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Profile: Peter R King (Nottingham University)
Profile: Peter J. King (Oxford University)
  1. Peter King (1995). Abelard's Intentionalist Ethics. Modern Schoolman 72 (2-3):213-231.
  2. Peter J. King (2008). No Plaything: Ethical Issues Concerning Child-Pornography. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 11 (3):327 - 345.
    Academic discussion of pornography is generally restricted to issues arising from the depiction of adults. I argue that child-pornography is a more complex matter, and that generally accepted moral judgements concerning pornography in general have to be revised when children are involved. I look at the question of harm to the children involved, the consumers, and society in general, at the question of blame, and at the possibility of a morally acceptable form of child-pornography. My approach involves an objectivist meta-ethics (...)
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  3. Peter King, The Cambridge Companion to Duns Scotus.
    [1] In twelve quite demanding chapters, outstanding scholars provide an overall view of the key issues of Scotus’s philosophical thought. To this a very concise introduction is added, concerning the life and works of John Duns (very good, especially the survey of works and the information on critical editions etc.). Throughout the book, I find the information clear and the difficult topics well explained. Moreover, the volume gives a quick entrance to the vast literature. Among the topics discussed are: ‘Metaphysics’ (...)
     
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  4.  24
    Peter King (2001). John Buridan’s Solution to the Problem of Universals. In J. M. M. H. Thijssen & Jack Zupko (eds.), The Metaphysics and Natural Philosophy of John Buridan. Brill 1-28.
  5.  39
    Peter King (2007). Abelard on Mental Language. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (2):169-187.
    I argue that Abelard was the author of the first theory of mental language in the Middle Ages, devising a “language of thought” to provide the semanticsfor ordinary languages, based on the idea that thoughts have linguistic character. I examine Abelard’s semantic framework with special attention to his principleof compositionality (the meaning of a whole is a function of the meanings of the parts); the results are then applied to Abelard’s distinction between complete andincomplete expressions, as well as the distinction (...)
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  6.  22
    Peter King, Thomas Hobbes's Children.
    Children therefore, whether they be brought up and preserved by the father, or by the mother, or by whomsoever, are in most absolute subjection to him or her, that so bringeth them up, or preserveth them. And they may alienate them, that is, assign his or her dominion, by selling, or giving them, in adoption or servitude to others; or may pawn them for hostages, kill them for rebellion, or sacrifice them for peace, by the law of nature, when he (...)
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  7. Jean Buridan & Peter King (1985). Jean Buridan's Logic the Treatise on Supposition, the Treatise on Consequences.
  8. Peter King (2011). Emotions. In Brian Davies & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas. Oxford University Press
  9.  97
    Peter King (2005). Duns Scotus on Singular Essences. Medioevo 30:111-137.
    Socrates, for example, has an essence that includes more than his human nature, which is his specific essence; he has an essence proper to himself alone, an essence that cannot be had by anyone else. Although Socrates does have singular (individualized) forms, his singular essence is not a form—there is no form Socrateity for the singular essence parallelling the form humanity for the specific essence. Instead, Socrates has his singular essence in consequence of being an individual, that is, in consequence (...)
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  10.  50
    Peter J. King (1993). Lycan on Lewis and Meinong. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 93:193 - 201.
    In his 1988 review of On the Plurality of Worlds (Lycan [1988]), William Lycan argued that what he called Lewis's 'mad-dog modal realism' (also 'rape-and-loot modal realism' and 'nuclear-holocaust modal realism' - I suspect that some reference to the supposed extremity of Lewis's position is intended) rested upon an unanalysed modal notion. Lycan accepted that actualists all seemed to be stuck with such unanalysed notions (adding that his own was the notion of compatibility as applied to pairs of properties), but (...)
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  11.  70
    Peter R. King (2010). Perception, Hallucination, and Illusion. Philosophical Psychology 23 (5):715-719.
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  12.  91
    Peter King (2005). Why Isn't the Mind-Body Problem Medieval? In Forming the Mind. Springer-Verlag
    One answer: Because medieval philosophy is just the continuation of ancient philosophy by other means—the Latin language and the Catholic Church— and, as Wallace Matson pointed out some time ago, the mind-body problem isn’t ancient.
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  13.  79
    Peter King (2003). Parapsychology Without the 'Para' (or the Psychology). Think 3 (3):43-54.
    possible, your investigation is unlikely ever to get off the ground), there’s no such excuse for philosophers. The philosopher should be unrestricted by fashions in thought, including the unquestioning acceptance of whatever scientific theories are currently dominant. The fact is, however, that in this field and in the philosophy of mind, many.
