104 found
Sort by:
  1. Peter Godfrey-Smith, Innateness and Genetic Information.
    The idea that innateness can be understood in terms of genetic coding or genetic programming is discussed. I argue that biology does not provide any support for the view that the whole-organism features of interest to nativists in psychology and linguistics are genetically coded for. This provides some support for recent critical and deflationary treatments of the concept of innateness.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Peter Godfrey-Smith, Representation and Integration in Animal Minds.
    I will sketch, but not argue for here, a hypothesis about its origins and structure. What philosophers think of as folk psychology has dual origins. One is a genuine "intuitive psychology." This is an evolved predictive tool seen also in some nonhuman animals and very young children. It is "peripheral" in what it recognizes and describes. Primarily, it recognizes seeing and acting (including trying) as activities of others. This is common element in how human and non-human animals deal with each (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Peter Godfrey-Smith, The Origin Cycle.
    We behold the face of nature bright with gladness, we often see superabundance of food; we do not see, or we forget, that the birds which are idly singing round us... are ... constantly destroying life; or we forget how largely these songsters, or their eggs, or their nestlings are destroyed by birds and beasts of prey...
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Peter Godfrey-Smith, Information and the Argument From Design.
    William Dembski holds that "the origin of information is best sought in intelligent causes" ("Intelligent Design as a Theory of Information", 1997). In particular, Dembski argues that Darwinism is not able to explain the existence of biological structures that contain a certain kind of information – "complex specified information" (CSI). To explain these informational features of living systems, we must instead appeal to the choices made by an intelligent designer.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Peter Godfrey-Smith, Improving Australian Universities.
    Published as "Useful Lessons from California" in Quadrant Magazine, Volume 50, October 2006. An edited version appears in the Australian newspaper's Higher Education Supplement, as "The Model of Achievement," November 1, 2006.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Peter Godfrey-Smith, Model-Based Science and the Representational Theory of Mind.
    Over the past 30 years, one topic much discussed in the philosophy of mind and philosophy of psychology has been the status of "the representational theory of mind," or "RTM." As usually conceived, the representational theory holds that the mind operates (in part) by creating, storing, and using internal representations of objects and events in the world.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Peter Godfrey-Smith, On Genetic Information and Genetic Coding.
    One of the most striking developments in recent biology has been the proliferation of concepts such as coding, information, representation and programming, especially applied to genes. The idea that genes can be described as having semantic properties, as well as ordinary causal properties, has become so uncontroversial in many quarters that it now appears prominently in biology textbooks. Scott Gilbert's widely used developmental biology text, to pick just one example, tell us that "the inherited information needed for development and metabolism (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Peter Godfrey-Smith, Progress and Procedures in Scientific Epistemology.
    My title is intended to echo Hans Reichenbach's The Rise of Scientific Philosophy (1951), and the phrase "scientific epistemology" is intended in two Reichenbachian senses. One involves the epistemology of science; the other involves epistemology undertaken with a scientific orientation. Talk of "progress and procedures" is intended in a similar dual sense. I start by looking back over the last century, at how a family of problems was tackled by scientifically oriented philosophers. These are problems with the nature of evidence (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Peter Godfrey-Smith, Philosophy of Biology.
    • "Conditions for Evolution by Natural Selection " (2007) . Evolution by natural selection is usually said to require three ingredients: variation, heredity, and fitness differences. But things are not so simple. Here I discuss various problem cases and their consequences.
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Peter Godfrey-Smith, Popper's Philosophy of Science: Looking Ahead.
    Is Popper's philosophy alive or dead? If we make a judgment based on recent discussion in academic philosophy of science, he definitely seems to be fading. Popper is still seen as an important historical figure, a key part of the grand drama of 20th century thinking about science. He is associated with an outlook, a mindset, and a general picture of scientific work. His name has bequeathed us an adjective, "Popperian," that is well established. But the adjective is used for (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Peter Godfrey-Smith, The Evolution of the Individual.
    Sometimes themes can be found in common across very different systems in which change occurs. Imre Lakatos developed a theory of change in science, and one involving entities visible at different levels. There are theories defended at a particular time, and there are also research programs, larger units that bundle together a sequence of related theories and within which many scientists may work. Research programs are competing higher-level units within a scientific field. Scientific change involves change within research programs, and (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Peter Godfrey-Smith, Three Kinds of Adaptationism.
