Search results for 'Perception in animals' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Buddhamas Kriengwatana, Paola Escudero & Carel ten Cate (2015). Revisiting Vocal Perception in Non-Human Animals: A Review of Vowel Discrimination, Speaker Voice Recognition, and Speaker Normalization. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  2. Linda Polka, Ocke-Schwen Bohn & Daniel J. Weiss (2015). Commentary: Revisiting Vocal Perception in Non-Human Animals: A Review of Vowel Discrimination, Speaker Voice Recognition, and Speaker Normalization. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  3.  20
    Hanneke J. Nijland, Noelle M. C. Aarts & Reint Jan Renes (2013). Frames and Ambivalence in Context: An Analysis of Hands-On Experts' Perception of the Welfare of Animals in Traveling Circuses in The Netherlands. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (3):523-535.
    The results of an empirical study into the perceptions of “hands-on” experts concerning the welfare of (non-human) animals in traveling circuses in the Netherlands are presented. A qualitative approach, based on in-depth conversations with trainers/performers, former trainers/performers, veterinarians, and an owner of an animal shelter, conveyed several patterns in the contextual construction of perceptions and the use of dissonance reduction strategies. Perceptions were analyzed with the help of the Symbolic Convergence Theory and the model of the frame of reference, (...)
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  4.  12
    J. Nijland Hanneke, M. C. Aarts Noelle & Reint Jan Renes (forthcoming). Frames and Ambivalence in Context: An Analysis of Hands-on Experts' Perception of the Welfare of Animals in Traveling Circuses in the Netherlands. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics.
    The results of an empirical study into the perceptions of “hands-on” experts concerning the welfare of (non-human) animals in traveling circuses in the Netherlands are presented. A qualitative approach, based on in-depth conversations with trainers/performers, former trainers/performers, veterinarians, and an owner of an animal shelter, conveyed several patterns in the contextual construction of perceptions and the use of dissonance reduction strategies. Perceptions were analyzed with the help of the Symbolic Convergence Theory and the model of the frame of reference, (...)
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  5. Derek A. Denton (1993). The Pinnacle of Life: Consciousness and Self-Awareness in Humans and Animals. Harpersanfrancisco.
     
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  6.  27
    David A. Leopold, Alexander Maier & Nikos K. Logothetis (2003). Measuring Subjective Visual Perception in the Nonhuman Primate. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):115-130.
    Understanding how activity in the brain leads to a subjective percept is of great interest to philosophers and neuroscientists alike. In the last years, neurophysiological experiments have approached this problem directly by measuring neural signals in animals as they experience well-defined visual percepts. Stimuli in these studies are often inherently ambiguous, and thus rely upon the subjective report, generally from trained monkeys, to provide a measure of perception. By correlating activity levels in the brain to this report, one (...)
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  7.  19
    Stevan Harnad & Stephen J. Hanson, Learned Categorical Perception in Neural Nets: Implications for Symbol Grounding.
    After people learn to sort objects into categories they see them differently. Members of the same category look more alike and members of different categories look more different. This phenomenon of within-category compression and between-category separation in similarity space is called categorical perception (CP). It is exhibited by human subjects, animals and neural net models. In backpropagation nets trained first to auto-associate 12 stimuli varying along a onedimensional continuum and then to sort them into 3 categories, CP arises (...)
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  8.  23
    Thomas Suddendorf & Janie Busby (2003). Mental Time Travel in Animals? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (9):391-396.
    Are humans alone in their ability to reminisce about the past and imagine the future? Recent evidence suggests that food-storing birds (scrub jays) have access to information about what they have stored where and when. This has raised the possibility of mental time travel (MTT) in animals and sparked similar research with other species. Here we caution that such data do not provide convincing evidence for MTT. Examination of characteristics of human MTT (e.g. non-verbal declaration, generativity, developmental prerequisites) points (...)
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  9. Catherine Osborne (2000). Aristotle on the Fantastic Abilities of Animals in De Anima 3. 3'. Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 19:253-85.
    A discussion of De anima 3.3 designed to show that phantasia serves to prevent a dualism of different objects for perception and thought, and ensures that attention is directed to real objects in the world, for both animals and humans. when they perceive and when they think about things in their absence. There is a continuity between animal and human behaviour, based on the common use of perceptual attention as the basis of mental attention. The objects of thought (...)
