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  1. Paul S. Appelbaum (forthcoming). Drug-Free Research in Schizophrenia: An Overview of the Controversy. IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
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  2. Paul S. Appelbaum, Charles W. Lidz & Thomas Grisso (forthcoming). Correction and Clarification: Therapeutic Misconception in Clinical Research: Frequency and Risk Factors. IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
     
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  3. A. E. Shamoo & Paul S. Appelbaum (forthcoming). [Drug Free Research in Schizophrenia]. IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
     
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  4. Gail E. Henderson, Susan M. Wolf, Kristine J. Kuczynski, Steven Joffe, Richard R. Sharp, D. Williams Parsons, Bartha M. Knoppers, Joon‐Ho Yu & Paul S. Appelbaum (2014). The Challenge of Informed Consent and Return of Results in Translational Genomics: Empirical Analysis and Recommendations. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 42 (3):344-355.
    As exome and genome sequencing move into clinical application, questions surround how to elicit consent and handle potential return of individual genomic results. This study analyzes nine consent forms used in NIH-funded sequencing studies. Content analysis reveals considerable heterogeneity, including in defining results that may be returned, identifying potential benefits and risks of return, protecting privacy, addressing placement of results in the medical record, and data-sharing. In response to lack of consensus, we offer recommendations.
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  5. Paul S. Appelbaum (2013). Let Therapists Be Therapists, Not Police. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (10):71 - 72.
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  6. Philip J. Candilis, Charles W. Lidz, Paul S. Appelbaum, Robert M. Arnold, William P. Gardner, Suzanne Myers, Albert J. Grudzinskas Jr & Lorna J. Simon (2012). The Silent Majority: Who Speaks at IRB Meetings. IRB: Ethics & Human Research 34 (4):15-20.
    Institutional review boards are almost universally considered to be overworked and understaffed. They also require substantial commitments of time and resources from their members. Although some surveys report average IRB memberships of 15 people or more, federal regulations require only five. We present data on IRB meetings at eight of the top 25 academic medical centers in the United States funded by the National Institutes of Health. These data indicate substantial contributions from primary reviewers and chairs during protocol discussions but (...)
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  7. Gil Siegal, Richard J. Bonnie & Paul S. Appelbaum (2012). Personalized Disclosure by Information-on-Demand: Attending to Patients' Needs in the Informed Consent Process. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (2):359-367.
    Obtaining informed consent has typically become a stylized ritual of presenting and signing a form, in which physicians are acting defensively and patients lack control over the content and flow of information. This leaves patients at risk both for being under-informed relative to their decisional needs and of receiving more information than they need or desire. By personalizing the process of seeking and receiving information and allowing patients to specify their desire for information in a prospective manner, we aim to (...)
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  8. Paul S. Appelbaum (2011). Avoiding Premature Judgments About the Duty to Protect. Ethics and Behavior 21 (1):82-83.
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  9. Paul S. Appelbaum (2011). Can a Theory of Voluntariness Be A Priori and Value-Free? American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):17-18.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 8, Page 17-18, August 2011.
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  10. Paul S. Appelbaum, Charles W. Lidz & Robert Klitzman (2011). 17 Coercion and Undue Influence in Decisions to Participate in Psychiatric Research. In Thomas W. Kallert, Juan E. Mezzich & John Monahan (eds.), Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Aspects. Wiley-Blackwell. 293.
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  11. Lynn A. Jansen, Paul S. Appelbaum, William Mp Klein, Neil D. Weinstein, William Cook, Jessica S. Fogel & Daniel P. Sulmasy (2011). Unrealistic Optimism in Early-Phase Oncology Trials. IRB: Ethics & Human Research 33 (1):1.
    Unrealistic optimism is a bias that leads people to believe, with respect to a specific event or hazard, that they are more likely to experience positive outcomes and/or less likely to experience negative outcomes than similar others. The phenomenon has been seen in a range of health-related contexts—including when prospective participants are presented with the risks and benefits of participating in a clinical trial. In order to test for the prevalence of unrealistic optimism among participants of early-phase oncology trials, we (...)
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  12. Paul S. Appelbaum, Michael J. Devlin & Carl E. Fisher (2010). Parsing Neurobiological Dysfunctions in Obesity: Nosologic and Ethical Consequences. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (12):14-16.
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  13. Carl E. Fisher & Paul S. Appelbaum (2010). Diagnosing Consciousness: Neuroimaging, Law, and the Vegetative State. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):374-385.
    In this paper, we review recent neuroimaging investigations of disorders of consciousness and different disciplines' understanding of consciousness itself. We consider potential tests of consciousness, their legal significance, and how they map onto broader themes in U.S. statutory law pertaining to advance directives and surrogate decision-making. In the process, we outline a taxonomy of themes to illustrate and clarify the variance in state-law definitions of consciousness. Finally, we discuss broader scientific, ethical, and legal issues associated with the advent of neuroimaging (...)