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  14.  78
    Peter King, The History of Logic.
    Aristotle was the first thinker to devise a logical system. He drew upon the emphasis on universal definition found in Socrates, the use of reductio ad absurdum in Zeno of Elea, claims about propositional structure and negation in Parmenides and Plato, and the body of argumentative techniques found in legal reasoning and geometrical proof. Yet the theory presented in Aristotle’s five treatises known as the Organon—the Categories, the De interpretatione, the Prior Analytics, the Posterior Analytics, and the Sophistical Refutations—goes far (...)
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  15.  70
    Peter King (2010). Mediaeval Intentionality and Pseudo-Intentionality. Quaestio 10 (1):25-44.
    Wilfrid Sellars charged that mediaeval philosophers confused the genuine intentionality of thinking with what he called the “pseudo-intentionality” of sensing. I argue that Sellars’s charge rests on importing a form of mind/body dualism that was foreign to the Middle Ages, but that he does touch on a genuine difficulty for mediaeval theories, namely whether they have the conceptual resources to distinguish between intentionality as a feature of consciousness and mere discriminative responses to the environment. In the end, it seems, intentionality (...)
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  16.  69
    Peter King & Nathan Ballantyne (2009). Augustine on Testimony. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (2):pp. 195-214.
  17.  70
    Peter King, Scotus's Rejection of Anselm.
    stance, Scotus adopts Anselm’s notion of a ‘(pure) perfection’ and elevates it to a fundamental principle of his metaphysics. Again, he distills Anselm’s Ontological Argument into something like its original Monologion components, and then treats each component part of the argument with a rigor and attention to detail far beyond anything Anselm suggested. In the case of Anselm’s so-called ‘two-wills’ theory, however, Scotus’s revisions are so extensive that they amount to a rejection of Anselm’s account, even though Scotus retains some (...)
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  18.  66
    Peter King & Nathan Ballantyne (2009). Augustine on Testimony. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (2):195-214.
    Philosophical work on testimony has flourished in recent years. Testimony roughly involves a source affirming or stating something in an attempt to transfer information to one or more persons. It is often said that the topic of testimony has been neglected throughout most of the history of philosophy, aside from contributions by David Hume (1711–1776) and Thomas Reid (1710–1796).1 True as this may be, Hume and Reid aren’t the only ones who deserve a tip of the hat for recognizing the (...)
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  19.  24
    Peter King (1987). Jean Buridan's Philosophy of Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 18 (2):109-132.
    introduced the concept of effective demand in the nascent science of economics; his discussions of astronomy were acute enough to raise Duhem’s interest. Neither are Buridan’s credentials as a nominalist in doubt, although investigation into his precise relation to William of Ockham continues: he rejected all abstract entities, whether universals, common natures, the complexe significabile, or types above and beyond tokens; for Buridan, every thing which exists is a concrete individual. His anti-realism included an epistemological component as well, for Buridan (...)
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  20.  47
    Peter King, Siger of Brabant: The Eternity of the World.
    phers] to be a demonstration of the fact that the human species (and in every case the species of all generable and corruptible individuals) began to exist at a time when previously it had not existed at all, a question is raised: whether, following the Philosopher’s method, the human species (and in every case any given species of generable and corruptible [individuals]) began to exist at a time when previously it had not existed at all.
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  21.  26
    Peter King (2005). Augustine's Encounter with Neoplatonism. Modern Schoolman 82 (3):213-226.
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  22.  56
    Peter King, Did Marx Hold a Labor Theory of Value?
    In the first volume of Capital, Marx introduces a labor theory of value. The theory is supposed to form the basis of his “laying bare” the “inner workings” of capitalism. The theory rests on two claims, and at the outset Marx uses it to explain four features of capitalist production. Yet by the end of the final volume of Capital, he abandons both claims and offers alternative accounts of all four features of capitalism. We hold that Marx’s introduction of the (...)
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  23.  32
    Peter King (1992). Duns Scotus on the Common Nature and the Individual Differentia. Philosophical Topics 20 (2):51-76.
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  24.  16
    Peter King (2000). The Problem of Individuation in the Middle Ages. Theoria 66 (2):159-184.
  25.  49
    Peter King (1996). From Intellectus Verus/Falsus to the Dictum Propositionis: The Semantics of Peter Abelard and His Circle. Vivarium 34 (1):15-40.