    Debate about adaptationism in biology continues, in part because within “the” problem of assessing adaptationism, three distinct problems are mixed together. The three problems concern the assessment of three distinct adaptationist positions, each of which asserts the central importance of adaptation and natural selection to the study of evolution, but conceives this importance in a different way. As there are three kinds of adaptationism, there are three distinct "anti-adaptationist" positions as well. Or putting it more formally, there are three different (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Peter Godfrey-Smith, What Darwinism Explains.
    Did Darwin really do what Kant said was impossible, and serve as a Newton for the biological world? In assessing this question we need to look at both the structure of evolutionary theory and the structure of our explanation-seeking minds. The short answer to the question is yes. Both underestimates and overestimates of the significance of Darwinian explanations derive from psychological habits which may stem from our own evolutionary history.
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Peter Godfrey-Smith, Why Octopuses Matter to Philosophy.
    Why do octopuses matter to philosophy? They matter to the part of philosophy concerned with the mind. To see why, we step back and think about the evolutionary connections between all living things. Biologists think of these relationships in terms of a tree of life. This is a huge tree-like pattern, marking which species are close relatives and which are distantly connected. The vertebrates form one branch of the tree, and that is where we find nearly all the animals with (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Peter Godfrey-Smith & Benjamin Kerr, Selection in Ephemeral Networks.
    A model of “ephemeral” population structure is presented that applies not only to biological systems in which discrete groups form but also to networks without group boundaries. The evolution of altruistic behaviors is discussed. Nonrandom interaction and nonlinear fitness structures are modeled; together, these factors can produce stable polymorphisms of altruistic and selfish types, as well as bistability. Empirical applications of the model may be found in microbes, marine invertebrates, annual plants, and other organisms.
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Benjamin Kerr, Peter Godfrey-Smith & Marcus W. Feldman, What is Altruism?
    Altruism is generally understood to be behavior that benefits others at a personal cost to the behaving individual. However, within evolutionary biology, different authors have interpreted the concept of altruism differently, leading to dissimilar predictions about the evolution of altruistic behavior. Generally, different interpretations diverge on which party receives the benefit from altruism and on how the cost of altruism is assessed. Using a simple trait-group framework, we delineate the assumptions underlying different interpretations and show how they relate to one (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2014). John Dewey's Experience and Nature. Topoi 33 (1):285-291.
    John Dewey’s Experience and Nature has the potential to transform several areas of philosophy. The book is lengthy and difficult, but it has great importance for a knot of issues in epistemology, metaphysics, and philosophy of mind. It bears also on metaphilosophy, devoting many pages to the discipline’s characteristic pathologies, and advancing a view of what sort of guidance “naturalism” provides. Later chapters move on to discuss art, morality, and value. So this is a major statement by Dewey. It may (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2014). Signs and Symbolic Behavior. Biological Theory 9 (1):78-88.
  19. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2013). Dewey and the Question of Realism. Noûs 47 (4):n/a-n/a.
    An interpretation is given of John Dewey's views about “realism” in metaphysics, and of how these views relate to contemporary debates. Dewey rejected standard formulations of realism as a general metaphysical position, and interpreters have often been taken him to be sympathetic to some form of verificationism or constructivism. I argue that these interpretations are mistaken, as Dewey's unease with standard formulations of realism comes from his philosophical emphasis on intelligent control of events, by means of ordinary action. Because of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Peter Godfrey-Smith & Manolo Martínez (2013). Communication and Common Interest. PLOS Computational Biology 9 (11).
  21. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2012). Metaphysics and the Philosophical Imagination. Philosophical Studies 160 (1):97-113.
    Methods and goals in philosophy are discussed by first describing an ideal, and then looking at how the ideal might be approached. David Lewis’s work in metaphysics is critically examined and compared to analogous work by Mackie and Carnap. Some large-scale philosophical systematic work, especially in metaphysics, is best treated as model-building, in a sense of that term that draws on the philosophy of science. Models are constructed in a way that involves deliberate simplification, or other imaginative modification of reality, (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2011). Agents and Acacias: Replies to Dennett, Sterelny, and Queller. Biology and Philosophy 26 (4):501-515.
