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Peter Simons [162]Peter M. Simons [42]
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Profile: Peter Simons (Trinity College Dublin)
  1. Peter M. Simons (1987/2000). Parts: A Study in Ontology. Oxford University Press.
    Although the relationship of part to whole is one of the most fundamental there is, this is the first full-length study of this key concept. Showing that mereology, or the formal theory of part and whole, is essential to ontology, Simons surveys and critiques previous theories--especially the standard extensional view--and proposes a new account that encompasses both temporal and modal considerations. Simons's revised theory not only allows him to offer fresh solutions to long-standing problems, but also has far-reaching consequences (...)
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  2. Kevin Mulligan, Peter Simons & Barry Smith (1984). Truth-Makers. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (3):287 - 321.
    A realist theory of truth for a class of sentence holds that there are entities in virtue of which these sentences are true or false. We call such entities ‘truthmakers’ and contend that those for a wide range of sentences about the real world are moments (dependent particulars). Since moments are unfamiliar we provide a definition and a brief philosophical history, anchoring them in our ontology by showing that they are objects of perception. The core of our theory is the (...)
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  3.  73
    Peter Simons (2005). Negatives, Numbers, and Necessity Some Worries About Armstrong's Version of Truthmaking. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 83 (2):253 – 261.
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  4.  61
    Peter Simons (1994). Particulars in Particular Clothing. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (3):553 - 575.
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  5.  68
    Peter Simons (1994). Particulars in Particular Clothing: Three Trope Theories of Substance. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (3):553-575.
  6. Peter Simons (2009). Vectors and Beyond: Geometric Algebra and its Philosophical Significance. Dialectica 63 (4):381-395.
  7. Peter Simons (2010). Relations and Truthmaking. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 84 (1):199-213.
    The metaphysics of relations is still in its infancy. We use the idea of truthmaking to gain purchase on this metaphysics. Assuming a modest supervenience conception of truthmaking, where true relational predications require multiply dependent truthmakers, these are indispensable relations . Though some such relations are required, none are needed for internal relatedness, nor for several other kinds of relational predication. Discerning the metaphysically basic kinds of relations is fraught with uncertainties, but must be tackled if progress is to be (...)
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  8.  78
    Peter Simons (2004). Extended Simples. The Monist 87 (3):371--85.
    I argue that the assumptions that physically basic things are either mereologically atomic, or that they are continuous and there are no atoms, both face difficult conceptual problems. Both views tend to presuppose a largely unquestioned assumption, that things have parts corresponding to the geometric parts of the regions they occupy. To avoid these problems I propose a third view, that physically simple things occupy a finite volume without themselves having parts. This view is examined enough to tease out some (...)
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  9. Peter Simons (2008). Why the Negations of False Atomic Sentences Are True. Essays on Armstrong. Acta Philosophica Fennica 84:15 - 36.
     
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  10. Peter Simons (2006). Real Wholes, Real Parts: Mereology Without Algebra. Journal of Philosophy 103 (12):597-613.
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  11. Peter Simons (1992). Philosophy and Logic in Central Europe From Bolzano to Tarski. Kluwer.
  12. Peter Simons (2003). Bocheński and Balance: System and History in Analytic Philosophy. Studies in East European Thought 55 (4):281-297.
    Using the work of Józef Bocheski as apositive example, this paper sets out the casefor a balanced use of historical knowledge indoing analytic philosophy. Between the twoextremes of relativizing historicism, whichdenies absolute truth, and arrogant scientism,which denies any constructive role for thehistory of ideas in philosophy, lies a viamedia in which historical reflection onconcepts and their history is placed at theservice of the system of cognitive philosophy.Knowledge of the history of philosophy, whilenot a sine qua non, can empower analyticphilosophy to (...)
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  13.  74
    Peter Simons (2000). Continuants and Occurrents, I. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 74 (1):59–75.
    [Peter Simons] Commonsense ontology contains both continuants and occurrents, but are continuants necessary? I argue that they are neither occurrents nor easily replaceable by them. The worst problem for continuants is the question in virtue of what a given continuant exists at a given time. For such truthmakers we must have recourse to occurrents, those vital to the continuant at that time. Continuants are, like abstract objects, invariants under equivalences over occurrents. But they are not abstract, and their being invariants (...)