    In his commentary on Aristotle’s Peri hermeneias,1 Abelard distinguishes the form of an expression2 (oratio) from what it says, that is, its content. The content of an expression is its understanding (intellectus). This distinction is surely the most well-known and central idea in Abelard’s commentary. It provides him with the opportunity to distinguish statements (enuntiationes) from other kinds of expressions without implying a diference in their content, since the ability of a statement to signify something true or false (verum vel (...)
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  26.  45
    Peter King, Angelic Sin in Augustine and Anselm.
    Augustine and Anselm form a common tradition in mediæval thought about angelic sin, a tradition rooted in patristic thought and centred on their attempts to give a philosophically coherent account of moral choice. Augustine concentrates on the reasons and causes of angelic sin, especially in reference to free will; Anselm adopts Augustine’s analysis and extends it to issues about the rationality of sinful choice. Each takes Lucifer’s primal sin to be the paradigm case. Lucifer, undistracted by bodily desires and unencumbered (...)
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  27.  49
    Peter King (2007). Boethius: The First of the Scholastics. Carmina Philosophiae 16:23-50.
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  28.  48
    Peter King (1994). Buridan's Theory of Individuation. In Jorge J. E. Gracia (ed.), Individuation in Scholasticism. The Later Middle Ages and the Counter-Reformation, 1150-1650. 397-430.
    cause other than the very individual itself, and thus there is no ‘metaphysical’ problem of individuation at all—individuality, unlike generality, is primitive and needs no explanation. He supports this view in two ways. First, he argues that there are no nonindividual entities, whether existing in their own right or as metaphysical constituents either of things or in things, and hence that no real principle or cause of individuality (other than the individual itself) is required. Second, he offers a ‘semantic’ interpretation (...)
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  29.  37
    Peter King, William of Ockham: Ordinatio 1 D. 2 Q.
    That it is: According to the Commentator, Met. 7 com. 11 ([Iuntina 8 fol. 76r]): The definition is the same as the substance of the thing. Hence it is in some way outside the soul, and consequently all its parts are in some way outside the soul. But the definition is composed of universals. Hence [the universal is outside the soul].
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  30.  46
    Peter King (2007). Damaged Goods. Faith and Philosophy 24 (3):247-267.
    The Doctrine of Original Sin seems to require that human nature has literally undergone a change from its prelapsarian to its postlapsarian condition.It is not clear that this claim makes sense. How can human nature, the feature(s) in virtue of which human beings are what they are, change in time? (Think of the parallel claim about √2.) I consider three medieval attempts to resolve this problem: (1) Augustine’s two theories about shared human nature; (2) Anselm’s proposal that original sin is (...)
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  31.  43
    Peter King, Thinking About Things: Singular Thought in the Middle Ages.
    In one corner Socrates; in the other, on the mat, his cat Felix. Socrates, of course, thinks (correctly) that Felix the Cat is on the mat. But there’s the rub. For Socrates to think that Felix is on the mat, he has to be able to think about Felix, that is, he has to have some sort of cognitive grasp of an individual — and not just any individual, but Felix himself. How is that possible? What is going on when (...)
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  32.  6
    Peter King (1983). St. Thomas Aquinas. International Philosophical Quarterly 23 (2):227-229.
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  33.  15
    Peter J. King (1995). Other Times. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 73 (4):532 – 547.
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  34.  1
    Peter King (2002). Late Scholastic Theories of the Passions: Controversies in the Thomist Tradition. In Henrik Lagerlund & Mikko Yrjonsuri (eds.), Emotions and Choice From Boethius to Descartes. Kluwer 229--258.
  35.  31
    Peter King (2008). The Inner Cathedral: Mental Architecture in High Scholasticism. Vivarium 46 (3):253-274.
    Contemporary philosophy of mind is much concerned with issues pertaining to ‘mental architecture’ — describing how mental processes are organized, typically by identifying sub-personal functional mechanisms which causally interact, often through the intermediary of a mental representation, thereby giving rise to psychological phenomena. Such internal mental mechanisms can be quite low-level and operate with a degree of relative independence; if so, they may be considered ‘modules’ or minimal centres of mental activity. A module or a set of modules may be (...)
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  36.  39
    Peter King (2009). Emotion in Medieval Thought. In Peter Goldie (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Emotion. OUP Oxford
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  37.  35
    Peter King, Readings in African Philosophy.
    Some years ago I reviewed a collection of papers called African Philosophy: The Essential Readings , edited by Serequeberhan. My last comment in that review was the expression of the hope for collections of papers that would give an insight into what's going on in African philosophy, rather than into the debate over the existence and nature of African philosophy. My concern is echoed by the last line of a letter printed in the present volume of readings: "Hitherto most of (...)