    The commentaries by Dennett, Sterelny, and Queller on Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection (DPNS) are so constructive that they make it possible to extend and improve the book’s framework in several ways. My replies will focus on points of disagreement, and I will pick a small number of themes and develop them in detail. The three replies below are mostly self-contained, except that all my comments about genes, discussed by all three critics, are in the reply to Queller. Agential views (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2011). 2 Induction, Samples, and Kinds. In Michael O'Rourke, Joseph Keim Campbell & Matthew H. Slater (eds.), Carving Nature at its Joints. Mit Press. 33.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2011). Senders, Receivers, and Genetic Information: Comments on Bergstrom and Rosvall. Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):177-181.
  25. Peter Godfrey-Smith & Kritika Yegnashankaran (2011). Reasoning as Deliberative in Function but Dialogic in Structure and Origin. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):80-80.
    Mercier and Sperber (M&S) claim that the main function of reasoning is to generate support for conclusions derived unconsciously. An alternative account holds that reasoning has a deliberative function even though it is an internalized analogue of public discourse. We sketch this alternative and compare it with M&S's in the light of the empirical phenomena they discuss.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2010). Dewey and the Subject-Matter of Science. In John Shook & Paul Kurtz (eds.), Dewey's Enduring Impact: Essays on America's Philosopher. Prometheus Books. 73--86.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2010). Dewey, Continuity, and McDowell. In Mario de Caro & David Macarthur (eds.), Naturalism and Normativity. Columbia University Press.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2010). David Hull. Biology and Philosophy 25 (5):749-753.
  29. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2009). Causal Pluralism. In Helen Beebee, Peter Menzies & Christopher Hitchcock (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press. 326--337.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2009). Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection. OUP Oxford.
    The book presents a new way of understanding Darwinism and evolution by natural selection, combining work in biology, philosophy, and other fields.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Peter Godfrey-smith (2009). Knowledge, Trade-Offs, and Tracking Truth. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (1):231-239.
    No categories
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2009). Models and Fictions in Science. Philosophical Studies 143 (1):101 - 116.
    Non-actual model systems discussed in scientific theories are compared to fictions in literature. This comparison may help with the understanding of similarity relations between models and real-world target systems. The ontological problems surrounding fictions in science may be particularly difficult, however. A comparison is also made to ontological problems that arise in the philosophy of mathematics.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2009). Representationalism Reconsidered. In Dominic Murphy & Michael A. Bishop (eds.), Stich and His Critics. Wiley-Blackwell. 30--45.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2009). Triviality Arguments Against Functionalism. Philosophical Studies 145 (2):273 - 295.
    “Triviality arguments” against functionalism in the philosophy of mind hold that the claim that some complex physical system exhibits a given functional organization is either trivial or has much less content than is usually supposed. I survey several earlier arguments of this kind, and present a new one that overcomes some limitations in the earlier arguments. Resisting triviality arguments is possible, but requires functionalists to revise popular views about the “autonomy” of functional description.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Jon F. Wilkins & Peter Godfrey-Smith (2009). Adaptationism and the Adaptive Landscape. Biology and Philosophy 24 (2):199-214.
    Debates over adaptationism can be clarified and partially resolved by careful consideration of the ‘grain’ at which evolutionary processes are described. The framework of ‘adaptive landscapes’ can be used to illustrate and facilitate this investigation. We argue that natural selection may have special status at an intermediate grain of analysis of evolutionary processes. The cases of sickle-cell disease and genomic imprinting are used as case studies.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Arthur Fine, Peter Godfrey-Smith & Anjan Chakravartty (2008). Author-Meets-Critics: Exceeding Our Grasp by Kyle Stanford. Philosophical Studies 137 (1).
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2008). Varieties of Population Structure and the Levels of Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (1):25-50.
