Guanxi is perceived as a major determinant for successful business in China. This research paper investigates the importance of Guanxi from the Hong Kong Businessmen's viewpoint. It confirms previous findings in this area and adds on new dimensions. Therefore, practitioners and academics may further refine their knowledge in this subject.
Drawing on the general ethics and social psychology literature, this study presents a model to delineate the major factors likely to affect consumers’ intentions to bring their own shopping bags when visiting a supermarket (called “bring your own bags” or “BYOB” intention). The model is empirically validated using a survey of 250 Chinese consumers. Overall, the findings support the hypothesized direct influence of teleological evaluation and habit on BYOB (...) intention, as well as that of deontological evaluation and teleological evaluation on ethical judgment about the BYOB practice. Teleological evaluation exerts a much stronger influence on ethical judgment than does deontological evaluation. In addition, the findings reveal that consumers who perceive the BYOB practice to be more important are more inclined to rely on their ethical judgment to derive their BYOB intention. Academically, these findings provide some encouraging evidence for the application of general ethics theories to explain green consumption-related practices. Practically, the findings also suggest that a utilitarian approach (i.e., emphasizing the consequences of BYOB) may represent an effective means for the Chinese government to promote BYOB practice among consumers. (shrink)
The deformation behavior of T- and T-cut single crystal solid solution of Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3?6% PbTiO3 (PZN?6%PT) in both unpoled and poled states has been investigated by nanoindentation. Nanoindentation experiments reveal that material pile-up and local damage around the indentation impressions are observed at ultra-low loads. These pile-ups and local damage cause a pop-in event (i.e. a sudden increase in displacement at an approximately constant load) in the nanoindentation load?displacement curve (P?h curve). Detailed studies of the relationships between indentation load (P), displacement (...) (h) and harmonic contact stiffness (S) suggest that there is a surface layer, possibly due to crystal fabrication processes, which possesses different mechanical properties from the interior. The thickness of this surface layer is estimated to be approximately 300 nm. Furthermore, it is found that T-cut crystal is stiffer than T-cut crystal. On the other hand, both T- and T-cut crystals in unpoled state possess lower contact stiffness than poled crystals. This finding suggests that poling improved the mechanical property of the crystal. In summary, poled T-cut crystals have an elastic modulus of (107 ± 6) GPa and a hardness of (5.1 ± 0.4) GPa. In contrast, the modulus for T-cut crystals is not constant but increases with indentation depth. (shrink)