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Profile: Per Sandin (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
  1.  6
    Per Sandin (2007). Collective Military Virtues. Journal of Military Ethics 6 (4):303-314.
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  2.  59
    Per Sandin (2009). Approaches to Ethics for Corporate Crisis Management. Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):109 - 116.
    The ethics of corporate crisis management is a seriously underdeveloped field. Among recent proposals in the area, two contributions stand out: Seeger and Ulmer’s (2001) virtue ethics approach to crisis management ethics and Simola’s (2003) ethics of care. In the first part of the paper, I argue that both contributions are problematic: Seeger and Ulmer focus on top management and propose virtues that lack substance and are in need of further development. Simola’s proposal is also fraught with difficulty, since it (...)
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  3.  1
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Evaluating Ethical Tools. Metaphilosophy 46 (2):263-279.
    This article reviews suggestions for how ethical tools are to be evaluated and argues that the concept of ethical soundness as presented by Kaiser et al. is unhelpful. Instead, it suggests that the quality of an ethical tool is determined by how well it achieves its assigned purpose. Those are different for different tools, and the article suggests a categorization of such tools into three groups. For all ethical tools, it identifies comprehensiveness and user-friendliness as crucial. For tools that have (...)
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  4. Per Sandin (2007). Common-Sense Precaution and Varieties of the Precautionary Principle. In Tim Lewens (ed.), Risk: Philosophical Perspectives. Routledge
     
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  5.  20
    Per Sandin (2009). Supreme Emergencies Without the Bad Guys. Philosophia 37 (1):153-167.
    This paper discusses the application of the supreme emergency doctrine from just-war theory to non-antagonistic threats. Two versions of the doctrine are considered: Michael Walzer’s communitarian version and Brian Orend’s prudential one. I investigate first whether the doctrines are applicable to non-antagonistic threats, and second whether they are defensible. I argue that a version of Walzer’s doctrine seems to be applicable to non-antagonistic threats, but that it is very doubtful whether the doctrine is defensible. I also argue that Orend’s version (...)
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  6.  3
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Empirical Methods in Animal Ethics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):853-866.
    In this article the predominant, purely theoretical perspectives on animal ethics are questioned and two important sources for empirical data in the context of animal ethics are discussed: methods of the social and methods of the natural sciences. Including these methods can lead to an empirical animal ethics approach that is far more adapted to the needs of humans and nonhuman animals and more appropriate in different circumstances than a purely theoretical concept solely premised on rational arguments. However, the potential (...)
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  7.  12
    Per Sandin (2004). The Precautionary Principle and the Concept of Precaution. Environmental Values 13 (4):461 - 475.
    The precautionary principle is frequently invoked in environmental law and policy, and the debate around the principle indicates that there is little agreement on what 'taking precautions' means. The purpose of the present paper is to provide an improved conceptual foundation for this debate in the form of an explication of the concept of precaution. Distinctions between precaution and two related concepts, prevention and pessimism, are briefly discussed. The concept of precaution is analysed in terms of precautionary actions. It is (...)
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  8. Per Sandin (2006). Has Psychology Debunked Conceptual Analysis? Metaphilosophy 37 (1):26–33.
    The philosophical method of conceptual analysis has been criticised on the grounds that empirical psychological research has cast severe doubt on whether concepts exist in the form traditionally assumed, and that conceptual analysis therefore is doomed. This objection may be termed the Charge from Psychology. After a brief characterisation of conceptual analysis, I discuss the Charge from Psychology and argue that it is misdirected.
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  9.  24
    Per Sandin (2006). A Paradox Out of Context: Harris and Holm on the Precautionary Principle. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (2):175-183.
    The precautionary principle is frequently referred to in various momentous decisions affecting human health and the environment. It has been invoked in contexts as diverse as chemicals regulation, regulation of genetically modified organisms, and research into life-extending therapies. Precaution is not an unknown concept in medical contexts. One author even cites the Hippocratic Oath as a parallel to the precautionary principle. a.
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  10.  2
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Moral “Lock-In” in Responsible Innovation: The Ethical and Social Aspects of Killing Day-Old Chicks and Its Alternatives. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):939-960.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework that will help in understanding and evaluating, along social and ethical lines, the issue of killing day-old male chicks and two alternative directions of responsible innovations to solve this issue. The following research questions are addressed: Why is the killing of day-old chicks morally problematic? Are the proposed alternatives morally sound? To what extent do the alternatives lead to responsible innovation? The conceptual framework demonstrates clearly that there is a (...)
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  11.  3
    Per Sandin (2016). The Profession and the Killer App, or What Environmental Ethicists Might Learn From Bioethics: A Commentary. Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):275-282.
