1. Paul Lawrence Rose (1980). Bodin and the Great God of Nature: The Moral and Religious Universe of a Judaiser. Droz.
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    Paul Lawrence Rose (2012). Renan Versus Gobineau: Semitism and Antisemitism, Ancient Races and Modern Liberal Nations. History of European Ideas 39 (4):528-540.
    Summary Despite his repudiation of antisemitism, Renan influenced the development of antisemitic ideologies in both France and Germany. His typology of ?Semite? and ?Aryan? was adopted especially in Germany and and combined with biological concepts of race to become the foundation of the concepts of ?Semitism? and ?Antisemitism?. Renan, however, always insisted on a linguistic/cultural definition of race and regarded the biological conception, while it might have had some primitive reality, as outmoded and immoral in European civilization. After 1870 the (...)
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