scepticism is that the truth of beliefs (...)
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  11. Paul Edmund Griffiths (forthcoming). In What Sense Does 'Nothing Make Sense Except in the Light of Evolution'? Acta Biotheoretica.
    Dobzhansky argued that biology only makes sense if life on earth has a shared history. But his dictum is often reinterpreted to mean that biology only makes sense in the light of adaptation. Some philosophers of science have argued in this spirit that all work in ‘proximal’ biosciences such as anatomy, physiology and molecular biology must be framed, at least implicitly, by the selection histories of the organisms under study. Others have denied this and have proposed non-evolutionary ways in which (...)
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  12. Paul J. Griffiths (forthcoming). [Mahāyāna Theology: A Dialogue with Critics]: Response. Buddhist-Christian Studies.
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  13. John S. Wilkins & Paul E. Griffiths (forthcoming). Evolutionary Debunking Arguments in Three Domains: Fact, Value, and Religion. In James Maclaurin Greg Dawes (ed.), A New Science of Religion. Routledge.
    Ever since Darwin people have worried about the sceptical implications of evolution. If our minds are products of evolution like those of other animals, why suppose that the beliefs they produce are true, rather than merely useful? We consider this problem for beliefs in three different domains: religion, morality, and commonsense and scientific claims about matters of empirical fact. We identify replies to evolutionary scepticism that work in some domains but not in others. One reply is that evolution can be (...)
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  14. Paul E. Griffiths (2013). Current Emotion Research in Philosophy. Emotion Review 5 (2):215-222.
    There remains a division between the work of philosophers who draw on the sciences of the mind to understand emotion and those who see the philosophy of emotion as more self-sufficient. This article examines this methodological division before reviewing some of the debates that have figured in the philosophical literature of the last decade: whether emotion is a single kind of thing, whether there are discrete categories of emotion, and whether emotion is a form of perception. These questions have been (...)
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  15. Paul J. Griffiths (2013). Forgiveness and Love. By Glen Pettigrove. Oxford University Press, 2012, Pp. Xvi + 174, £32.50 (Cloth). ISBN: 9780199646555. [REVIEW] Philosophy 88 (4):635-639.
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  16. Paul J. Griffiths (2013). Once Out of Nature: Augustine on Time and the Body. By Andrea Nightingale. Augustinian Studies 44 (1):136-141.
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  17. Paul Griffiths & Karola Stotz, Genetics and Philosophy : An Introduction.
    In the past century, nearly all of the biological sciences have been directly affected by discoveries and developments in genetics, a fast-evolving subject with important theoretical dimensions. In this rich and accessible book, Paul Griffiths and Karola Stotz show how the concept of the gene has evolved and diversified across the many fields that make up modern biology. By examining the molecular biology of the 'environment', they situate genetics in the developmental biology of whole organisms, and reveal how the molecular (...)
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  18. Paul J. Griffiths (2012). Adrian Pabst. Metaphysics: The Creation of Hierarchy. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 72 (3):249-252.
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  19. Paula L. Griffiths, Zoë A. Sheppard, William Johnson, Noël Cameron, John M. Pettifor & Shane A. Norris (2012). Associations Between Household and Neighbourhood Socioeconomic Status and Systolic Blood Pressure Among Urban South African Adolescents. Journal of Biosocial Science 44 (4):433-458.
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  20. Paul J. Griffiths (2011). Introducing Apologetics. Faith and Philosophy 28 (3):359-365.
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  21. Paul J. Griffiths (2011). Living Forms of the Imagination. Faith and Philosophy 28 (4):460-464.
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  22. Paul J. Griffiths (2011). Tears and Weeping. Faith and Philosophy 28 (1):19-28.
    This essay describes and commends the treatment of tears and weeping in Augustine’s Confessions. It shows that Augustine depicts these acts as communicative of a particular judgment about the way things are; and that he understands these acts as a species of confession appropriate to the human condition. To become, or attempt to become, the kind of person who does not weep is to distance oneself from God; Augustine therefore commends weeping to Christians as a mode of establishing intimacy with (...)
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  23. Paul Griffiths (2010). Filosofia da música. Critica.
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  24. Paul Griffiths, The Distinction Between Innate and Acquired Characteristics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The idea that some characteristics of an organism are explained by the organism's intrinsic nature, whilst others reflect the influence of the environment is an ancient one. It has even been argued that this distinction is itself part of the evolved psychology of the human species. The distinction played an important role in the history of philosophy as the locus of the dispute between Rationalism and Empiricism discussed in another entry in this encyclopedia. This entry, however, focuses on twentieth-century accounts (...)
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  25. Paul E. Griffiths (2010). Emotion on Dover Beach: Feeling and Value in the Philosophy of Robert Solomon. Emotion Review 2 (1):22-28.
    Robert Solomon’s philosophy of emotion should be understood in the light of his lifelong commitment to existentialism and his advocacy of “the passionate life” as a means of creating value. Although he developed his views in the framework of the “cognitive theory” of emotions, closer examination reveals many themes in common with a socially situated, transactionalist view of emotions.