     
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  10.  19
    Erica Fudge (1999). Perceiving Animals: Humans and Beasts in Early Modern English Culture. University of Illinois Press.
    When the human understanding of beasts in the past is studied, what are revealed is not only the foundations of our own perception of animals, but humans contemplating their own status. This book argues that what is revealed in a wide range of writing from the early modern period is a recurring attempt to separate the human from the beast. Looking at the representation of the animal in the law, religious writings, literary representation, science and political ideas, what (...)
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  11.  7
    Deborah Cao (2011). Visibility and Invisibility of Animals in Traditional Chinese Philosophy and Law. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 24 (3):351-367.
    There is yet to be any animal welfare or protection law for domestic animals in China, one of the few countries in the world today that do not have such laws. However, in Chinese imperial law, there were legal provisions adopted more than a 1,000 years ago for the care and treatment of domestic working animals. Furthermore, in traditional Chinese philosophy, animals were regarded as constituent part of the organic whole of the cosmos by ancient Chinese philosophers (...)
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  12.  10
    Carol D. Raupp, Mary Barlow & Judith A. Oliver (1997). Perceptions of Family Violence: Are Companion Animals in the Picture? Society and Animals 5 (3):219-237.
    Service and education organizations such as the ASPCA claim a connection between family violence against children and companion animals, but to what extent does the general public share this perception? Sixty-three undergraduates rated their certainty about perceiving family violence using 60 pictures with differing potential targets of family violence. Participants showed stronger certainty when the target was a child than when the target was a companion animal, but ratings for companion animals averaged above the midpoint of the (...)
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  13.  4
    Judith A. Oliver, Carol D. Raupp & Mary Barlow (1997). Perceptions of Family Violence: Are Companion Animals in the Picture? Society and Animals 5 (3):219-237.
    Service and education organizations such as the ASPCA claim a connection between family violence against children and companion animals, but to what extent does the general public share this perception? Sixty-three undergraduates rated their certainty about perceiving family violence using 60 pictures with differing potential targets of family violence. Participants showed stronger certainty when the target was a child than when the target was a companion animal, but ratings for companion animals averaged above the midpoint of the (...)
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  14.  15
    Alfred Leo White (2010). Perception, Language, and Concept Formation in St. Thomas. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 84:197-212.
    According to St. Thomas, animals (both rational and non-rational) perceive objects in terms of goal-directed interactions. Repeated interactions give riseto consuetudo (translated custom or practice), a habit of sense memory that enables one to act skillfully. The interactive component of perception enables animals and humans to communicate. In humans, these perceptions are instrumental to the formation of concepts pertaining to life in society (such as law and liturgy) as well as to the understanding of human nature. But (...)
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  15.  4
    Seth Cameron, Symmetry and Resonance in Visual Perception.
    Whether designing animals, insects, or plants, Nature draws upon symmetry and periodicity to play a fundamental role in defining the body plan. When implemented with the proper chemical mechanisms, these principles guide our bodies from single-celled embryos to bilaterally symmetric creatures with intricate periodic structures, such as the spine and rib cage. The properties of symmetry and periodicity also appear to be fundamental to visual perception. We will show that this is no coincidence, but is a consequence of (...)
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  16.  14
    Stevan Harnad & SJ Hanson, Categorical Perception and the Evolution of Supervised Learning in Neural Nets.
    Some of the features of animal and human categorical perception (CP) for color, pitch and speech are exhibited by neural net simulations of CP with one-dimensional inputs: When a backprop net is trained to discriminate and then categorize a set of stimuli, the second task is accomplished by "warping" the similarity space (compressing within-category distances and expanding between-category distances). This natural side-effect also occurs in humans and animals. Such CP categories, consisting of named, bounded regions of similarity space, (...)
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  17.  15
    Brian L. Keeley (2011). Making Sense of the Senses: Individuating Modalities in Humans and Other Animals. In Fiona Macpherson (ed.), The Senses: Classic and Contemporary Philosophical Perspectives. Oxford University Press 220.
    After first noting that I seek to broaden the definition of science fiction to a little more loosely defined speculative fiction, this essay explores four different ways in which fiction can work together with both the sciences and the philosophy of perception. This cooperation is needed because there is much about the sensory worlds of humans and non-human animals of which we continue to be ignorant. First, speculative fiction can be a source of hypotheses about the nature of (...)
