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  1. Carlos E. Alchourrón, Peter Gärdenfors & David Makinson (1985). On the Logic of Theory Change: Partial Meet Contraction and Revision Functions. Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (2):510-530.
    This paper extends earlier work by its authors on formal aspects of the processes of contracting a theory to eliminate a proposition and revising a theory to introduce a proposition. In the course of the earlier work, Gardenfors developed general postulates of a more or less equational nature for such processes, whilst Alchourron and Makinson studied the particular case of contraction functions that are maximal, in the sense of yielding a maximal subset of the theory (or alternatively, of one of (...)
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  2. Peter Gärdenfors (2002). Conceptual Spaces. The Geometry of Thought. Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 64 (1):180-181.
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  3. Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker (2013). Theory Change as Dimensional Change: Conceptual Spaces Applied to the Dynamics of Empirical Theories. Synthese 190 (6):1039-1058.
    This paper offers a novel way of reconstructing conceptual change in empirical theories. Changes occur in terms of the structure of the dimensions—that is to say, the conceptual spaces—underlying the conceptual framework within which a given theory is formulated. Five types of changes are identified: (1) addition or deletion of special laws, (2) change in scale or metric, (3) change in the importance of dimensions, (4) change in the separability of dimensions, and (5) addition or deletion of dimensions. Given this (...)
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  4. Peter Gärdenfors (1986). Belief Revisions and the Ramsey Test for Conditionals. Philosophical Review 95 (1):81-93.
  5.  39
    Peter Gärdenfors (2014). The Geometry of Meaning: Semantics Based on Conceptual Spaces. The MIT Press.
    A novel cognitive theory of semantics that proposes that the meanings of words can be described in terms of geometric structures.
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  6.  49
    Massimo Warglien & Peter Gärdenfors (2013). Semantics, Conceptual Spaces, and the Meeting of Minds. Synthese 190 (12):2165-2193.
    We present an account of semantics that is not construed as a mapping of language to the world but rather as a mapping between individual meaning spaces. The meanings of linguistic entities are established via a “meeting of minds.” The concepts in the minds of communicating individuals are modeled as convex regions in conceptual spaces. We outline a mathematical framework, based on fixpoints in continuous mappings between conceptual spaces, that can be used to model such a semantics. If concepts are (...)
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  7.  41
    Peter Gärdenfors (1990). Induction, Conceptual Spaces and AI. Philosophy of Science 57 (1):78-95.
    A computational theory of induction must be able to identify the projectible predicates, that is to distinguish between which predicates can be used in inductive inferences and which cannot. The problems of projectibility are introduced by reviewing some of the stumbling blocks for the theory of induction that was developed by the logical empiricists. My diagnosis of these problems is that the traditional theory of induction, which started from a given (observational) language in relation to which all inductive rules are (...)
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  8. Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin (1982). Unreliable Probabilities, Risk Taking, and Decision Making. Synthese 53 (3):361-386.
  9.  9
    Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker (2015). Communication, Rationality, and Conceptual Changes in Scientific Theories. In Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker (eds.), Applications of Conceptual Spaces. Springer International Publishing
    This article outlines how conceptual spaces theory applies to modeling changes of scientific frameworks when these are treated as spatial structures rather than as linguistic entities. The theory is briefly introduced and five types of changes are presented. It is then contrasted with Michael Friedman’s neo-Kantian account that seeks to render Kuhn’s “paradigm shift” as a communicatively rational historical event of conceptual development in the sciences. Like Friedman, we refer to the transition from Newtonian to relativistic mechanics as an example (...)
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  10.  47
    Peter Gärdenfors (2006). A Representation Theorem for Voting with Logical Consequences. Economics and Philosophy 22 (2):181-190.
    This paper concerns voting with logical consequences, which means that anybody voting for an alternative x should vote for the logical consequences of x as well. Similarly, the social choice set is also supposed to be closed under logical consequences. The central result of the paper is that, given a set of fairly natural conditions, the only social choice functions that satisfy social logical closure are oligarchic (where a subset of the voters are decisive for the social choice). The set (...)
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  11.  24
    Frank Zenker & Peter Gärdenfors (2013). Modeling Diachronic Changes in Structuralism and in Conceptual Spaces. Erkenntnis 79 (S8):1-15.