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  38.  36
    Klaus Jacobi, Christian Strub & Peter King (1996). From Intellectus Verus/Falsus to the Dictum Propositionis: The Semantics of Peter Abelard and His Circle. Vivarium 34 (1):15-40.
  39. Peter King (2002). Aquinas on the Passions. In Brian Davies (ed.), Thomas Aquinas: Contemporary Philosophical Perspectives. OUP Usa
     
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  40.  34
    Peter King, Peter Abelard. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Peter Abelard (1079 – 21 April 1142) [‘Abailard’ or ‘Abaelard’ or ‘Habalaarz’ and so on] was the pre-eminent philosopher and theologian of the twelfth century. The teacher of his generation, he was also famous as a poet and a musician. Prior to the recovery of Aristotle, he brought the native Latin tradition in philosophy to its highest pitch. His genius was evident in all he did. He is, arguably, the greatest logician of the Middle Ages and is equally famous as (...)
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  41.  34
    Peter King (1994). Against Tolerance. Philosophy Now 11:23-24.
    I frequently have trouble with words that other people use with what seems to be blithe understanding (friends tell me that the problem is that I think too much about words, but I find that not thinking doesn't really seem to help). In the case of `tolerance', though, I have no trouble at all - it's a wishy-washy weasel, a mealy-mouthed mink of a word. I suppose I don't want to claim that it has no decent place in the language (...)
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  42.  21
    Peter King, Offprint From.
    B      opens his discussion of the problem of universals, in his second commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge, with a destructive dilemma: genera and species either exist or are concepts; but they can neither exist nor be soundly conceived; therefore the enquiry into them should be abandoned (In Isag. maior . ). Boethius’ strategy to get around this dilemma is well known. He follows the lead of Alexander of Aphrodisias, distinguishing several ways in which genera and species (...)
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  43.  31
    Peter King (2009). Abelard's Answers to Porphyry. Documenti E Studi 18:249-270.
    Mox de generibus et speciebus illud quidem siue subsistant siue in solis nudis purisque intellectibus posita sint siue ipsa subsistentia sint corporalia an incorporalia, et utrum separata an in sensibilibus et circa ea constantia, dicere recusabo. As regards genera and species, for the present I shall refuse to say whether they subsist or are postulated in understandings that are alone and bare and pure; or whether, if they subsist, they are corporeal or incorporeal; and whether they are separated from sensibles (...)
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  44.  30
    Peter R. King (2009). B. Dainton: The Phenomenal Self. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 71 (2):283-288.
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  45.  26
    Peter King, A (Very) Little About Me.
    I was born in Boston, Lincolnshire (actually in Wyberton West Hospital, which no longer exists), educated (if that's the word) first at St Mary's Primary School (run by nuns at the time, which probably explains a lot about my later career if you're a Freudian, which I'm not. Its new incarnation is here), then at Boston Grammar School . At the latter I successfully navigated 'O'-levels, but nearly half-way through my 'A'-levels I developed a number of extra-curricular interests which distracted (...)
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  46.  22
    Peter King (2005). Le rôle des concepts selon Ockham. Philosophiques 32 (2):435-447.
    Philosophiques 32 (2005), 435-447. [An English version is available here.].
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  47.  18
    Peter King (2003). Two Conceptions of Experience. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 11 (2):203-226.
  48.  18
    Peter King (1998). Augustine on the Impossibility of Teaching. Metaphilosophy 29 (3):179-195.
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  49.  21
    Peter King (1987). Towards a Theory of the General Will. History of Philosophy Quarterly 4 (1):33 - 51.
    each associate, and be means of which each unites himself to all, obeying only himself and still remaining as free as before. [The Solution]: Each of us puts in common his person and his entire power under the supreme direction of the general will (la..
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  50.  21
    Peter King (2008). The Inner Cathedral: Mental Architecture in High Scholasticism. Vivarium 46 (3):253-274.
    Mediaeval psychological theory was a “faculty psychology”: a confederation of semiautonomous sub-personal agents, the interaction of which constitutes our psychological experience. One such faculty was intellective appetite, that is, the will. On what grounds was the will taken to be a distinct faculty? After a brief survey of Aristotle's criteria for identifying and distinguishing mental faculties, I look in some detail at the mainstream mediaeval view, given clear expression by Thomas Aquinas, and then at the dissenting views of John Duns (...)
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