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  1. Peter E. Mudrack & E. Sharon Mason (2013). Dilemmas, Conspiracies, and Sophie's Choice: Vignette Themes and Ethical Judgments. Journal of Business Ethics 118 (3):639-653.
    Knowledge about ethical judgments has not advanced appreciably after decades of research. Such research, however, has rarely addressed the possible importance of the content of such judgments; that is, the material appearing in the brief vignettes or scenarios on which survey respondents base their evaluations. Indeed, this content has seemed an afterthought in most investigations. This paper closely examined the vast array of vignettes that have appeared in relevant research in an effort to reduce this proliferation to a more concise (...)
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  2. Peter E. Mudrack & E. Sharon Mason (2013). Ethical Judgments: What Do We Know, Where Do We Go? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 115 (3):575-597.
    Investigations into ethical judgments generally seem fuzzy as to the relevant research domain. We first attempted to clarify the construct and determine domain parameters. This attempt required addressing difficulties associated with pinpointing relevant literature, most notably the varied nomenclature used to refer to ethical judgments (individual evaluations of actions’ ethicality). Given this variation in construct nomenclature and the difficulties it presented in identifying pertinent focal studies, we elected to focus on research that cited papers featuring prominent and often-used measures of (...)
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  3. Peter E. Mudrack, James M. Bloodgood & William H. Turnley (2012). Some Ethical Implications of Individual Competitiveness. Journal of Business Ethics 108 (3):347-359.
    This study examined some ethical implications of two different individual competitive orientations. Winning is crucially important in hypercompetitiveness , whereas a personal development (PD) perspective considers competition as a means to self-discovery and self-improvement. In a sample of 263 senior-level undergraduate business students, survey results suggested that hypercompetitiveness was generally associated with “poor ethics” and PD competitiveness was linked with “high ethics”. For example, hypercompetitive individuals generally saw nothing wrong with self-interested gain at the expense of others, but PD competitors (...)
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  4. James M. Bloodgood, William H. Turnley & Peter E. Mudrack (2010). Ethics Instruction and the Perceived Acceptability of Cheating. Journal of Business Ethics 95 (1):23 - 37.
    This study examined whether undergraduate students' perceptions regarding the acceptability of cheating were influenced by the amount of ethics instruction the students had received and/or by their personality. The results, from a sample of 230 upper-level undergraduate students, indicated that simply taking a business ethics course did not have a significant influence on students' views regarding cheating. On the other hand, Machiavellianism was positively related to perceiving that two forms of cheating were acceptable. Moreover, in testing for moderating relationships, the (...)
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  5. Peter E. Mudrack (2003). The Untapped Relevance of Moral Development Theory in the Study of Business Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics 42 (3):225 - 236.
    The construct of cognitive moral development seemingly has powerful practical relevance in many areas of life. Nonetheless, moral reasoning seems of marginal relevance at best in the context of business ethics. Simply put, moral reasoning measurement indices are often only weakly related to many other apparently pertinent variables, and such findings cast doubt upon the construct validity of cognitive moral development. Many such unexpectedly weak relationships, however, may stem from two largely unrecognized methodological artifacts. The first artifact is an almost (...)
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  6. E. Sharon Mason & Peter E. Mudrack (1997). Do Complex Moral Reasoners Experience Greater Ethical Work Conflict? Journal of Business Ethics 16 (12-13):1311-1318.
    Individuals who disagree that organizational interests legitimately supersede those of the wider society may experience conflict between their personal standards of ethics and those demanded by an employing organization, a conflict that is well documented. An additional question is whether or not individuals capable of complex moral reasoning experience greater conflict than those reasoning at a less developed level. This question was first positioned in a theoretical framework and then investigated using 115 survey responses from a student sample. Correlational analysis (...)
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  7. E. Sharon Mason & Peter E. Mudrack (1996). Gender and Ethical Orientation: A Test of Gender and Occupational Socialization Theories. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (6):599 - 604.
    Ethics and associated values influence not only managerial behavior but also managerial success (England and Lee, 1973). Gender socialization theory hypothesizes gender differences in ethics variables whether or not individuals are full time employees; occupational socialization hypothesizes gender similarity in employees. The conflicting hypotheses were investigated using questionnaire responses from a sample of 308 individuals. Analysis of variance and hierarchical regression yielded unexpected results. Although no significant gender differences emerged in individuals lacking full time employment, significant differences existed between employed (...)
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  8. Peter E. Mudrack & E. Sharon Mason (1996). Individual Ethical Beliefs and Perceived Organizational Interests. Journal of Business Ethics 15 (8):851 - 861.
    Two contrasting types of individuals were each predicted to agree, for different reasons, that conventional ethical standards of society need not be upheld if organizational interests appear to demand otherwise. The hypotheses were investigated using questionnaire responses from two samples (employed and student, total N=308). Clear support was obtained for the prediction that individuals inclined toward self-interest and behavior counter to conventional standards would agree with the preceding position. Partial support was obtained for the hypothesis that individuals who simply feel (...)
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  9. Peter E. Mudrack (1994). Are the Elderly Really Machiavellian? A Reinterpretation of an Unexpected Finding. Journal of Business Ethics 13 (9):757 - 758.
    In an article published recently in theJournal of Business Ethics, Vitellet al. (1991) found that elderly respondents scored surprisingly high on a measure of Machiavellianism. This paper offers an alternative explanation for this unexpected result — it may be an artifact of the survey format employed — and recommends additional research to help clarify the issues raised by Vitell and his colleagues.
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  10. Peter E. Mudrack (1993). An Investigation Into the Acceptability of Workplace Behaviors of a Dubious Ethical Nature. Journal of Business Ethics 12 (7):517 - 524.
    Jones (1990) described ten workplace behaviors of a dubious ethical nature and determined that the hierarchical position adopted by respondents influenced the perceived acceptability of these behaviors. This measure seems promising, and therefore the purpose of this investigation is two-fold: (1) to explore further the psychometric properties of these ten items; and (2) to examine the role of individual difference variables as correlates of perceived acceptability. In two samples of working people, the Jones items were found to be internally consistent, (...)
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