    Our aim in this article is to show how the theory of conceptual spaces can be useful in describing diachronic changes to conceptual frameworks, and thus useful in understanding conceptual change in the empirical sciences. We also compare the conceptual space approach to Moulines’s typology of intertheoretical relations in the structuralist tradition. Unlike structuralist reconstructions, those based on conceptual spaces yield a natural way of modeling the changes of a conceptual framework, including noncumulative changes, by tracing the changes to the (...)
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  12.  4
    Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker, Applications of Conceptual Spaces.
    This chapter makes use of two data sources, terminological schemas for wine descriptions and actual wine reviews, for the investigation of how experiences of sensory perceptions of vision, smell, taste and touch are described. In spite of all the great challenges involved in describing perceptions, professional wine reviewers are expected to be able to give an understandable account of their experiences. The reviews are explored with focus on the different types of descriptors and the ways their meanings are construed. It (...)
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  13. Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin (eds.) (1988). Decision, Probability, and Utility. Cambridge University Press.
    Decision theory and the theory of rational choice have recently been the subjects of considerable research by philosophers and economists. However, no adequate anthology exists which can be used to introduce students to the field. This volume is designed to meet that need. The essays included are organized into five parts covering the foundations of decision theory, the conceptualization of probability and utility, pholosophical difficulties with the rules of rationality and with the assessment of probability, and causal decision theory. The (...)
     
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  14. Ingar Brinck & Peter Gärdenfors (1999). Representation and Self-Awareness in Intentional Agents. Synthese 118 (1):89 - 104.
    Several conditions for being an intrinsically intentional agent are put forward. On a first level of intentionality the agent has representations. Two kinds are described: cued and detached. An agent with both kinds is able to represent both what is prompted by the context and what is absent from it. An intermediate level of intentionality is achieved by having an inner world, that is, a coherent system of detached representations that model the world. The inner world is used, e.g., for (...)
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  15.  15
    Peter Gärdenfors (forthcoming). Levels of Communication and Lexical Semantics. Synthese.
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  16. Peter Gardenfors (1982). Imaging and Conditionalization. Journal of Philosophy 79 (12):747-760.
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  17.  8
    Peter Gardenfors (1976). Relevance and Redundancy in Deductive Explanations. Philosophy of Science 43 (3):420-431.
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  18.  22
    Peter Gärdenfors (1984). Epistemic Importance and Minimal Changes of Belief. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 62 (2):136 – 157.
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  19. Peter GÄrdenfors (1990). The Dynamics of Belief Systems: Foundations Vs. Coherence Theories. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 44 (172):24.
     
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  20.  21
    Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker (2011). Using Conceptual Spaces to Model the Dynamics of Empirical Theories. In Erik J. Olson Sebastian Enqvist (ed.), Belief Revision Meets Philosophy of Science. Springer 137--153.
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  21.  18
    Peter Gärdenfors (2011). Notes on the History of Ideas Behind AGM. Journal of Philosophical Logic 40 (2):115 - 120.
  22.  10
    David Makinson & Peter Gärdenfors (1991). Relations Between the Logic of Theory Change and Nonmonotonic Logic. In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer 183--205.
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  23.  54
    Ingar Brinck & Peter Gärdenfors (2003). Co–Operation and Communication in Apes and Humans. Mind and Language 18 (5):484–501.
    We trace the difference between the ways in which apes and humans co–operate to differences in communicative abilities, claiming that the pressure for future–directed co–operation was a major force behind the evolution of language. Competitive co–operation concerns goals that are present in the environment and have stable values. It relies on either signalling or joint attention. Future–directed co–operation concerns new goals that lack fixed values. It requires symbolic communication and context–independent representations of means and goals. We analyse these ways of (...)
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  24. Peter Gärdenfors & Massimo Warglien (2015). Meaning Negotiation. In Peter Gärdenfors & Frank Zenker (eds.), Applications of Conceptual Spaces. Springer International Publishing
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  25.  3
    Christian Balkenius & Peter Gärdenfors (2016). Spaces in the Brain: From Neurons to Meanings. Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  26.  8
    George Masterton, Frank Zenker & Peter Gärdenfors (forthcoming). Using Conceptual Spaces to Exhibit Conceptual Continuity Through Scientific Theory Change. European Journal for Philosophy of Science:1-24.
