Originating from work in operations research the cutting plane refutation systemCP is an extension of resolution, where unsatisfiable propositional logic formulas in conjunctive normal form are recognized by showing the non-existence of boolean solutions to associated families of linear inequalities. Polynomial sizeCP proofs are given for the undirecteds-t connectivity principle. The subsystemsCP q ofCP, forq≥2, are shown to be polynomially equivalent toCP, thus answering problem 19 from the list of open problems of . We present a normal form theorem forCP (...) 2-proofs and thereby for arbitraryCP-proofs. As a corollary, we show that the coefficients and constant terms in arbitrary cutting plane proofs may be exponentially bounded by the number of steps in the proof, at the cost of an at most polynomial increase in the number of steps in the proof. The extensionCPLE +, introduced in  and there shown top-simulate Frege systems, is proved to be polynomially equivalent to Frege systems. Lastly, since linear inequalities are related to threshold gates, we introduce a new threshold logic and prove a completeness theorem. (shrink)
This collection of articles on Models of Arithmetic is dedicated to the memory of Zygmunt Ratajczyk, who contributed a number of important results to the field, and who unexpectedly died in February 1994.
We give a new characterization of the hyperarithmetic sets: a set X of integers is recursive in e α if and only if there is a Turing machine which computes X and "halts" in less than or equal to the ordinal number ω α of steps. This result represents a generalization of the well-known "limit lemma" due to J. R. Shoenfield [Sho-1] and later independently by H. Putnam [Pu] and independently by E. M. Gold [Go]. As an application of this (...) result, we give a recursion theoretic analysis of clopen determinacy: there is a correlation given between the height α of a well-founded tree corresponding to a clopen game $A \subseteq \omega^\omega$ and the Turing degree of a winning strategy f for one of the players--roughly, f can be chosen to be recursive in 0 α and this is the best possible (see § 4 for precise results). (shrink)
Solovay has shown that if F: [ω] ω → 2 is a clopen partition with recursive code, then there is an infinite homogeneous hyperarithmetic set for the partition (a basis result). Simpson has shown that for every 0 α , where α is a recursive ordinal, there is a clopen partition F: [ω] ω → 2 such that every infinite homogeneous set is Turing above 0 α (an anti-basis result). Here we refine these results, by associating the "order type" of (...) a clopen set with the Turing complexity of the infinite homogeneous sets. We also consider the Nash-Williams barrier theorem and its relation to the clopen Ramsey theorem. (shrink)