Search results for 'Perception in animals' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Hanneke J. Nijland, Noelle M. C. Aarts & Reint Jan Renes (2013). Frames and Ambivalence in Context: An Analysis of Hands-On Experts' Perception of the Welfare of Animals in Traveling Circuses in The Netherlands. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (3):523-535.score: 480.0
    The results of an empirical study into the perceptions of “hands-on” experts concerning the welfare of (non-human) animals in traveling circuses in the Netherlands are presented. A qualitative approach, based on in-depth conversations with trainers/performers, former trainers/performers, veterinarians, and an owner of an animal shelter, conveyed several patterns in the contextual construction of perceptions and the use of dissonance reduction strategies. Perceptions were analyzed with the help of the Symbolic Convergence Theory and the model of the frame of reference, (...)
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  2. J. Nijland Hanneke, M. C. Aarts Noelle & Reint Jan Renes (forthcoming). Frames and Ambivalence in Context: An Analysis of Hands-on Experts' Perception of the Welfare of Animals in Traveling Circuses in the Netherlands. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics.score: 456.0
    The results of an empirical study into the perceptions of “hands-on” experts concerning the welfare of (non-human) animals in traveling circuses in the Netherlands are presented. A qualitative approach, based on in-depth conversations with trainers/performers, former trainers/performers, veterinarians, and an owner of an animal shelter, conveyed several patterns in the contextual construction of perceptions and the use of dissonance reduction strategies. Perceptions were analyzed with the help of the Symbolic Convergence Theory and the model of the frame of reference, (...)
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  3. Derek A. Denton (1993/1994). The Pinnacle of Life: Consciousness and Self-Awareness in Humans and Animals. Harpersanfrancisco.score: 354.0
     
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  4. Stevan Harnad & Stephen J. Hanson, Learned Categorical Perception in Neural Nets: Implications for Symbol Grounding.score: 291.0
    After people learn to sort objects into categories they see them differently. Members of the same category look more alike and members of different categories look more different. This phenomenon of within-category compression and between-category separation in similarity space is called categorical perception (CP). It is exhibited by human subjects, animals and neural net models. In backpropagation nets trained first to auto-associate 12 stimuli varying along a onedimensional continuum and then to sort them into 3 categories, CP arises (...)
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  5. Erica Fudge (1999/2002). Perceiving Animals: Humans and Beasts in Early Modern English Culture. University of Illinois Press.score: 285.0
    When the human understanding of beasts in the past is studied, what are revealed is not only the foundations of our own perception of animals, but humans contemplating their own status. This book argues that what is revealed in a wide range of writing from the early modern period is a recurring attempt to separate the human from the beast. Looking at the representation of the animal in the law, religious writings, literary representation, science and political ideas, what (...)
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  6. Thomas Suddendorf & Janie Busby (2003). Mental Time Travel in Animals? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (9):391-396.score: 279.0
    Are humans alone in their ability to reminisce about the past and imagine the future? Recent evidence suggests that food-storing birds (scrub jays) have access to information about what they have stored where and when. This has raised the possibility of mental time travel (MTT) in animals and sparked similar research with other species. Here we caution that such data do not provide convincing evidence for MTT. Examination of characteristics of human MTT (e.g. non-verbal declaration, generativity, developmental prerequisites) points (...)
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  7. Deborah Cao (2011). Visibility and Invisibility of Animals in Traditional Chinese Philosophy and Law. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 24 (3):351-367.score: 279.0
    There is yet to be any animal welfare or protection law for domestic animals in China, one of the few countries in the world today that do not have such laws. However, in Chinese imperial law, there were legal provisions adopted more than a 1,000 years ago for the care and treatment of domestic working animals. Furthermore, in traditional Chinese philosophy, animals were regarded as constituent part of the organic whole of the cosmos by ancient Chinese philosophers (...)
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  8. Alfred Leo White (2010). Perception, Language, and Concept Formation in St. Thomas. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 84:197-212.score: 267.0
    According to St. Thomas, animals (both rational and non-rational) perceive objects in terms of goal-directed interactions. Repeated interactions give riseto consuetudo (translated custom or practice), a habit of sense memory that enables one to act skillfully. The interactive component of perception enables animals and humans to communicate. In humans, these perceptions are instrumental to the formation of concepts pertaining to life in society (such as law and liturgy) as well as to the understanding of human nature. But (...)