    There is a great deal of justified concern about continuity through scientific theory change. Our thesis is that, particularly in physics, such continuity can be appropriately captured at the level of conceptual frameworks using conceptual space models. Indeed, we contend that the conceptual spaces of three of our most important physical theories—Classical Mechanics, Special Relativity Theory, and Quantum Mechanics —have already been so modelled as phase-spaces. Working with their phase-space formulations, one can trace the conceptual changes and continuities in transitioning (...)
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  27. Peter Gärdenfors (1985). Propositional Logic Based on the Dynamics of Belief. Journal of Symbolic Logic 50 (2):390-394.
  28.  16
    Peter Gardenfors (1980). A Pragmatic Approach to Explanations. Philosophy of Science 47 (3):404-423.
    It is argued that it is not sufficient to consider only the sentences included in the explanans and explanandum when determining whether they constitute an explanation, but these sentences must always be evaluated relative to a knowledge situation. The central criterion on an explanation is that the explanans in a non-trivial way increases the belief value of the explanandum, where the belief value of a sentence is determined from the given knowledge situation. The outlined theory of explanations is applied to (...)
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  29.  25
    Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin, Decision Making with Unreliable Probabilities.
    This paper presents a decision theory which allows subjects to account for the uncertainties of their probability estimates. This is accomplished by modelling beliefs about states of nature by means of a class of probability measures. In order to represent uncertainties of those beliefs a measure of epistemic reliability is introduced. The suggested decision theory is evaluated in the light of empirical evidence on ambiguity and uncertainty in decision making. The theory is also compared to Tversky & Kahneman's prospect theory.
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  30.  16
    Peter Gardenfors (1990). Induction, Conceptual Spaces and AI. Philosophy of Science 57 (1):78 - 95.
    A computational theory of induction must be able to identify the projectible predicates, that is to distinguish between which predicates can be used in inductive inferences and which cannot. The problems of projectibility are introduced by reviewing some of the stumbling blocks for the theory of induction that was developed by the logical empiricists. My diagnosis of these problems is that the traditional theory of induction, which started from a given (observational) language in relation to which all inductive rules are (...)
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  31.  12
    Peter Gärdenfors (1981). An Epistemic Approach to Conditionals. American Philosophical Quarterly 18 (3):203 - 211.
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  32.  31
    Peter Gärdenfors (1987). Variations on the Ramsey Test: More Triviality Results. Studia Logica 46 (4):319-325.
    The purpose of this note is to formulate some weaker versions of the so called Ramsey test that do not entail the following unacceptable consequenceIf A and C are already accepted in K, then if A, then C is also accepted in K. and to show that these versions still lead to the same triviality result when combined with a preservation criterion.
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  33.  22
    Peter Gardenfors (1981). Rights, Games and Social Choice. Noûs 15 (3):341-356.
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  34.  50
    Peter Gärdenfors (1986). The Dynamics of Belief: Contractions and Revisions of Probability Functions. Topoi 5 (1):29-37.
    Using probability functions defined over a simple language as models of states of belief, my goal in this article has been to analyse contractions and revisions of beliefs. My first strategy was to formulate postulates for these processes. Close parallels between the postulates for contractions and the postulates for revisions have been established - the results in Section 5 show that contractions and revisions are interchangeable. As a second strategy, some suggestions for more or less explicit constructive definitions of the (...)
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  35.  67
    Peter Gardenfors (2004). Conceptual Spaces as a Framework for Knowledge Representation. Mind and Matter 2 (2):9-27.
    The dominating models of information processes have been based on symbolic representations of information and knowledge. During the last decades, a variety of non-symbolic models have been proposed as superior. The prime examples of models within the non-symbolic approach are neural networks. However, to a large extent they lack a higher-level theory of representation. In this paper, conceptual spaces are suggested as an appropriate framework for non- symbolic models. Conceptual spaces consist of a number of 'quality dimensions' that often are (...)
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  36.  30
    Peter Gärdenfors (1975). Qualitative Probability as an Intensional Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 4 (2):171 - 185.