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  18.  11
    Katharina Henke, Theodor Landis & Hans J. Markowitsch (1993). Subliminal Perception of Pictures in the Right Hemisphere. Consciousness and Cognition 2 (3):225-236.
    We addressed the questions whether stimuli presented below the threshold of verbal awareness are nevertheless perceived and whether there are perceptual differences between the two cerebral hemispheres. Pictures of line drawn objects and animals were subliminally presented to each visual half-field for subsequent identification in a form as fragmented as possible. The performance of 40 healthy subjects was compared to that of 63 controls. Whereas identification performance after blank presentation in the experimental group did not differ from that of (...)
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  19.  6
    Jerald Silverman (1999). The Use of Animals in Biomedical Research and Teaching: Searching for a Common Goal. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (1):64-72.
    In the late 1970s, while working in my laboratory at the American Health Foundation, I received a phone call from Henry Spira. Not one for small talk, he did not even bother introducing himself beyond his name. He immediately began questioning me about my studies using the protozoan Tetrahymenathermophila, which I hoped would serve as an alternative to the Draize ocular irritation test. While flattered that someone cared about my work, I was soon lost in confusion and skepticism about the (...)
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  20. Johan J. Bolhuis (ed.) (2001). Brain, Perception, Memory: Advances in Cognitive Neuroscience. Oxford University Press Uk.
    ''There is no doubt that postgraduate students and researchers in cognitive neuroscience will find this book to be a useful tool and I would not hesitate to recommend it... The relatively short length of the essays and their overview of current research, make them ideal reading material for more advanced researchers... The book therefore serves as an ideal starting place for cognitive psychologists who want to know more about cognitive neuroscience.'' -Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16Cognitive neuroscience has been the most productive, (...)
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  21. Brian L. Keeley (2002). Making Sense of the Senses: Individuating Modalities in Humans and Other Animals. Journal of Philosophy 99 (1):5-28.
    How ought we differentiate the senses? What, say, distinguishes vision from audition? The question comes in two versions. First, there is the traditional problem of individuating the senses in humans. Second, there is also an important question about what sensory modalities we ought to attribute to non-human animals, a version of the question that has been virtually ignored by philosophers. Modality ought to be construed as an “avenue into” an organism for information external to the central nervous system. Six (...)
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  22.  41
    Kunjumon Vadakkan (2015). A Framework for the First‑Person Internal Sensation of Visual Perception in Mammals and a Comparable Circuitry for Olfactory Perception in Drosophila. Springerplus 4 (833):1-23.
    Perception is a first-person internal sensation induced within the nervous system at the time of arrival of sensory stimuli from objects in the environment. Lack of access to the first-person properties has limited viewing perception as an emergent property and it is currently being studied using third-person observed findings from various levels. One feasible approach to understand its mechanism is to build a hypothesis for the specific conditions and required circuit features of the nodal points where the mechanistic (...)
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  23. Mary T. Phillips (1993). Savages, Drunks, and Lab Animals: The Researcher's Perception of Pain. Society and Animals 1 (1):61-81.
    Historically, treatment for pain relief has varied according to the social status of the sufferer. A similar tendency to make arbitrary distinctions affecting pain relief was found in an ethnographic study of animal research laboratories. The administration of pain-relieving drugs for animals in laboratories differed from standard practice for humans and, perhaps, for companion animals. Although anesthesia was used routinely for surgical procedures, its administration was sometimes haphazard. Analgesics, however, were rarely used. Most researchers had never thought about (...)
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  24.  77
    Bill Brewer (2011). Realism and Explanation in Perception. In Johannes Roessler, Hemdat Lerman & Naomi Eilan (eds.), Perception, Causation, and Objectivity. Oxford University Press
    Suppose that wc identify physical objccts, in thc first instance, by extension, as things like stones, tables, trees, people and other animals: the persisting macroscopic constituents of the world in which we live. Of course, there is a substantive question of what it is to be y such things in the way relevant to categorization as a physical object. So this can hardly be the final word on the matter. Still, it is equally clear that this gives us all (...)
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  25.  7
    Jacky Turner & Joyce D'Silva (eds.) (2006). Animals, Ethics, and Trade: The Challenge of Animal Sentience. Earthscan.
    can be adapted and adopted by developing countries. IFC sees this as being an area where we may be able to benchmark and promote positive change. ● The force of global trade initiatives also influences animal welfare.