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  14. Paul S. Appelbaum (2009). Decisional Versus Performative Capacities: Not Exactly a New Idea. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (2):31 – 32.
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  15. Paul S. Appelbaum, Charles W. Lidz & Robert Klitzman (2009). Voluntariness of Consent to Research: A Conceptual Model. Hastings Center Report 39 (1):30-39.
    Voluntariness of consent to research has not been sufficiently explored through empirical research. The aims of this study were to develop a more comprehensive approach to assessing voluntariness and to generate preliminary data on the extent and correlates of limitations on voluntariness. We developed a questionnaire to evaluate subjects’ reported motivations and constraints on voluntariness. 88 subjects in five different areas of clinical research—substance abuse, cancer, HIV, interventional cardiology, and depression—were assessed. Subjects reported a variety of motivations for participation. Offers (...)
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  16. Victor Schwartz & Paul S. Appelbaum (2008). Improving the Quality of Informed Consent to Research. IRB: Ethics & Human Research 30 (5):19-20.
    In order to facilitate the informed consent process, we suggest recording it. If investigators routinely recorded the consent process—including subsequent testing of participants’ comprehension and reeducation efforts—they could monitor the consent practices of their staff and determine what changes in procedure may be needed. In addition, should the adequacy of consent ever be challenged , investigators would have an easily accessible record of what had transpired. And finally, a pool of data would be created that could be accessed by researchers (...)
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  17. Paul S. Appelbaum & Charles W. Lidz (2007). Twenty-Five Years of Therapeutic Misconception. Hastings Center Report 38 (2):5-6.
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  18. Thomas Grisso & Paul S. Appelbaum (2007). Appreciating Anorexia: Decisional Capacity and the Role of Values. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 13 (4):293-297.
  19. Paul S. Appelbaum & Charles W. Lidz (2006). Clinical Ethics Versus Clinical Research. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (4):53 – 55.
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  20. Paul S. Appelbaum & Charles W. Lidz (2006). Re-Evaluating the Therapeutic Misconception: Response to Miller and Joffe. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 16 (4):367-373.
    : Responding to the paper by Miller and Joffe, we review the development of the concept of therapeutic misconception (TM). Our concerns about TM's impact on informed consent do not derive from the belief that research subjects have poorer outcomes than persons receiving ordinary clinical care. Rather, we believe that subjects with TM cannot give an adequate informed consent to research participation, which harms their dignitary interests and their abilities to make meaningful decisions. Ironically, Miller and Joffe's approach ends up (...)
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  21. Paul S. Appelbaum (2005). Psychopharmacology and the Power of Narrative. American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):48 – 49.
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  22. Paul S. Appelbaum (2002). Clarifying the Ethics of Clinical Research: A Path Toward Avoiding the Therapeutic Misconception. American Journal of Bioethics 2 (2):22 – 23.
    (2002). Clarifying the Ethics of Clinical Research: A Path toward Avoiding the Therapeutic Misconception. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 22-23.
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  23. Paul S. Appelbaum (1998). Ought We to Require Emotional Capacity as Part of Decisional Competence? Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8 (4):377-387.
  24. Philip J. Candilis & Paul S. Appelbaum (1997). Role Responsibilities in the Conflict of Clinic and Courtroom. Ethics and Behavior 7 (4):382 – 385.
  25. Paul S. Appelbaum (1996). Commentary: Examining the Ethics of Human Subjects Research. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 6 (3):283-287.
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  26. Paul S. Appelbaum, Loren H. Roth, Charles W. Lidz, Paul Benson & William Winslade (1987). False Hopes and Best Data: Consent to Research and the Therapeutic Misconception. Hastings Center Report 17 (2):20-24.
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  27. Paul S. Appelbaum (1985). Empirical Assessment of Innovation in the Law of Civil Commitment: A Critique. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 13 (6):304-309.
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  28. Thomas G. Gutheil & Paul S. Appelbaum (1985). The Substituted Judgment Approach: Its Difficulties and Paradoxes in Mental Health Settings. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 13 (2):61-64.
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  29. Paul S. Appelbaum (1984). Is the Need for Treatment Constitutionally Acceptable as a Basis for Civil Commitment? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 12 (4):144-149.
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  30. Thomas G. Gutheil & Paul S. Appelbaum (1983). Substituted Judgment: Best Interests in Disguise. Hastings Center Report 13 (3):8-11.
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  31. Paul S. Appelbaum, Thomas G. Gutheil & Michael J. Keyes (1979). Drugging a Defendant: Arm‐Chair Ethics? Hastings Center Report 9 (5):4-4.
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