The aim of this paper is to present a discussion of the issue of subjectivity as an important factor for the affirmation of religious belief in both the work of Kierkegaard and Plantinga. Despite some conceptual differences, we conclude that both authors are not interested in proving God’s existence, but rather focus on experience as a central factor. In addition, for both authors, and the C hristian tradition in general, the subjectivity is fundamental to the affirmation of belief. In Kierkegaard (...) the concept is the affirmation of faith as absurd. In Plantinga’s assertion “basical belief” makes room for the relationship of experience and expands the debate about belief, reaffirming its critical position to the foundations of modernity. Thus, from some specific approaches, we seek to establish a dialogue that, despite essential differences between the two authors, above all the theme of the absurdity of faith and Kierkegaard’s emphasis on faith as something passionate, can point out to a fruitful debate. (shrink)
Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are an emergent phenomenon in global rule-making on labor rights, yet academic literature on the topic is marked by a lack of clarity on their scope and distinctions. Drawing not only on scholarly sources but also on a wide range of field-level examples, this article explores the origin of PPPs and analyzes the contemporary normative and institutional contexts that have influenced their evolution. It then develops a three-fold typology for mapping the domains in which PPPs exist (...) and for distinguishing among their varied functions. The article also analyzes related challenges of governance and effectiveness. (shrink)
Industrial (“white”) biotechnology promises to contribute to a more sustainable future. Compared to current production processes, cases have been identified where industrial biotechnology can decrease the amount of energy and raw materials used to make products and also reduce the amount of emissions and waste produced during production. However, switching from products based on chemical production processes and fossil fuels towards “biobased” products is at present not necessarily economically viable. This is especially true for bulk products, for example ethanol production (...) from biomass. Therefore, scientists are also turning to genetic modification as a means to develop organisms that can produce at lower costs. These include not only micro-organisms, but also organisms used in agriculture for food and feed.The use of genetic modification for “deliberate release” purposes, in particular, has met great opposition in Europe. Many industrial biotechnology applications may, due to their scale, entail deliberate releases of GM organisms. Thus, the biobased economy brings back a familiar question; is it ethically justifiable, and acceptable to citizens, to expose the environment and society to the risks associated with GM, in order to protect that same environment and to sustain our affluent way of life? For a successful innovation towards a biobased economy, its proponents, especially producers, need to take into account (take responsibility for) such issues when developing new products and processes. These issues, and how scientists can interact with citizens about them in a timely way, are further explored in projects at Delft University and Leiden University, also in collaboration with Utrecht University. (shrink)
There are simple, purely syntactic axiomatic proof systems for both the logical truths and the logical falsehoods of propositional logic. However, to date no such system has been developed for the logical contingencies, that is, formulas that are both satisfiable and falsifiable. This paper formalizes the purely syntactic axiomatic proof systems for the logical contingencies and proves its soundness as well as completeness.
We model an interaction between an informed sender and an uninformed receiver. As in the classic cheap talk setup, the informed player sends a message to an uninformed receiver who is to take an action which affects the payoffs of both players. However, in our model, the sender can communicate only through the use of discrete messages which are ordered by the cost incurred by the sender. We characterize the resulting equilibria without refining out-of-equilibrium beliefs. Subsequently, we apply an adapted (...) version of the no incentive to separate (NITS) condition to our model. We show that if the sender and receiver have aligned preferences regarding the action of the receiver, then NITS only admits the equilibrium with the largest possible number of induced actions. When the preferences between players are not aligned, we show that NITS does not guarantee uniqueness, and we provide an example where an increase in communication costs can improve communication. As we show, this improvement can occur to such an extent that the equilibrium outperforms the Goltsman et al. (J Econ Theory 144:1397–1420, 2009) upper bound for receiver’s payoffs in mediated communication. (shrink)
This article challenges key aspects of theories on norms evolution, transnational advocacy, and social movements. It demonstrates that the “emergence” phase of the “norms life cycle” model (Finnemore and Sikkink 1998) is more internally contested than currently interpreted. It develops two alternatives to the “boomerang” model of transnational advocacy (Keck and Sikkink 1998). It highlights and explains differences—rather than similarities—in the framing strategies of actors involved in globalized protests. It explores the influence of several key “microsociological factors” (Giugni 2002) on (...) the evolution of those stragegies. Empirically the article focuses on the World Trade Organization's Third Ministerial meeting at Seattle in 1999. It analyzes why and how social movement actors framed different interpretations of the human rights at stake in the context of international trade. Framing innovations may have had short-term strategic value at Seattle, but did not lead to a unified understanding of human rights, either among activists themselves or among the government and corporate actors they sought to influence through protest. (shrink)
la82 12.00 Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Um dos objetivos do presente artigo é analisar a temática da política e da secularizaçáo na obra do filósofo Kierkegaard (1813-1855). Duas obras do pensador dinamarquês seráo especialmente analisadas aqui: O Indivíduo e Exercício do cristianismo . O segundo objetivo, é promover o diálogo de suas teses, contrárias ao processo de secularizaçáo, com as teses de Gianni Vattimo (1936-), pensador italiano e entusiasta de um mundo secularizado. A despeito (...) de suas diferenças, a política e a secularizaçáo aparecem no pensamento dos dois autores. Ambos partem, na verdade, de análises muito próximas, isto é, do conceito paulino de kênósis . A partir dessa idéia, ambos constroem suas respectivas visões acerca da política e da secularizaçáo. Todavia, o foco principal deste artigo é analisar a filosofia de Kierkegaard. A filosofia de Vattimo será analisada apenas de forma secundária e em diálogo com as teses de Kierkegaard. (shrink)