    Group-structured populations, of the kind prominent in discussions of multilevel selection, are contrasted with ‘neighbor-structured’ populations. I argue that it is a necessary condition on multilevel description of a selection process that there should be a nonarbitrary division of the population into equivalence classes (or an approximation to this situation). The discussion is focused via comparisons between two famous problem cases involving group structure (altruism and heterozygote advantage) and two neighbor-structured cases that resemble them. Conclusions are also drawn about the (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Peter Godfrey-smith (2008). Explanation in Evolutionary Biology: Comments on Fodor. Mind and Language 23 (1):32–41.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2008). Reduction in Real Life. In Jakob Hohwy & Jesper Kallestrup (eds.), Being Reduced: New Essays on Reduction, Explanation, and Causation. Oxford University Press.
    The main message of the paper is that there is a disconnect between what many philosophers of mind think of as the scientific practice of reductive or reductionist explanation, and what the most relevant scientific work is actually like. I will sketch what I see as a better view, drawing on various ideas in recent philosophy of science. I then import these ideas into the philosophy of mind, to see what difference they make.1 At the end of the paper I (...)
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2008). Recurrent Transient Underdetermination and the Glass Half Full. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 137 (1):141 - 148.
    Kyle Stanford’s arguments against scientific realism are assessed, with a focus on the underdetermination of theory by evidence. I argue that discussions of underdetermination have neglected a possible symmetry which may ameliorate the situation.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2007). Conditions for Evolution by Natural Selection. Journal of Philosophy 104 (10):489-516.
    Both biologists and philosophers often make use of simple verbal formulations of necessary and sufficient conditions for evolution by natural selection (ENS). Such summaries go back to Darwin's Origin of Species (especially the "Recapitulation"), but recent ones are more compact.1 Perhaps the most commonly cited formulation is due to Lewontin.2 These summaries tend to have three or four conditions, where the core requirement is a combination of variation, heredity, and fitness differences. The summaries are employed in several ways. First, they (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2007). Is It a Revolution? Biology and Philosophy 22 (3):429-437.
    Jablonka and Lamb's claim that evolutionary biology is undergoing a ‘revolution’ is queried. But the very concept of revolutionary change has uncertain application to a field organized in the manner of contemporary biology. The explanatory primacy of sequence properties is also discussed.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2007). Information in Biology. In David L. Hull & Michael Ruse (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to the Philosophy of Biology. Cambridge University Press. 103--119.
    The concept of information has acquired a strikingly prominent role in contemporary biology. This trend is especially marked within genetics, but it has also become important in other areas, such as evolutionary theory and developmental biology, particularly where these fields border on genetics. The most distinctive biological role for informational concepts, and the one that has generated the most discussion, is in the description of the relations between genes and the various structures and processes that genes play a role in (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Peter Godfrey-Smith & Kim Sterelny (2007). Biological Information. In Thaddeus Metz (ed.), Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2006). Local Interaction, Multilevel Selection, and Evolutionary Transitions. Biological Theory 1 (4):372-380.
    Group-structured and neighbor-structured populations are compared, especially in relation to multilevel selection theory and evolutionary transitions. I argue that purely neighborstructured populations, which can feature the evolution of altruism, are not properly described in multilevel terms. The ability to “gestalt switch” between individualist and multilevel frameworks is then linked to the investigation of “major transitions” in evolution. Some explanatory concepts are naturally linked to one framework or the other, but a full understanding is best achieved via the use of both.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2006). Theories and Models in Metaphysics. The Harvard Review of Philosophy 14 (1):4-19.
    Metaphysics is once again a thriving subdiscipline within philosophy, despite a long tradition of challenges to the very viability of the metaphysical enterprise. The criticisms have not so much been satisfactorily answered, as shouldered aside by the vigorous development of the field. Some focused meta-theoretic discussion has recently arisen within mainstream metaphysics.1 The present paper is written more from an outsider's vantage point. I attempt to give a new meta-theory for some parts of metaphysics. The central claim is that much (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2006). The Strategy of Model-Based Science. Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):725-740.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Peter Godfrey-Smith (2005). Folk Psychology as a Model. Philosophers' Imprint 5 (6):1-16.
    I argue that everyday folk-psychological skill might best be explained in terms of the deployment of something like a model, in a specific sense drawn from recent philosophy of science. Theoretical models in this sense do not make definite commitments about the systems they are used to understand; they are employed with a particular kind of flexibility. This analysis is used to dissolve the eliminativism debate of the 1980s, and to transform a number of other questions about the status and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
1 — 50 / 104