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  1. Paul J. Friedman (2002). The Impact of Conflict of Interest on Trust in Science. Science and Engineering Ethics 8 (3):413-420.
    Conflicts of interest have an erosive effect on trust in science, damaging first the attitude of the public toward scientists and their research, but also weakening the trusting interdependence of scientists. Disclosure is recognized as the key tool for management of conflicts, but rules with sanctions must be improved, new techniques for avoidance of financial conflicts by alternative funding of evaluative research must be sought, and there must be new thinking about institutional conflicts of interest. Our profession is education, and (...)
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  2. Paul J. Friedman (1999). Commentary on "Confronting Misconduct in the 1980s and 1990s: What has and has Not Been Accomplished?". Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (2):177-178.
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  3. Paul J. Friedman (1997). Commentary on “a Proposal for a New System of Credit Allocation in Science”. Science and Engineering Ethics 3 (3):245-248.
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  4. Paul J. Friedman (1996). An Introduction to Research Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (4):443-456.
    Practical issues throughout scientific research can be found to have an ethical aspect. There is a gray area in which scientific error (“honest error”) may be difficult to distinguish from unacceptably poor research practice or an unethical failure to follow scientific norms. Further, there is no clear margin between deceptive practices which are widely accepted and those which must be considered fraudulent. Practical problems arise in matters of data management and presentation, authorship, publication practices, “grantsmanship”, and rights of research trainees, (...)
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  5. Paul J. Friedman (1992). Mistakes and Fraud in Medical Research. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 20 (1-2):17-25.
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  6. Paul J. Friedman (1992). The Troublesome Semantics of Conflict of Interest. Ethics and Behavior 2 (4):245 – 251.
    The sensible response to conflicts of interest is impaired by misconceptions and sloppy usage of terminology. Apparent and potential are widely misused modifiers for conflicts. Excessive legislative focus on financial interests limits understanding of the scope and significance of researchers' conflicts of interest. There is no moral or ethical failing in having a conflict of interest; the problem occurs when conflicts are not disclosed appropriately and when conflicts are allowed to bias research, teaching, or practice. Avoidance and prevention should be (...)
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