    In terms of output in the form of published work and attraction of resources, bioethics seems to be a more vibrant field than environmental ethics. In this commentary it is argued that bioethics is, in some respect, less humanistic than environmental ethics and that two factors––bioethics’ strong connection to a profession, and its access to an intellectual ‘killer app’––offer ways in which environmental ethicists might learn from the ‘success story’ of bioethics.
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  12.  1
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Are Farmers in Alternative Food Networks Social Entrepreneurs? Evidence From a Behavioral Approach. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):885-902.
    Social entrepreneurship, individual activities with a social objective, is used in this study as a conceptual tool for empirically examining farmers’ participation in alternative food networks. This study verifies whether their participation is driven by the social entrepreneurship dimension to satisfy social and environmental needs. We develop a more inclusive view of how social entrepreneurship is present among farmers participating in AFNs by using a behavioural approach based on three main psychological constructs: attitude, objective, and behaviour. The empirical results show (...)
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  13.  1
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). A Means-End Chain Approach to Explaining the Adoption of Good Agricultural Practices Certification Schemes: The Case of Malaysian Vegetable Farmers. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):977-990.
    Good agricultural practices certification schemes have been promoted to enhance agricultural sustainability. This study seeks to explain the adoption of GAP certification schemes through an analysis of the role of personal values in guiding such choice. It is a departure from approaches taken in previous studies in the area. Through the laddering interview technique of means-end chain analysis, a hierarchical value map was systematically schematized to illustrate the relationship between adoption of GAP, outcomes, and personal values driving the choice. The (...)
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  14.  1
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Citizens, Consumers and Animals: What Role Do Experts Assign to Public Values in Establishing Animal Welfare Standards? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):961-976.
    The public can influence animal welfare law and regulation. However what constitutes ‘the public’ is not a straightforward matter. A variety of different publics have an interest in animal use and this has implications for the governance of animal welfare. This article presents an ethnographic content analysis of how the concept of a public is mobilized in animal welfare journals from 2003 to 2012. The study was undertaken to explore how experts in the discipline define and regard the role of (...)
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  15.  1
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Ethics of Dissent: A Plea for Restraint in the Scientific Debate About the Safety of GM Crops. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):903-924.
    Results of studies that cast doubt on the safety of genetically modified crops have been published since the first GM crop approval for commercial release. These ‘alarming studies’ challenge the dominant view about the adequacy of current risk assessment practice for genetically modified organisms. Subsequent debates follow a similar and recurring pattern, in which those involved cannot agree on the significance of the results and the attached consequences. The standard response from the government—a reassessment by scientific advisory bodies—seems insufficient to (...)
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  16.  1
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Freedom of Cropping and the Good Life: Political Philosophy and the Conflict Between the Organic Movement and the Biotech Industry Over Cross-Contamination. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):837-852.
    This paper begins by describing recent controversies over cross-contamination of crops in the United States and European Union. The EU and US are both applying the principle of freedom of cropping to resolve these conflicts, which is based on an individualistic philosophy. However, despite the EU and the US starting with the principle of freedom of cropping they have very dissimilar regulatory regimes for coexistence. These contradictory policies based upon the same principle are creating different sets of winners and losers. (...)
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  17.  1
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Is Genetically Modified Food Unnatural? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):807-816.
    This paper argues for the following four claims: the terms “natural” and “unnatural” are ambiguous. Genetically modified food is unnatural in some senses of the term “unnatural”. Natural food should be favored over unnatural food in some senses of the terms “natural” and “unnatural”. Genetically modified food is not necessarily unnatural in a sense that would offer a good reason for favoring food that is not genetically modified. The claims are defended by distinguishing four different senses of the terms “natural” (...)
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  18.  1
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Of Mice and Men: European Precautionary Standards Challenged by Uncertainty. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):867-883.
    For several years, the official European method for deciding whether or not shellfish were fit for human consumption was the mouse bioassay, which was eventually replaced by chemical testing. In this paper, we examine the process of this change, looking at how devices of social, technical, and organisational risk management were re-negotiated locally, nationally, and across the continent. We also show how the political decision to replace a precautionary standard with a management-vigilance device was the result of various dynamics. These (...)
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  19.  1
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Public Perceptions of the Ethics of In-Vitro Meat: Determining an Appropriate Course of Action. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):991-1009.
    While in vitro animal meat is not yet commercially available, the public has already begun to form opinions of IVM as a result of news stories and events drawing attention to its development. As such, we can discern public perceptions of the ethics of IVM before its commercial release. This affords advocates of environmentally sustainable, healthy, and just diets with a unique opportunity to reflect on the social desirability of the development of IVM. This work draws upon an analysis of (...)