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  26. Alva Noë (2005). Action in Perception. The MIT Press.
    "Perception is not something that happens to us, or in us," writes Alva Noe. "It is something we do." In Action in Perception, Noe argues that perception and perceptual consciousness depend on capacities for action and thought — that ...
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  27. Andrea Gaynor (2007). Animal Agendas: Conflict Over Productive Animals in Twentieth-Century Australian Cities. Society and Animals 15 (1):29-42.
    Over the course of the twentieth century, the number of productive nonhuman animals in Australian cities declined dramatically. This decline resulted—at least in part—from an imaginative geography, in which productive animals were deemed inappropriate occupants of urban spaces. A class-based prioritization of amenity, privacy, order, and the protection of real property values—as well as a gender order within which animal-keeping was not recognized as a legitimate economic activity for women—shaped this imaginative geography of animals that found its (...)
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  28.  28
    Peter Singer (ed.) (2013). In Defense of Animals. Wiley-Blackwell.
    Bringing together new essays by philosophers and activists, _In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave_ highlights the new challenges facing the animal rights movement. Exciting new collection edited by controversial philosopher Peter Singer, who made animal rights into an international concern when he first published _In Defence of Animals_ and _Animal Liberation_ over thirty years ago Essays explore new ways of measuring animal suffering, reassess the question of personhood, and draw highlight tales of effective advocacy Lays out “Ten Tips (...)
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  29.  18
    Stephen Thomas Newmyer (2006). Animals, Rights, and Reason in Plutarch and Modern Ethics. Routledge.
    Plutarch is virtually unique in surviving classical authors in arguing that animals are rational and sentient, and in concluding that human beings must take notice of their interests. Stephen Newmyer explores Plutarch's three animal-related treatises, as well as passages from his other ethical treatises, which argue that non-human animals are rational and therefore deserve to fall within the sphere of human moral concern. Newmyer shows that some of the arguments Plutarch raises strikingly foreshadow those found in the works (...)
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  30.  75
    S. Gallagher (2008). Direct Perception in the Intersubjective Context. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (2):535-543.
    This paper, in opposition to the standard theories of social cognition found in psychology and cognitive science, defends the idea that direct perception plays an important role in social cognition. The two dominant theories, theory theory and simulation theory , both posit something more than a perceptual element as necessary for our ability to understand others, i.e., to “mindread” or “mentalize.” In contrast, certain phenomenological approaches depend heavily on the concept of perception and the idea that we have (...)
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  31.  27
    Catherine Osborne (2007). Dumb Beasts and Dead Philosophers: Humanity and the Humane in Ancient Philosophy and Literature. Oxford University Press.
    The book is about three things. First, how Ancient thinkers perceived humans as like or unlike other animals; second about the justification for taking a humane attitude towards natural things; and third about how moral claims count as true, and how they can be discovered or acquired. Was Aristotle was right to see continuity in the psychological functions of animal and human souls? The question cannot be settled without taking a moral stance. As we can either focus on continuity (...)
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  32.  25
    K. Smilla Ebeling (2011). Sexing the Rotifer: Reading Nonhuman Animals' Sex and Reproduction in 19th-Century Biology. Society and Animals 19 (3):305-315.
    This paper looks at the role nonhuman animals play in how we think about sex, gender, and sexuality in zoology and in society. In examining the history of ideas regarding a microscopic invertebrate species—rotifers—the paper explores how humans have projected aspects of their lives onto nonhuman animals and how they have extrapolated from nonhuman animals to human society. The paper emphasizes the intersections between knowledge about nonhuman animals and gender and sexuality politics.
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  33.  27
    Gary Hatfield (2012). Phenomenal and Cognitive Factors in Spatial Perception. In Gary Hatfield & Sarah Allred (eds.), Visual Experience: Sensation, Cognition, and Constancy. OUP Oxford 35.
    This chapter provides an overview of the phenomenology of size perception and the use of instructions to tease apart phenomenal and cognitive aspects. It develops his own recent proposals concerning the geometry of visual space. The chapter proposes that visual space is contracted along the lines of sight. This contraction would explain the apparent convergence of railway tracks, but without invoking a “proximal mode” experience. Parallel railway tracks receding into the distance project converging lines onto the retinas. A true (...)