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  26. Paul E. Griffiths (2009). God, Genesis and Germlines. Metascience 18 (1):85-86.
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  27. Paul J. Griffiths (2009). The Quietus of Political Interest. Common Knowledge 15 (1):7-22.
    Quietists aim to bring something to rest, to move it from activity to quiescence. This essay depicts and advocates a quietism of political interest, which is to say a divorce of political action from interest in the outcome of such action. Its principal interlocutor is Pascal, whose 1657 letter to Périer argues, on theological and epistemological grounds, for exactly such a separation. The essay argues that a quietism of political interest has several advantages over ordinary consequentialist political advocacy and action, (...)
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  28. Paul Griffiths, Edouard Machery & Stefan Linquist (2009). The Vernacular Concept of Innateness. Mind and Language 24 (5):605-630.
    The proposal that the concept of innateness expresses a 'folk biological' theory of the 'inner natures' of organisms was tested by examining the response of biologically naive participants to a series of realistic scenarios concerning the development of birdsong. Our results explain the intuitive appeal of existing philosophical analyses of the innateness concept. They simultaneously explain why these analyses are subject to compelling counterexamples. We argue that this explanation undermines the appeal of these analyses, whether understood as analyses of the (...)
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  29. Jeffrey M. Perl, Paul J. Griffiths, G. R. Evans & Clark Davis (2009). Introduction: “More Trouble Than They Are Worth”. Common Knowledge 15 (1):1-6.
    This essay, which is the editor's introduction to part 1 of a multipart symposium on quietism, also constitutes his call for symposium papers. The symposium is meant be comprehensive. It is described as political and broadly cultural as well as religious, and in religious terms is said to cover not only the Catholic and Protestant quietisms (most properly so called) of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but also the proto-quietisms of the medieval Western church and reputedly quietist aspects of (...)
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  30. Paul Griffiths (2008). Generating Thoughts on Genetics. Metascience 17 (2):273-275.
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  31. Paul Griffiths, Philosophy of Biology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The philosophy of biology has existed as a distinct sub-discipline within the philosophy of science for about thirty years. The rapid growth of the field has mirrored that of the biological sciences in the same period. Today the discipline is well represented in the leading journals in philosophy of science, as well as in several specialist journals. There have been two generations of textbooks (see conclusion) and the subject is regularly taught at undergraduate as well as graduate level. The current (...)
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  32. Paul E. Griffiths (2008). History of Ethology Comes of Age. Biology and Philosophy 23 (1):129-134.
  33. Paul E. Griffiths (2008). Jesse Prinz Gut Reactions: A Perceptual Theory of Emotion. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (3):559-567.
  34. Paul E. Griffiths & Edouard Machery (2008). Innateness, Canalization, and 'Biologicizing the Mind'. Philosophical Psychology 21 (3):397 – 414.
    This article examines and rejects the claim that 'innateness is canalization'. Waddington's concept of canalization is distinguished from the narrower concept of environmental canalization with which it is often confused. Evidence is presented that the concept of environmental canalization is not an accurate analysis of the existing concept of innateness. The strategy of 'biologicizing the mind' by treating psychological or behavioral traits as if they were environmentally canalized physiological traits is criticized using data from developmental psychobiology. It is concluded that (...)
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  35. Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz (2008). Experimental Philosophy of Science. Philosophy Compass 3 (3):507–521.
    Experimental philosophy of science gathers empirical data on how key scientific concepts are understood by particular scientific communities. In this paper we briefly describe two recent studies in experimental philosophy of biology, one investigating the concept of the gene, the other the concept of innateness. The use of experimental methods reveals facts about these concepts that would not be accessible using the traditional method of intuitions about possible cases. It also contributes to the study of conceptual change in science, which (...)
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  36. Paul J. Griffiths (2008). Self-Annihilation or Damnation? : A Disputable Question in Christian Eschatology. In Philip L. Quinn & Paul J. Weithman (eds.), Liberal Faith: Essays in Honor of Philip Quinn. University of Notre Dame Press.
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  37. Paul Griffiths & James Tabery, Behavioral Genetics and Development: Historical and Conceptual Causes of Controversy.
    Traditional, quantitative behavioral geneticists and developmental psychobiologists such as Gilbert Gottlieb have long debated what it would take to create a truly developmental behavioral genetics. These disputes have proven so intractable that disputants have repeatedly suggested that the problem rests on their opponents' conceptual confusion; whilst others have argued that the intractability results from the non-scientific, political motivations of their opponents. The authors provide a different explanation of the intractability of these debates. They show that the disputants have competing interpretations (...)
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  38. Karola Stotz & Paul E. Griffiths (2008). Biohumanities: Rethinking the Relationship Between Biosciences, Philosophy and History of Science, and Society. Quarterly Review of Biology 83 (1):37--45.