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  14. Peter M. Simons (1985). Coincidence of Things of a Kind. Mind 94 (373):70-75.
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  15. Kevin Mulligan, Peter Simons & Barry Smith (2006). What's Wrong with Contemporary Philosophy? Topoi 25 (1-2):63-67.
    Philosophy in the West divides into three parts: Analytic Philosophy (AP), Continental Philosophy (CP), and History of Philosophy (HP). But all three parts are in a bad way. AP is sceptical about the claim that philosophy can be a science, and hence is uninterested in the real world. CP is never pursued in a properly theoretical way, and its practice is tailor-made for particular political and ethical conclusions. HP is mostly developed on a regionalist basis: what is studied is determined (...)
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  16. Myles Burnyeat, Richard Gaskin, Joël Biard, Peter Simons, Victor Caston, Richard Sorabji, Christof Rapp, Hermann Weidemann, Dorothea Frede, Claude Panaccio, Elizabeth Karger, Robert Pasnau & Cyrille Michon (2001). Ancient and Medieval Theories of Intentionality. Brill.
    This volume, including sixteen contributions, analyses ancient and medieval theories of intentionality in various contexts: perception, imagination, and intellectual thinking. It sheds new light on classical theories and examines neglected sources, both Greek and Latin.
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  17. Peter Simons (1997). Higher-Order Quantification and Ontological Commitment. Dialectica 51 (4):255–271.
    George Boolos's employment of plurals to give an ontologically innocent interpretation of monadic higher‐order quantification continues and extends a minority tradition in thinking about quantification and ontological commitment. An especially prominent member of that tradition is Stanislaw Leśniewski, and shall first draw attention to this work and its relation to that of Boolos. Secondly I shall stand up briefly for plurals as logically respectable expressions, while noting their limitations in offering ontologically deflationary accounts of higher‐order quantification. Thirdly I shall focus (...)
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  18.  62
    Peter M. Simons (1998). Farewell to Substance: A Differentiated Leave-Taking. Ratio 11 (3):235–252.
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  19.  10
    Peter Simons (1992). Logical Atomism and its Ontological Refinement: A Defense. In Kevin Mulligan (ed.), Language, Truth and Ontology. Kluwer 157--179.
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  20.  74
    Peter Simons (2003). The Universe. Ratio 16 (3):236–250.
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  21. Peter Simons (2000). Identity Through Time and Trope Bundles. Topoi 19 (2):147-155.
    This paper brings together two theories that I have propounded separately elsewhere. The first is the view that concrete individuals are constituted completely by tropes, that they are trope bundles. The second and more recently developed theory is that of the two major categories of concrete individuals, continuants and occurrents, the latter are ontologically more basic than the former and that continuants are to be viewed as invariants among occurrents under equivalence relations. The latter theory embodies on its own an (...)
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  22.  71
    Peter M. Simons (1978). Lewy on C. I. Lewis and Entailment. Analysis 38 (3):126 - 129.
    In "meaning and modality" lewy claims the only ground for rejecting disjunctive syllogism as acceptable for entailment is rejection of bivalence. Examining lewis's 'proofs' of the paradoxes of strict implication he suggests the proof of 'if a then (b or not-B)' suppresses a premiss, Restoration of which blocks the paradox, Whereas the proof of 'if (a and not-A) then b' cannot be so blocked. But the paradoxes are dual, So he should have treated them dually by restoring a suppressed disjunct (...)
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  23.  4
    Peter Simons (2014). Linguistic Complexity and Argumentative Unity: A Lvov-Warsaw School Supplement. Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 36 (1):101-119.
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  24.  35
    Peter Simons (2013). Vague Kinds and Biological Nominalism. Metaphysica 14 (2):275-282.
    Among biological kinds, the most important are species. But species, however defined, have vague boundaries, both synchronically owing to hybridization and ongoing speciation, and diachronically owing to genetic drift and genealogical continuity despite speciation. It is argued that the solution to the problems of species and their vague boundaries is to adopt a thoroughgoing nominalism in regard to all biological taxa, from species to domains. The base entities are individual organisms: populations of these compose species and higher taxa. This accommodates (...)