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  34. Mary Sanders Pollock & Catherine Rainwater (eds.) (2005). Figuring Animals: Essays on Animal Images in Art, Literature, Philosophy, and Popular Culture. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Figuring Animals is a collection of fifteen essays concerning the representation of animals in literature, the visual arts, philosophy, and cultural practice. At the turn of the new century, it is helpful to reconsider our inherited understandings of the species, some of which are still useful to us. It is also important to look ahead to new understandings and new dialogue, which may contribute to the survival of us all. The contributors to this volume participate in this dialogue (...)
     
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  35.  3
    Juliana Nates Jimenez & Petra Lindemann-Matthies (2015). Public Knowledge and Perception of Toads and Frogs in Three Areas of Subtropical Southeast China. Society and Animals 23 (2):166-192.
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  36.  23
    Gary Hatfield (2015). Perception in Philosophy and Psychology in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries. In Mohan Matthen (ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Perception. Oxford University Press 100–117.
    The chapter begins with a sketch of the empirical, theoretical, and philosophical background to nineteenth-century theories of perception, focusing on visual perception. It then considers German sensory physiology and psychology in the nineteenth century and its reception. This section gives special attention to: assumptions about nerve–sensation relations; spatial perception; the question of whether there is a two-dimensional representation in visual experience; psychophysics; size constancy; and theories of colour perception. The chapter then offers a brief look at (...)
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  37.  44
    Fabian Dorsch (2016). Seeing-In as Aspect Perception. In Gary Kemp & Gabriele Mras (eds.), Wollheim, Wittgenstein, and Pictorial Representation: Seeing-as and Seeing-in. Routledge
  38.  46
    Patricia Kauark-Leite (2009). The Transcendental Role of the Principle of Anticipations of Perception in Quantum Mechanics. In Michel Bitbol, Jean Petitot & Pierre Kerszberg (eds.), CONSTITUTING OBJECTIVITY The Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science.
    The aim of this work is to analyse the diffrerences between the formal structure of anticipation of perception in classical and in quantum context. I argue that a transcendental point of view can be supported in quantum context if objectivity is defined by an invariant anticipative structure, which has only a predictive character. The classical objectivity, which defined a set of properties having a descriptive meaning must be abandoned in quantum context. I will focus my analysis on Kant's Principle (...)
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  39.  17
    Gary Hatfield (2014). Activity and Passivity in Theories of Perception: Descartes to Kant. In José Filipe Silva & Mikko Yrjönsuuri (eds.), Active Perception in the History of Philosophy: From Plato to Modern Philosophy. Springer 275–89.
    In the early modern period, many authors held that sensation or sensory reception is in some way passive and that perception is in some way active. The notion of a more passive and a more active aspect of perception is already present in Aristotle: the senses receive forms without matter more or less passively, but the “primary sense” also recognizes the salience of present objects. Ibn al-Haytham distinguished “pure sensation” from other aspects of sense perception, achieved by (...)
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  40.  7
    Eric C. Jones, Albert J. Faas, Arthur D. Murphy, Graham A. Tobin, Linda M. Whiteford & Christopher McCarty (2013). Cross-Cultural and Site-Based Influences on Demographic, Well-Being, and Social Network Predictors of Risk Perception in Hazard and Disaster Settings in Ecuador and Mexico. Human Nature 24 (1):5-32.
    Although virtually all comparative research about risk perception focuses on which hazards are of concern to people in different culture groups, much can be gained by focusing on predictors of levels of risk perception in various countries and places. In this case, we examine standard and novel predictors of risk perception in seven sites among communities affected by a flood in Mexico (one site) and volcanic eruptions in Mexico (one site) and Ecuador (five sites). We conducted more (...)
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  41.  29
    Ki Joo Choi (2010). The Role of Perception in Jonathan Edwards's Moral Thought: The Nature of True Virtue Reconsidered. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (2):269-296.
    This essay provides an interpretation of Jonathan Edwards's moral thought that calls attention to the motif of perception in his conception of true virtue. The aim is to illumine the extent to which Edwards's virtue ethics can be included in and contribute to prevailing approaches to virtue in contemporary theological ethics. To advance this proposal, this essay attends to the question of moral agency that Edwards's reflections on charity, the new spiritual sense, and religious affections raise. This procedure offers (...)
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  42. Reinhard Brandt (2009). Können Tiere Denken?: Ein Beitrag Zur Tierphilosophie. Suhrkamp.