  37. Peter Gardenfors (1996). Mental Representation, Conceptual Spaces and Metaphors. Synthese 106 (1):21-47.
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  38.  53
    Peter Gärdenfors (1993). The Emergence of Meaning. Linguistics and Philosophy 16 (3):285 - 309.
  39.  18
    Peter Gärdenfors & Nils-Eric Sahlin, Introduction : Bayesian Decision Theory, Foundations and Problems.
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  40.  32
    Peter Gärdenfors (2008). The Role of Intersubjectivity in Animal and Human Cooperation. Biological Theory 3 (1):51-62.
    I argue that analyses of various kinds of cooperation will benefit from an account of the cognitive and communicative functions required for the cooperation. In particular, I focus on the role of intersubjectivity , which has not been sufficiently considered in game theory. Intersubjectivity will here be divided into representing the emotions, desires, attention, intentions, and beliefs of others. I then analyze some kinds of cooperation—reciprocal altruism, indirect reciprocity, cooperation on future goals, and conventions—with respect to their cognitive and communicative (...)
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  41.  13
    Peter Gärdenfors (1992). The Dynamics of Belief Systems: Foundations Versus Coherence Theories. In Cristina Bicchieri, Dalla Chiara & Maria Luisa (eds.), Knowledge, Belief, and Strategic Interaction. Cambridge University Press 377.
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  42.  21
    Peter Gärdenfors (1984). The Dynamics of Belief as a Basis for Logic. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35 (1):1-10.
  43.  48
    Peter Gärdenfors (1978). On the Logic of Relevance. Synthese 37 (3):351 - 367.
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  44.  18
    Peter Gärdenfors (1979). Forecasts, Decisions and Uncertain Probabilities. Erkenntnis 14 (2):159 - 181.
    In the traditional decision theories the role of forecasts is to a large extent swept under the carpet. I believe that a recognition of the connections between forecasts and decisions will be of benefit both for decision theory and for the art of forecasting.In this paper I have tried to analyse which factors, apart from the utilities of the outcomes of the decision alternatives, determine the value of a decision. I have outlined two answers to the question why a decision (...)
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  45.  16
    Peter Gärdenfors (1973). Positionalist Voting Functions. Theory and Decision 4 (1):1-24.
  46.  43
    Peter Gärdenfors, Sten Lindström, Michael Morreau & Wlodek Rabinowicz (1991). The Negative Ramsey Test. In André Fuhrmann & Michael Morreau (eds.), The Logic of Theory Change. Springer
    The so called Ramsey test is a semantic recipe for determining whether a conditional proposition is acceptable in a given state of belief. Informally, it can be formulated as follows: (RT) Accept a proposition of the form "if A, then C" in a state of belief K, if and only if the minimal change of K needed to accept A also requires accepting C. In Gärdenfors (1986) it was shown that the Ramsey test is, in the context of some other (...)
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  47. Bengt Hansson & Peter Gärdenfors (1973). A Guide to Intensional Semantics. In Sören Halldén (ed.), Modality, Morality and Other Problems of Sense and Nonsense. Lund,Gleerup 151--167.
     
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  48.  15
    Annika Wallin & Peter Gärdenfors (2000). Smart People Who Make Simple Heuristics Work. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):765-765.
    To evaluate the success of simple heuristics we need to know more about how a relevant heuristic is chosen and how we learn which cues are relevant. These meta-abilities are at the core of ecological rationality, rather than the individual heuristics.
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  49.  60
    Peter Gärdenfors (1990). An Epistemic Analysis of Explanations and Causal Beliefs. Topoi 9 (2):109-124.
    The analyses of explanation and causal beliefs are heavily dependent on using probability functions as models of epistemic states. There are, however, several aspects of beliefs that are not captured by such a representation and which affect the outcome of the analyses. One dimension that has been neglected in this article is the temporal aspect of the beliefs. The description of a single event naturally involves the time it occurred. Some analyses of causation postulate that the cause must not occur (...)
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  50.  21
    Peter Gärdenfors & Philip Pettit (1989). The Impossibility of a Paretian Loyalist. Theory and Decision 27 (3):207-216.
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