    We argue that philosophical and historical research can constitute a ‘Biohumanities’ which deepens our understanding of biology itself; engages in constructive 'science criticism'; helps formulate new 'visions of biology'; and facilitates 'critical science communication'. We illustrate these ideas with two recent 'experimental philosophy' studies of the concept of the gene and of the concept of innateness conducted by ourselves and collaborators.
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  39. Shelah S. Bloom & Paula L. Griffiths (2007). Female Autonomy as a Contributing Factor to Women's Hiv-Related Knowledge and Behaviour in Three Culturally Contrasting States in India. Journal of Biosocial Science 39 (4):557.
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  40. Ingo Brigandt & Paul Griffiths (2007). The Importance of Homology for Biology and Philosophy. Biology and Philosophy 22 (5):633-641.
    Editors' introduction to the special issue on homology (Biology and Philosophy Vol. 22, Issue 5, 2007).
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  41. Paul Griffiths (2007). Christians and the Church. In Gilbert Meilaender & William Werpehowski (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Theological Ethics. Oup Oxford.
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  42. Paul E. Griffiths (2007). The Phenomena of Homology. Biology and Philosophy 22 (5):643-658.
    Philosophical discussions of biological classification have failed to recognise the central role of homology in the classification of biological parts and processes. One reason for this is a misunderstanding of the relationship between judgments of homology and the core explanatory theories of biology. The textbook characterisation of homology as identity by descent is commonly regarded as a definition. I suggest instead that it is one of several attempts to explain the phenomena of homology. Twenty years ago the ‘new experimentalist’ movement (...)
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  43. Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz (2007). Gene. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press.
    The historian Raphael Falk has described the gene as a ‘concept in tension’ (Falk 2000) – an idea pulled this way and that by the differing demands of different kinds of biological work. Several authors have suggested that in the light of contemporary molecular biology ‘gene’ is no more than a handy term which acquires a specific meaning only in a specific scientific context in which it occurs. Hence the best way to answer the question ‘what is a gene’, and (...)
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  44. Paul J. Griffiths (2007). History, Theology & Faith: Dissolving the Modern Problematic – Terrence W. Tilley. Modern Theology 23 (1):125-128.
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  45. Stotz Karola & Paul E. Griffiths, Biohumanities: Rethinking the Relationship Between Biosciences, Philosophy and History of Science, and Society.
    We argue that philosophical and historical research can constitute a ‘Biohumanities’ which deepens our understanding of biology itself; engages in constructive 'science criticism'; helps formulate new 'visions of biology'; and facilitates 'critical science communication'. We illustrate these ideas with two recent 'experimental philosophy' studies of the concept of the gene and of the concept of innateness conducted by ourselves and collaborators. We conclude that the complex and often troubled relations between science and society are critical to both parties, and argue (...)
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  46. Paul E. Griffiths (2006). Recent Work on the Evolution of Culture. Metascience 15 (2):265-270.
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  47. Paul E. Griffiths, Jordi Cat, Henry E. Kyburg Jr, Torsten Wilholt & Alisa Bokulich (2006). 1. IC Jarvie: The Republic of Science: The Emergence of Popper&# X2019; s Social View of Science 1935&# X2013; 1945, IC Jarvie: The Republic of Science: The Emergence of Popper&# X2019; s Social View of Science 1935&# X2013; 1945, (Pp. 108-121). [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 73 (1).
     
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  48. Paul E. Griffiths & Karola Stotz (2006). Genes in the Postgenomic Era. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (6):499-521.
    We outline three very different concepts of the gene—instrumental, nominal, and postgenomic. The instrumental gene has a critical role in the construction and interpretation of experiments in which the relationship between genotype and phenotype is explored via hybridization between organisms or directly between nucleic acid molecules. It also plays an important theoretical role in the foundations of disciplines such as quantitative genetics and population genetics. The nominal gene is a critical practical tool, allowing stable communication between bioscientists in a wide (...)
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  49. Paul Edmund Griffiths, Ethology, Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology.
    In the years leading up to the Second World War the ethologists Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen, created the tradition of rigorous, Darwinian research on animal behavior that developed into modern behavioral ecology. At first glance, research on specifically human behavior seems to exhibit greater discontinuity that research on animal behavior in general. The 'human ethology' of the 1960s appears to have been replaced in the early 1970s by a new approach called ‘sociobiology’. Sociobiology in its turn appears to have (...)
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  50. Paul Edmund Griffiths (2006). Function, Homology, and Character Individuation. Philosophy of Science 73 (1):1-25.
    Many philosophers believe that 1) most uses of functional language in biology make implicit reference to natural selection and 2) the fundamental way in which biologists identify parts and processes in organisms is by their selected function(s). Both these claims are mistaken. Much functional language in biology refers to actual causal roles, and if this were not so, biology would be impossible. The extensive biological literature on the ‘character concept’ focuses on another principle of biological identity, namely homology. I outline (...)
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