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  9. Seth Cameron, Symmetry and Resonance in Visual Perception.score: 267.0
    Whether designing animals, insects, or plants, Nature draws upon symmetry and periodicity to play a fundamental role in defining the body plan. When implemented with the proper chemical mechanisms, these principles guide our bodies from single-celled embryos to bilaterally symmetric creatures with intricate periodic structures, such as the spine and rib cage. The properties of symmetry and periodicity also appear to be fundamental to visual perception. We will show that this is no coincidence, but is a consequence of (...)
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  10. Stevan Harnad & SJ Hanson, Categorical Perception and the Evolution of Supervised Learning in Neural Nets.score: 261.0
    Some of the features of animal and human categorical perception (CP) for color, pitch and speech are exhibited by neural net simulations of CP with one-dimensional inputs: When a backprop net is trained to discriminate and then categorize a set of stimuli, the second task is accomplished by "warping" the similarity space (compressing within-category distances and expanding between-category distances). This natural side-effect also occurs in humans and animals. Such CP categories, consisting of named, bounded regions of similarity space, (...)
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  11. Jerald Silverman (1999). The Use of Animals in Biomedical Research and Teaching: Searching for a Common Goal. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (01):64-72.score: 261.0
    In the late 1970s, while working in my laboratory at the American Health Foundation, I received a phone call from Henry Spira. Not one for small talk, he did not even bother introducing himself beyond his name. He immediately began questioning me about my studies using the protozoan Tetrahymenathermophila, which I hoped would serve as an alternative to the Draize ocular irritation test. While flattered that someone cared about my work, I was soon lost in confusion and skepticism about the (...)
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  12. Kazuo Okanoya & Robert J. Dooling (1990). Song-Syllable Perception in Song Sparrows (Melospiza Melodia) and Swamp Sparrows (Melospiza Georgiana): An Approach From Animal Psychophysics. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (3):221-224.score: 238.3
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  13. Jacky Turner & Joyce D'Silva (eds.) (2006). Animals, Ethics, and Trade: The Challenge of Animal Sentience. Earthscan.score: 228.0
    can be adapted and adopted by developing countries. IFC sees this as being an area where we may be able to benchmark and promote positive change. ● The force of global trade initiatives also influences animal welfare.
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  14. Bill Brewer (2011). Realism and Explanation in Perception. In Johannes Roessler, Hemdat Lerman & Naomi Eilan (eds.), Perception, Causation, and Objectivity. Oxford University Press.score: 225.0
    Suppose that wc identify physical objccts, in thc first instance, by extension, as things like stones, tables, trees, people and other animals: the persisting macroscopic constituents of the world in which we live. Of course, there is a substantive question of what it is to be y such things in the way relevant to categorization as a physical object. So this can hardly be the final word on the matter. Still, it is equally clear that this gives us all (...)
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  15. Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum Pedersen (2011). All Animals Are Equal, but …: Management Perceptions of Stakeholder Relationships and Societal Responsibilities in Multinational Corporations. Business Ethics 20 (2):177-191.score: 222.0
    The stakeholder approach has become a popular perspective in mainstream management and the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. However, it remains an open question as to how real-life managers actually view stakeholders and what rationales and logics are used for explaining the relationship between the firm and its constituencies. This article examines whom managers in multinational corporations (MNCs) consider to be their important stakeholders, and how they describe the societal responsibilities towards these groups and individuals. It is concluded that managers (...)