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  20.  1
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Pragmatist Philosophical Reflections on GMOs. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):817-836.
    This essay examines the public debate about the agricultural biotechnologies known as genetically modified organisms, as that debate is being carried out in its most dichotomizing forms in the United States. It attempts to reveal the power of sharply dichotomous thinking, as well as its limits. The essay draws on the work of Michel Serres, who uses the concept of the parasite to reconstruct or reframe fundamental dichotomies in western philosophy; it attempts a similar reframing of the public debates about (...)
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  21.  1
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). The Human Glance, the Experience of Environmental Distress and the “Affordance” of Nature: Toward a Phenomenology of the Ecological Crisis. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):925-938.
    The problem we face today is that there is a huge gap between our ethical judgments about the ecological crisis on the one hand and our ethical behavior according to these judgments on the other. In this article, we ask to what extent a phenomenology of the ecological crisis enables us to bridge this gap and display more ethical or pro-environmental behavior. To answer this question, our point of departure is the affordance theory of the American psychologist and founding father (...)
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  22.  6
    Per Sandin (2004). Virtual Child Pornography and Utilitarianism. Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society 2 (4):217-223.
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  23.  23
    Martin Peterson & Per Sandin (2013). The Last Man Argument Revisited. Journal of Value Inquiry 47 (1):121-133.
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  24.  15
    Per Sandin, Erland Mårald, Aidan Davison, David E. Nye & Paul B. Thompson (2013). Book Symposium on The Agrarian Vision: Sustainability and Environmental Ethics by Paul B. Thompson. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 26 (3):301-320.
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  25.  9
    Per Sandin (2008). Laws of Fear. Environmental Ethics 29 (1):107-110.
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  26.  30
    Per Sandin (2009). 10 Moral Paradoxes – by Saul Smilansky. Theoria 75 (1):65-66.
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  27.  2
    Per Sandin & Payam Moula (2015). Modern Biotechnology, Agriculture, and Ethics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):803-806.
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  28.  29
    Per Sandin & Misse Wester (2009). The Moral Black Hole. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (3):291 - 301.
    It is commonly believed that people become selfish and turn to looting, price gouging, and other immoral behaviour in emergencies. This has been the basis for an argument justifying extraordinary measures in emergencies. It states that if emergencies are not curtailed, breakdown of moral norms threaten (‘the moral black hole’). Using the example of natural disasters, we argue that the validity of this argument in non-antagonistic situations, i.e. situations other than war and armed conflict, is highly questionable. Available evidence suggests (...)
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  29.  6
    Per Sandin & Martin Peterson (2009). Guest Editors' Introduction. Philosophy of Management 8 (2):1-2.
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  30.  11
    Per Sandin (2005). Naturalness and de Minimis Risk. Environmental Ethics 27 (2):191-200.
    In risk management, de minimis risk is the idea that risks that are sufficiently small, in terms of probabilities, ought to be disregarded. In the context of the distinction between disregarding a risk and accepting it, this paper examines one suggested way of determining how small risks ought to be disregarded, specifically, the natural-occurrence view of de minimis, which has been proposed by Alvin M. Weinberg, among others. It is based on the idea that “natural” background levels of risk should (...)
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  31.  2
    Per Sandin (2007). The Ethics of War: Shared Problems in Different Traditions. Theoria 73:244-247.
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  32.  13
    Per Sandin (2009). Firefighting Ethics. Ethical Perspectives 16 (2):225-251.
    The ethics of firefighting is a seriously underexplored field. This is unfortunate, since firefighting raises issues of great social importance and has the potential to inform moral theorizing. In the first part of this paper, I explore possible reasons why firefighting ethics has received so little academic attention and argue that it warrants study in its own right. I do so primarily by comparing firefighting ethics to medical ethics, demonstrating their close relationship yet pointing out important differences: firefighting is less (...)
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  33.  8
    Per Sandin (2007). Bioethics and Armed Conflict: Moral Dilemmas of Medicine and War, by Michael Gross. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (1):131-133.
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  34.  6
    Per Sandin (2007). Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle. Environmental Ethics 29 (1):107-110.
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  35.  1
    Per Sandin (2008). Book Review. [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (1):131-133.
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  36. Helena Röcklinsberg & Per Sandin (eds.) (2013). The Ethics of Consumption. Wageningen Academic Publishers.
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  37. Per Sandin (2009). Approaches to Ethics for Corporate Crisis Management. Journal of Business Ethics 87 (1):109-116.
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  38. Per Sandin (2009). Review. [REVIEW] Theoria 75 (1):65-66.
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  39. Per Sandin & Misse Wester (2009). The Moral Black Hole. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (3):291-301.
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