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  25. Peter Simons (1997). On Being the Same Ship(S)--Or Electron(S): Reply to Hughes. Mind 106 (424):761-767.
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  26.  20
    Peter Simons (2015). Bolzano's Monadology. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (6):1074-1084.
    Bernard Bolzano, known in his lifetime as ‘the Bohemian Leibniz’, is best known as a logician and mathematician, but he also developed a monadology in which the monads, which he called ‘atoms’, have spatial location and physical properties. This essay summarizes and assesses his monadology.
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  27.  76
    Peter Simons (2001). Review of M. Steiner, _The Applicability of Mathematics as a Philosophical Problem. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (1):181-184.
  28. Peter Simons (2002). Tropes, Relational. Conceptus: Zeitschrift Fur Philosophie 35 (86-88):53-73.
     
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  29. Peter Simons (2000). Truth-Maker Optimalism. Logique Et Analyse 43 (169-170):17-41.
     
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  30.  33
    Peter Simons (1997). Bolzano on Collections. Grazer Philosophische Studien 53:87-108.
    Bolzano's theory of collections (Inbegriffe) has usually been taken as a rudimentary set theory. More recently, Frank Krickel has claimed it is a mereology. I find both interpretations wanting. Bolzano's theory is, as I show, extremely broad in scope; it is in fact a general theory of collective entities, including the concrete wholes of mereology, classes-as-many, and many empirical collections. By extending Bolzano's ideas to embrace the three factors of kind, components and mode of combination, one may develop a coherent (...)
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  31. Peter Simons, Why God Does Not Exist.
    Before arguing for the nonexistence of God let me say what kind of God I am denying. It is a God as broadly conceived in the Mosaic monotheistic tradition of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, as supreme being. This God has two chief characteristics: supreme power and supreme goodness. As powerful, God is the agency responsible for creating and/or sustaining the world. As good, God is the source and supreme exemplar of positive value or goodness. It follows that as a good (...)
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  32. Peter M. Simons (1978). Logic and Common Nouns. Analysis 38 (4):161 - 167.
    Common nouns enter into modern predicate logic only as parts of predicates, While in lesniewski's 'ontology' they are classified together with proper nouns as 'names'. A system of natural deduction rules is presented which sharply separates proper from common nouns, Within which lesniewski's calculus is contained as a logic solely of common nouns, Together with copula, Identity predicate, Definite article, And quantifiers 'any', 'every', 'some' and 'no'. The fragment developed is closer to the natural syntax of english than either frege's (...)
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  33.  40
    Peter Simons (1992). Why is There so Little Sense in Grundgesetze? Mind 101 (404):753-766.
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  34.  45
    Peter M. Simons (1982). Token Resistance. Analysis 42 (4):195 - 203.
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  35.  13
    Peter M. Simons & J. N. Mohanty (1984). Husserl and Frege. Philosophical Quarterly 34 (136):420.
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  36.  52
    Peter M. Simons (1987). Frege's Theory of Real Numbers. History and Philosophy of Logic 8 (1):25--44.
    Frege's theory of real numbers has undeservedly received almost no attention, in part because what we have is only a fragment. Yet his theory is interesting for the light it throws on logicism, and it is quite different from standard modern approaches. Frege polemicizes vigorously against his contemporaries, sketches the main features of his own radical alternative, and begins the formal development. This paper summarizes and expounds what he has to say, and goes on to reconstruct the most important steps (...)
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  37.  23
    Peter Simons (1995). Meinong's Theory of Sense and Reference. Grazer Philosophische Studien 50:171-186.
    Gilbert Ryle wrote that "Meaning-theory expanded just when and just in so far as it was released from that 'Fido'-Fido box, the lid of which was never even lifted by Meinong". This paper sets out to relieve Ryle's oversimplification about Meinong and the role of meaning theory in his thought. One step away from canine simplicity about meaning is the recognition of a distinction between sense and reference, such as we find in Frege, Husserl, and the early Russell. In Über (...)
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  38. Wilhelm Baumgartner & Peter Simons (1994). Brentano's Mereology. Axiomathes 1 (1):55-76.