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  16. Carol D. Raupp, Mary Barlow & Judith A. Oliver (1997). Perceptions of Family Violence: Are Companion Animals in the Picture? Society and Animals 5 (3):219-237.score: 222.0
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  17. Judith A. Oliver, Carol D. Raupp & Mary Barlow (1997). Perceptions of Family Violence: Are Companion Animals in the Picture? Society and Animals 5 (3):219-237.score: 222.0
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  18. Brian L. Keeley (2002). Making Sense of the Senses: Individuating Modalities in Humans and Other Animals. Journal Of Philosophy 99 (1):5-28.score: 216.0
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  19. Stephen Thomas Newmyer (2006). Animals, Rights, and Reason in Plutarch and Modern Ethics. Routledge.score: 200.0
    Plutarch is virtually unique in surviving classical authors in arguing that animals are rational and sentient, and in concluding that human beings must take notice of their interests. Stephen Newmyer explores Plutarch's three animal-related treatises, as well as passages from his other ethical treatises, which argue that non-human animals are rational and therefore deserve to fall within the sphere of human moral concern. Newmyer shows that some of the arguments Plutarch raises strikingly foreshadow those found in the works (...)
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  20. Kati Lindström & Morten Tønnessen (2010). Introduction to the Special Issue Semiotics of Perception Being in the World of the Living—Semiotic Perspectives. Biosemiotics 3 (3):257-261.score: 200.0
    This special issue on the semiotics of perception originates from two workshops arranged in Tartu, Estonia, in February 2009. We are located at the junction of nature and culture, and of semiotics and phenomenology. Can they be reconciled? More particularly, can subfields such as biosemiotics and ecophenomenology be mutually enriching? The authors of the current special issue believe that they can. Semiotic study of life and the living can emerge as properly informed only if it is capable of incorporating (...)
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  21. Catherine Osborne (2007/2009). Dumb Beasts and Dead Philosophers: Humanity and the Humane in Ancient Philosophy and Literature. Oxford University Press.score: 198.0
    The book is about three things. First, how Ancient thinkers perceived humans as like or unlike other animals; second about the justification for taking a humane attitude towards natural things; and third about how moral claims count as true, and how they can be discovered or acquired. Was Aristotle was right to see continuity in the psychological functions of animal and human souls? The question cannot be settled without taking a moral stance. As we can either focus on continuity (...)
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  22. Hein Te Velde, Noelle Aarts & Cees Van Woerkum (2002). Dealing with Ambivalence: Farmers' and Consumers' Perceptions of Animal Welfare in Livestock Breeding. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (2):203-219.score: 196.0
    The results of an empirical study intoperceptions of the treatment of farm animals inthe Netherlands are presented. A qualitativeapproach, based on in-depth interviews withmeat livestock farmers and consumers was chosenin order to assess motivations behindperceptions and to gain insight into the waypeople deal with possible discrepancies betweentheir perceptions and their daily practices.Perceptions are analyzed with the help of aframe of reference, which consists ofvalues, norms, convictions, interests, andknowledge.The perceptions of the interviewed farmersare quite consistent and without exceptionpositive: according to (...)
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  23. Hein Te Velde, Noelle Aarts & Cees van Woerkum (2002). Dealing with Ambivalence: Farmers' and Consumers' Perceptions of Animal Welfare in Livestock Breeding. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (2):203-219.score: 196.0
    The results of an empirical study intoperceptions of the treatment of farm animals inthe Netherlands are presented. A qualitativeapproach, based on in-depth interviews withmeat livestock farmers and consumers was chosenin order to assess motivations behindperceptions and to gain insight into the waypeople deal with possible discrepancies betweentheir perceptions and their daily practices.Perceptions are analyzed with the help of aframe of reference, which consists ofvalues, norms, convictions, interests, andknowledge.
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  24. Mary Sanders Pollock & Catherine Rainwater (eds.) (2005). Figuring Animals: Essays on Animal Images in Art, Literature, Philosophy, and Popular Culture. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 192.0
    Figuring Animals is a collection of fifteen essays concerning the representation of animals in literature, the visual arts, philosophy, and cultural practice. At the turn of the new century, it is helpful to reconsider our inherited understandings of the species, some of which are still useful to us. It is also important to look ahead to new understandings and new dialogue, which may contribute to the survival of us all. The contributors to this volume participate in this dialogue (...)