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  43. Jaak Panksepp (2005). Affective Consciousness: Core Emotional Feelings in Animals and Humans. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):30-80.
    The position advanced in this paper is that the bedrock of emotional feelings is contained within the evolved emotional action apparatus of mammalian brains. This dual-aspect monism approach to brain–mind functions, which asserts that emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamics of brain systems that generate instinctual emotional behaviors, saves us from various conceptual conundrums. In coarse form, primary process affective consciousness seems to be fundamentally an unconditional “gift of nature” rather than an acquired skill, even though those systems facilitate skill (...)
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  44. Susanna Siegel (2006). Which Properties Are Represented in Perception? In Tamar S. Gendler & John Hawthorne (eds.), Perceptual Experience. Oxford University Press 481--503.
    In discussions of perception and its relation to knowledge, it is common to distinguish what one comes to believe on the basis of perception from the distinctively perceptual basis of one's belief. The distinction can be drawn in terms of propositional contents: there are the contents that a perceiver comes to believe on the basis of her perception, on the one hand; and there are the contents properly attributed to perception itself, on the other. Consider the (...)
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  45. Corey W. Dyck (2006). Empirical Consciousness Explained: Self-Affection, (Self-)Consciousness and Perception in the B Deduction. Kantian Review 11 (1):29-54.
    Few of Kant’s doctrines are as difficult to understand as that of self-affection. Its brief career in the published literature consists principally in its unheralded introduction in the Transcendental Aesthetic and unexpected re-appearance at a key moment in the Deduction chapter in the B edition of the first Critique. Kant’s commentators, confronted with the difficulty of this doctrine, have naturally resorted to various strategies of clarification, ranging from distinguishing between empirical and transcendental self-affection, divorcing self-affection from the claims of self-knowledge (...)
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  46.  7
    Luis Emilio Bruni (2008). Hierarchical Categorical Perception in Sensing and Cognitive Processes. Biosemiotics 1 (1):113-130.
    This article considers categorical perception (CP) as a crucial process involved in all sort of communication throughout the biological hierarchy, i.e. in all of biosemiosis. Until now, there has been consideration of CP exclusively within the functional cycle of perception–cognition–action and it has not been considered the possibility to extend this kind of phenomena to the mere physiological level. To generalise the notion of CP in this sense, I have proposed to distinguish between categorical perception (CP) and (...)
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  47.  3
    Ioana Repciuc (2011). The Archaic Time Perception in the Modern Times. An Ethnological Approach Towards a Religious Minority. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 10 (30):80-101.
    The present study focuses on the religious minority arising from the implementation of the Gregorian calendar in Romania. Christian religious community of the Old Style is defined both historically and through psycho-social elements that caused the secession of belivers together with clerics from the Romanian Orthodox Church. Special attention is given to magical-religious beliefs observed with ethnological research tools, including: magical perception of time and especially of the agrarian calendar, faith in miraculous natural signs, survivals of animist religion. The (...)
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  48.  64
    Simo Knuuttila & Pekka Kärkkäinen (eds.) (2008). Theories of Perception in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Springer.
    In recent years, the rich tradition of various philosophical theories of perception has been increasingly studied by scholars of the history of philosophy of ...
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  49. Shoshana Smith (2005). Clear and Distinct Perception in Descartes's Philosophy. Dissertation, University of California Berkeley
    (Shoshana Smith now goes by her married name, Shoshana Brassfield: http://philpapers.org/profile/37640) Descartes famously claims that everything we perceive clearly and distinctly is true. Although this rule is fundamental to Descartes’s theory of knowledge, readers from Gassendi and Leibniz onward have complained that unless Descartes can say explicitly what clear and distinct perception is, how we know when we have it, and why it cannot be wrong, then the rule is empty. I offer a detailed analysis of clear and distinct (...)
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  50.  66
    Peter Carruthers (2008). Meta-Cognition in Animals: A Skeptical Look. Mind and Language 23 (1):58–89.
    This paper examines the recent literature on meta-cognitive processes in non-human animals, arguing that in each case the data admit of a simpler, purely first-order, explanation. The topics discussed include the alleged monitoring of states of certainty and uncertainty, knowledge-seeking behavior in conditions of uncertainty, and the capacity to know whether or not the information needed to solve some problem is stored in memory. The first-order explanations advanced all assume that beliefs and desires come in various different strengths, or (...)
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