  39.  38
    Peter M. Simons (1982). On Understanding Leśniewski. History and Philosophy of Logic 3 (2):165-191.
    This paper assesses those features of Lesniewski's Ontology which make it difficult to understand for logicians accustomed to more orthodox systems of logic. It is seen that certain general features of presentation and content can, by selective acceptance or modification, be accommodated with a fairly orthodox viewpoint. The chief difficulty lies in the interpretation of Le?niewski's names, and the constant ???. Four interpretations are suggested in turn: Le?niewski's names as monadic predicates; as class terms; as common nouns; and as empty, (...)
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  40.  80
    Peter Simons (1991). Ramsey, Particulars, and Universals. Theoria 57 (3):150-161.
    My subject is the arguments brought by Ramsey in his paper “ Universals ” ’ against the generally held distinction between particulars and universals. This paper is provocative, suggestive, and radical, and it is humbling to reflect that its author was just 22 years old when it was published in Mind. As so often with Ramsey, the paper is superficially very easy to follow and hardly requires any introduction other than the imperative, “Read it through”, but underneath the surface are (...)
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  41.  18
    Peter Simons, A Golden Age in Science and Letters: The Lwów–Warsaw Philosophical School, 1895–1939.
    The University of Warsaw has a splendid modern library with 60,000 m 2 of floor space. It resembles a shopping centre. The long and elegant modern building on ulica Dobra, on the low ground between the old University and the Vistula, was opened in 1998 replacing the previous hopelessly inadequate facilities. It has an imposing sequence of copper-green “great texts” on its front side in Greek, Arabic, Sanskrit, Hebrew, Latin, Polish, music, and mathematics. These are international symbols, posting Warsaw’s claim (...)
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  42.  45
    Peter M. Simons (1987). Brentano's Reform of Logic. Topoi 6 (1):25-38.
  43.  30
    Peter Simons (2000). How to Exist at a Time When You Have No Temporal Parts. The Monist 83 (3):419-436.
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  44.  89
    Peter Simons, Metaphysics: Contemporary Themes.
    Confounding earlier predictions of naysayers and sceptics, by the beginning of the twenty-first century, metaphysics had re-emerged for the first time in decades as a vital, progressive and exciting branch of philosophy. Although the most strident criticisms came from early analytic philosophers such as Carnap, it is analytical metaphysics that has led the way. But rather than trace the stages of the revival of metaphysics, we consider a spread of contemporary themes which have been especially fruitful in expanding the circle (...)
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  45.  53
    Peter Simons (1998). Metaphysical Systematics: A Lesson From Whitehead. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 48 (2-3):377-393.
    Despite its lack of influence in analytical philosophy, and independently of its content as a process philosophy, Whitehead's system in Process and Reality affords a valuable lesson on how to pursue revisionary systematic metaphysics. This paper argues the case generally for metaphysical revision and system, describes the structure of Whitehead's categorial scheme, endorses his idea of an ultimate which is not an entity, and outlines an alternative, “digital” ultimate or basis composed of several analytical factors. [I]n the absence of a (...)
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  46.  7
    Peter Simons (2009). Twardowski On Truth. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 4 (1).
    Of those students of Franz Brentano who went on to become professional philo­sophers, Kazimierz Twardowski (1866-1938) is much less well-known than his older contemporaries Edmund Husserl and Alexius Meinong. Yet in terms of the importance of his contribution to the history of philosophy, he ranks among Brentano’s students behind at most those two, possibly only behind Husserl. The chief contribution of Twardowski to global philosophy came indirectly, through the influence of his theory of truth on his students, and they on (...)
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  47.  59
    Peter M. Simons (1981). Brand on Event Identity. Analysis 41 (4):195 - 198.
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  48. Peter M. Simons & Jan Wolenski (1989). De Veritate: Austro-Polish Contributions to the Theory of Truth From Brentano to Tarski. In Klemens Szaniawski (ed.), The Vienna Circle and the Lvov-Warsaw School. Dordrecht
  49.  29
    Peter Simons, Stanisław Leśniewski. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  50.  5
    Peter Simons (1995). Meaning and Language. In Barry Smith & David Woodruff Smith (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Husserl (Cambridge Companions to Philosophy). Cambridge University Press 106.
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