     
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  25. Patricia Kauark-Leite (2009). The Transcendental Role of the Principle of Anticipations of Perception in Quantum Mechanics. In Michel Bitbol, Jean Petitot & Pierre Kerszberg (eds.), CONSTITUTING OBJECTIVITY The Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science.score: 186.0
    The aim of this work is to analyse the diffrerences between the formal structure of anticipation of perception in classical and in quantum context. I argue that a transcendental point of view can be supported in quantum context if objectivity is defined by an invariant anticipative structure, which has only a predictive character. The classical objectivity, which defined a set of properties having a descriptive meaning must be abandoned in quantum context. I will focus my analysis on Kant's Principle (...)
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  26. Sebastian J. Crutch Timothy J. Shakespeare, Keir X. X. Yong, Chris Frost, Lois G. Kim, Elizabeth K. Warrington (2013). Scene Perception in Posterior Cortical Atrophy: Categorization, Description and Fixation Patterns. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 186.0
    Partial or complete Balint’s syndrome is a core feature of the clinico-radiological syndrome of posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), in which individuals experience a progressive deterioration of cortical vision. Although multi-object arrays are frequently used to detect simultanagnosia in the clinical assessment and diagnosis of PCA, to date there have been no group studies of scene perception in patients with the syndrome. The current study involved three linked experiments conducted in PCA patients and healthy controls. Experiment 1 evaluated the accuracy (...) exhibited by individuals with PCA, and indicate the importance of exposure duration in the perception of complex scenes. (shrink)
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  27. Yue Chen Jejoong Kim, Daniel Norton, Ryan McBain, Dost Ongur (2013). Deficient Biological Motion Perception in Schizophrenia: Results From a Motion Noise Paradigm. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 186.0
    Background: Schizophrenia patients exhibit deficient processing of perceptual and cognitive information. However, it is not well understood how basic perceptual deficits contribute to higher level cognitive problems in this mental disorder. Perception of biological motion, a motion-based cognitive recognition task, relies on both basic visual motion processing and social cognitive processing, thus providing a useful paradigm to evaluate the potentially hierarchical relationship between these two levels of information processing. Methods: In this study, we designed a biological motion paradigm in (...)
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  28. Douglas McLelland Rufin VanRullen (2013). What Goes Up Must Come Down: EEG Phase Modulates Auditory Perception in Both Directions. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 186.0
    What goes up must come down: EEG phase modulates auditory perception in both directions.
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  29. Dominic H. Ffytche Caitlín N. M. Hastings, Philip J. Brittain (2013). An Asymmetry of Translational Biological Motion Perception in Schizophrenia. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 182.0
    Background Biological motion perception is served by a network of regions in the occipital, posterior temporal and parietal lobe, overlapping areas of reduced cortical volume in schizophrenia. The atrophy in these regions is assumed to account for deficits in biological motion perception described in schizophrenia but it is unknown whether the asymmetry of atrophy described in previous studies has a perceptual correlate. Here we look for possible differences in sensitivity to leftwards and rightwards translation of point-light biological motion (...)
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  30. Maria Chait Zahrah Jaunmahomed (2012). The Timing of Change Detection and Change Perception in Complex Acoustic Scenes. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 182.0
    We investigated how listeners perceive the temporal relationship of a light-flash and a complex acoustic signal. The stimulus mimics ubiquitous events in busy scenes which are manifested as a change in the pattern of on-going fluctuation. Detecting pattern emergence inherently requires integration over time; resulting in such events being detected later than when they occurred. How does delayed detection-time affect the perception of such events relative to other events in the scene? To model these situations, we use rapid sequences (...)
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  31. Zahrah Jaunmahomed & Maria Chait (2012). The Timing of Change Detection and Change Perception in Complex Acoustic Scenes. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 182.0
    We investigated how listeners perceive the temporal relationship of a light-flash and a complex acoustic signal. The stimulus mimics ubiquitous events in busy scenes which are manifested as a change in the pattern of on-going fluctuation. Detecting pattern emergence inherently requires integration over time; resulting in such events being detected later than when they occurred. How does delayed detection-time affect the perception of such events relative to other events in the scene? To model these situations, we use rapid sequences (...)
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  32. Marianna Pogosyan & Jan B. Engelmann (2011). Cultural Differences in Affect Intensity Perception in the Context of Advertising. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 182.0
    Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants (...)