Michel Onfray já é um conhecido do público brasileiro pela tradução de alguns de seus livros como A arte de ter prazer, A razão gulosa, O ventre dos filósofos, A políica do rebelde e A escultura de si. Igualmente conhecida é sua postura como filósofo, isto é, sua recusa da academia, sua ênfase no prazer, sua afirmação do ateísmo e sua participação na montagem da Universidade Popular de Caen que pretende, no interior da França (e também nas páginas da web), (...) filosofar com todos os interessados, sem se prender a ela como uma disciplina acadêmica, curricular ou profissional. (shrink)
Paula Modersohn-Becker, widely considered to have been one of the most important independent Expressionist painters of the early twentieth century, was thirty-one years old when she gave birth to her first child. Following the then-common practice of putting women to bed rest for two-four weeks after delivery, she died of massive pulmonary embolism when she was first allowed to stand, eighteen days after giving birth. Paula had foreseen her death at a young age and was apprehensive about her (...) pregnancy, yet she painted herself as pregnant in her best known self-portrait, thus underlining the importance of the pregnancy in her life. In the light of knowledge available at the time, the authors present a brief discussion of the life and death of Paula Modersohn-Becker as a reflection on the potential dangers of blindly following conventional wisdom in the medical profession. (shrink)
Author: Jakubowski Jarosław Title: EN QUOI CONSISTE LA FINITUDE DU CORPS PROPRE? À LA RECHERCHE DE LA RÉPONSE DE PAUL RICOEUR (Na czym polega skończoność ciała własnego? W poszukiwaniu odpowiedzi Paula Ricoeura) Source: Filo-Sofija year: 2010, vol:.11, number: 2010/2, pages: 107-124 Keywords: FINITUDE DU CORPS, RICOEUR, „OUVERTURE”, „FERMETURE DANS L’OUVERTURE”, L’ALTERITE DU CORPS PROPRE Discipline: PHILOSOPHY Language: POLISH Document type: ARTICLE Publication order reference (Primary author’s office address): E-mail: www:L’analyse du problème formulé dans le titre se compose de deux (...) parties thématiques. La première présente la conception du corps propre élaborée par Ricoeur et ses sources philosophiques (Maine de Biran, Husserl, Marcel, Heidegger) les plus importantes. La deuxième partie presénte deux significations fondamentales de la notion de la finitude du corps propre chez Ricoeur. Celui-ci distingue la finitude du corps propre considerée comme une „ouverture” (1) et comme une „fermeture dans l’ouverture” (2). La troisième signification de la notion ci-dessus, mentionnée dans la conclusion de l’article, est liée à une catégorie de l’altérité du corps propre. (shrink)
Summary This essay contributes to a recent strain of research that questions clear-cut dichotomies between ?scientists? and ?artisans? in the early modern period. With a focus on the exploitation of agrarian resources, it argues for the appreciation of a more complex panorama of intersecting knowledge systems spanning from botany as part of natural history, over administrational and teaching expertise, to various sorts of practical experience in agriculture. With this aim, the essay investigates the careers of two protagonists of the ?economic (...) enlightenment? in Southern Germany in the late eighteenth century, Friedrich Casimir Medicus and Franz von Paula Schrank. Financed mostly by territorial powers to which they remained closely related throughout their lives, their careers were characterized by ?scientific? investigations as well as by engaging in higher education and extensive publication for diverse audiences. According to the argument set forth here, the panorama of the activities of these two figures can best be understood when seen in the light of early modern cultures of innovation aiming to stimulate economic growth by collecting, testing and distributing advanced technical knowledge. Against a position advocated for most recently in a monograph by Andre Wakefield on German cameralism, the final section argues for a long-term perspective on this development with regard to the emergence of technical sciences in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as more appropriate than a focus on the ?failure? of such actors to turn their aims immediately into practice. (shrink)
Na przykładzie koncepcji rozumowania abdukcyjnego, autorstwa Paula Thagarda, w artykule niniejszym omawia się sposób pojmowania abdukcji charakterystyczny dla eksplanacyjno-koherencyjnego modelu tego typu rozumowań, który w chwili obecnej oferuje najbardziej satysfakcjonujące połączenie psychologicznej adekwatności oraz efektywności obliczeniowej definiowanych w jego ramach procedur generowania i oceny hipotez abdukcyjnych.
El presente trabajo investiga las tesis sobre el poder civil de Alonso de la Veracruz que buscan incorporar en la comunidad política española a los habitantes autóctonos del Nuevo Mundo, tesis que suelen relacionarse con F. de Vitoria y el tomismo español, y que últimamente son consideradas parte del republicanismo novohispano elaborado desde la periferia americana. Se busca demostrar que su propósito era aplicar una teoría de derechos naturales, sin que ello implique participación política de los indios americanos. Se analiza (...) la postura del fraile frente a la diversidad cultural y la guerra contra los indios. The paper explores Alonso de la Veracruz's theses on civil power, which sought to integrate the native inhabitants of the New World into the Spanish political community. These theses, which have usually been associated with F. de Vitoria and Spanish Thomism, have recently come to be considered part of a Novohispanic republicanism developed in the American periphery. The article seeks to show that the purpose of such theses was to apply a theory of natural rights that did not entail the political participation of the indigenous population, as well as to analyze Veracruz's position regarding cultural diversity and the war against the indigenous peoples. (shrink)
Este trabajo indaga las resemantizaciones del mito de Venus en tres poetas latinoamericanos: Julián del Casal, Rubén Darío y José Lezama Lima teniendo en cuenta la intertextualidad y las poéticas correspondientes. This paper analyses the Venus myth appropiation into the poetry of Julián del Casal, Rubén Darío and José Lezama Lima considering their poetry and intertextuality.