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  33. Mazyar Fallah Carolyn J. Perry (2012). Color Improves Speed of Processing But Not Perception in a Motion Illusion. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 182.0
    When two superimposed surfaces of dots move in different directions, the perceived directions are shifted away from each other. This perceptual illusion has been termed direction repulsion and is thought to be due to mutual inhibition between the representations of the two directions. It has further been shown that a speed difference between the two surfaces attenuates direction repulsion. As speed and direction are both necessary components of representing motion, the reduction in direction repulsion can be attributed to the additional (...)
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  34. Alejandro Lleras Simona Buetti (2012). Perceiving Control Over Aversive and Fearful Events Can Alter How We Experience Those Events: An Investigation of Time Perception in Spider-Fearful Individuals. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 182.0
    We used a time perception task to study the effects of the subjective experience of control on emotion and cognitive processing. This task is uniquely sensitive to the emotionality of the stimuli: high-arousing negative stimuli are perceived as lasting longer than high-arousing positive events, while the opposite pattern is observed for low-arousing stimuli. We evaluated the temporal distortions of emotionally-charged events in non-anxious (Experiments 1 and 5) and spider-fearful individuals (Experiments 2-4). Participants were shown images of varying durations between (...)
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  35. L. S. Carrier (1980). Perception and Animal Belief. Philosophy 55 (212):193 - 209.score: 181.0
    I argue that sentences ascribing beliefs to non-human animals have the same logical form as sentences of the "perceives that" variety. Pace D.M. Armstrong, I argue that animal belief sentences can be referentially opaque, just as perception sentences containing a propositional clause are. In both cases, referential opacity requires our assuming that the animal believer and the human perceiver has each identified the object of the belief or perception.
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  36. Alison Loveridge (2013). Changes in Animal Welfare Views in New Zealand: Responding to Global Change. Society and Animals 21 (4):325-340.score: 181.0
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  37. Ki Joo Choi (2010). The Role of Perception in Jonathan Edwards's Moral Thought: The Nature of True Virtue Reconsidered. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (2):269-296.score: 180.0
    This essay provides an interpretation of Jonathan Edwards's moral thought that calls attention to the motif of perception in his conception of true virtue. The aim is to illumine the extent to which Edwards's virtue ethics can be included in and contribute to prevailing approaches to virtue in contemporary theological ethics. To advance this proposal, this essay attends to the question of moral agency that Edwards's reflections on charity, the new spiritual sense, and religious affections raise. This procedure offers (...)
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  38. Eric C. Jones, Albert J. Faas, Arthur D. Murphy, Graham A. Tobin, Linda M. Whiteford & Christopher McCarty (2013). Cross-Cultural and Site-Based Influences on Demographic, Well-Being, and Social Network Predictors of Risk Perception in Hazard and Disaster Settings in Ecuador and Mexico. Human Nature 24 (1):5-32.score: 180.0
    Although virtually all comparative research about risk perception focuses on which hazards are of concern to people in different culture groups, much can be gained by focusing on predictors of levels of risk perception in various countries and places. In this case, we examine standard and novel predictors of risk perception in seven sites among communities affected by a flood in Mexico (one site) and volcanic eruptions in Mexico (one site) and Ecuador (five sites). We conducted more (...)
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  39. Reinhard Brandt (2009). Können Tiere Denken?: Ein Beitrag Zur Tierphilosophie. Suhrkamp.score: 180.0
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  40. Karel De Greef, Frans Stafleu & Carolien De Lauwere (2006). A Simple Value-Distinction Approach Aids Transparency in Farm Animal Welfare Debate. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (1):57-66.score: 177.0
    Public debate on acceptable farm animal husbandry suffers from a confusion of tongues. To clarify positions of various stakeholder groups in their joint search for acceptable solutions, the concept of animal welfare was split up into three notions: no suffering, respect for intrinsic value, and non-appalling appearance of animals. This strategy was based on the hypothesis that multi-stakeholder solutions should be based on shared values rather than on compromises. The usefulness of such an artificial value distinction strategy was tested (...)
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  41. Shoshana Smith (2005). Clear and Distinct Perception in Descartes's Philosophy. Dissertation, University of California Berkeleyscore: 176.0
    (Shoshana Smith now goes by her married name, Shoshana Brassfield: http://philpapers.org/profile/37640) Descartes famously claims that everything we perceive clearly and distinctly is true. Although this rule is fundamental to Descartes’s theory of knowledge, readers from Gassendi and Leibniz onward have complained that unless Descartes can say explicitly what clear and distinct perception is, how we know when we have it, and why it cannot be wrong, then the rule is empty. I offer a detailed analysis of clear and distinct (...)
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  42. Simo Knuuttila & Pekka Kärkkäinen (eds.) (2008). Theories of Perception in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Springer.score: 176.0
    In recent years, the rich tradition of various philosophical theories of perception has been increasingly studied by scholars of the history of philosophy of ...
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  43. Richard Rojcewicz (1984). Depth Perception in Merleau-Ponty: A Motivated Phenomenon. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 15 (1):33-44.score: 176.0
    Analyzes M. Merleau-Ponty's (1945) account of the vision of depth in his Phenomenology of Perception to clarify the phenomenological concept of motivation. For Merleau-Ponty, the real world founds perception and is its motive. It is concluded that, in maintaining that depth perception is motivated, Merleau-Ponty is holding that depth is visible directly and that the classical conception committed the psychologist's fallacy, the experience error. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Copyright 1985 American Psychological Assn, all rights reserved).
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  44. Ioana Repciuc (2011). The Archaic Time Perception in the Modern Times. An Ethnological Approach Towards a Religious Minority. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 10 (30):80-101.score: 176.0
    The present study focuses on the religious minority arising from the implementation of the Gregorian calendar in Romania. Christian religious community of the Old Style is defined both historically and through psycho-social elements that caused the secession of belivers together with clerics from the Romanian Orthodox Church. Special attention is given to magical-religious beliefs observed with ethnological research tools, including: magical perception of time and especially of the agrarian calendar, faith in miraculous natural signs, survivals of animist religion. The (...)
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  45. Luis Emilio Bruni (2008). Hierarchical Categorical Perception in Sensing and Cognitive Processes. Biosemiotics 1 (1):113-130.score: 176.0
    This article considers categorical perception (CP) as a crucial process involved in all sort of communication throughout the biological hierarchy, i.e. in all of biosemiosis. Until now, there has been consideration of CP exclusively within the functional cycle of perception–cognition–action and it has not been considered the possibility to extend this kind of phenomena to the mere physiological level. To generalise the notion of CP in this sense, I have proposed to distinguish between categorical perception (CP) and (...)
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  46. K. Smilla Ebeling (2011). Sexing the Rotifer: Reading Nonhuman Animals' Sex and Reproduction in 19th-Century Biology. Society and Animals 19 (3):305-315.score: 174.0
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  47. Andrea Gaynor (2007). Animal Agendas: Conflict Over Productive Animals in Twentieth-Century Australian Cities. Society and Animals 15 (1):29-42.score: 174.0
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  48. Derrick L. Hassert Kevin B. Clark (2013). Undecidability and Opacity of Metacognition in Animals and Humans. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 174.0
    Undecidability and opacity of metacognition in animals and humans.
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  49. Lars Schulze, Babette Renneberg & Janek S. Lobmaier (2013). Gaze Perception in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:872.score: 174.0
    Clinical observations suggest abnormal gaze perception to be an important indicator of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Experimental research has yet paid relatively little attention to the study of gaze perception in SAD. In this article we first discuss gaze perception in healthy human beings before reviewing self-referential and threat-related biases of gaze perception in clinical and non-clinical socially anxious samples. Relative to controls, socially anxious individuals exhibit an enhanced self-directed perception of gaze directions and demonstrate (...)
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  50. E. M. Macphail (1998). The Evolution of Consciousness. Oxford University Press.score: 171.0
    Are non-human animals conscious? When do babies begin to feel pain? What function is served by consciousness? What evidence could resolve these issues? In The Evolution of Consciousness, psychologist Euan Macphail tackles these questions and more by exploring such topics as: animal cognition; unconscious learning and perception in humans; infantile amnesia; theory of mind in primates; and the nature of pleasure and pain. Experimental results are placed in theoretical context by tracing the development of concepts of consciousness in (...)
     
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