Search results for 'Petra Schulz' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Petra Schulz (2003). Factivity: Its Nature and Acquisition. M. Niemeyer.
     
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  2. Walter Schulz & Helmut Fahrenbach (1973). Wirklichkeit Und Reflexion Walter Schulz Z. 60. Geburtstag.
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  3. D. Schulz (1997). M. Puetz,(Hg.), Nietzsche in American Literature and Thought D. SCHULZ. Nietzsche-Studien 26:588-592.
     
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  4. F. W. J. Schelling & Walter Schulz (1959). System des Transzendentalen Idealismus, herausgegeben von Ruth-Eva Schulz. Les Etudes Philosophiques 14 (2):243-243.
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  5.  30
    Katrin Schulz & Robert Van Rooij (2006). Pragmatic Meaning and Non-Monotonic Reasoning: The Case of Exhaustive Interpretation. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (2):205-250.
    In this paper an approach to the exhaustive interpretation of answers is developed. It builds on a proposal brought forward by Groenendijk and Stokhof. We will use the close connection between their approach and McCarthy ’s predicate circumscription and describe exhaustive interpretation as an instance of interpretation in minimal models, well-known from work on counterfactuals ). It is shown that by combining this approach with independent developments in semantics/pragmatics one can overcome certain limitations of Groenenedijk and Stokhof’s proposal. In the (...)
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  6.  4
    Katrin Schulz & Robert van Rooij (2006). Pragmatic Meaning and Non-Monotonic Reasoning: The Case of Exhaustive Interpretation. Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (2):205 - 250.
    In this paper an approach to the exhaustive interpretation of answers is developed. It builds on a proposal brought forward by Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984). We will use the close connection between their approach and McCarthy's (1980, 1986) predicate circumscription and describe exhaustive interpretation as an instance of interpretation in minimal models, well-known from work on counterfactuals (see for instance Lewis (1973)). It is shown that by combining this approach with independent developments in semantics/pragmatics one can overcome certain limitations of (...)
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  7.  38
    Moritz Schulz (2013). Modalised Conditionals: A Response to Willer. Philosophical Studies 163 (3):673-682.
    A paper by Schulz (Philos Stud 149:367–386, 2010) describes how the suppositional view of indicative conditionals can be supplemented with a derived view of epistemic modals. In a recent criticism of this paper, Willer (Philos Stud 153:365–375, 2011) argues that the resulting account of conditionals and epistemic modals cannot do justice to the validity of certain inference patterns involving modalised conditionals. In the present response, I analyse Willer’s argument, identify an implicit presupposition which can plausibly be denied and show (...)
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  8. Daniel Schulz (2010). Einleitung: Condorcet und die Theorie der repräsentativen Demokratie. In Marquis de Condorcet (ed.), Freiheit, Revolution, Verfassung. Kleine Politische Schriften: Herausgegeben von Daniel Schulz. Akademie Verlag 11-50.
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  9.  38
    Alison Gopnik, Clark Glymour, David M. Sobel, Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & David Danks, A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets.
    We propose that children employ specialized cognitive systems that allow them to recover an accurate “causal map” of the world: an abstract, coherent, learned representation of the causal relations among events. This kind of knowledge can be perspicuously understood in terms of the formalism of directed graphical causal models, or “Bayes nets”. Children’s causal learning and inference may involve computations similar to those for learning causal Bayes nets and for predicting with them. Experimental results suggest that 2- to 4-year-old children (...)
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  10.  48
    Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.) (2007). Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press.
    Understanding causal structure is a central task of human cognition. Causal learning underpins the development of our concepts and categories, our intuitive theories, and our capacities for planning, imagination and inference. During the last few years, there has been an interdisciplinary revolution in our understanding of learning and reasoning: Researchers in philosophy, psychology, and computation have discovered new mechanisms for learning the causal structure of the world. This new work provides a rigorous, formal basis for theory theories of concepts and (...)
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  11.  6
    Elizabeth Bonawitz, Patrick Shafto, Hyowon Gweon, Noah D. Goodman, Elizabeth Spelke & Laura Schulz (2011). The Double-Edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction Limits Spontaneous Exploration and Discovery. Cognition 120 (3):322-330.
  12. Thomas Kroedel & Moritz Schulz (2016). Grounding Mental Causation. Synthese 193 (6):1909-1923.
    This paper argues that the exclusion problem for mental causation can be solved by a variant of non-reductive physicalism that takes the mental not merely to supervene on, but to be grounded in, the physical. A grounding relation between events can be used to establish a principle that links the causal relations of grounded events to those of grounding events. Given this principle, mental events and their physical grounds either do not count as overdetermining physical effects, or they do so (...)
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  13.  7
    Laura E. Schulz, Noah D. Goodman, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Adrianna C. Jenkins (2008). Going Beyond the Evidence: Abstract Laws and Preschoolers’ Responses to Anomalous Data. Cognition 109 (2):211-223.
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  14. Lincoln Rothschild, Helmut Hungerland, D. Zwemmer & Juergen Schulz (1963). Letters Pro and Con. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 22 (1):71-73.
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  15.  31
    Robert van Rooij & Katrin Schulz (2004). Exhaustive Interpretation of Complex Sentences. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 13 (4):491-519.
    In terms of Groenendijk and Stokhofs (1984) formalization of exhaustive interpretation, many conversational implicatures can be accounted for. In this paper we justify and generalize this approach. Our justification proceeds by relating their account via Halpern and Moses (1984) non-monotonic theory of only knowing to the Gricean maxims of Quality and the first sub-maxim of Quantity. The approach of Groenendijk and Stokhof (1984) is generalized such that it can also account for implicatures that are triggered in subclauses not entailed by (...)
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  16.  2
    Clark Glymour, Alison Gopnik, David M. Sobel & Laura E. Schulz, Causal Learning Mechanisms in Very Young Children: Two-, Three-, and Four-Year-Olds Infer Causal Relations From Patterns of Variation and Covariation.
  17.  72
    A. W. Schulz (2013). Beyond the Hype: The Value of Evolutionary Theorizing in Economics. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 43 (1):46-72.
  18. Armin W. Schulz (2011). Sober & Wilson's Evolutionary Arguments for Psychological Altruism: A Reassessment. Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):251-260.
    In their book Unto Others, Sober and Wilson argue that various evolutionary considerations (based on the logic of natural selection) lend support to the truth of psychological altruism. However, recently, Stephen Stich has raised a number of challenges to their reasoning: in particular, he claims that three out of the four evolutionary arguments they give are internally unconvincing, and that the one that is initially plausible fails to take into account recent findings from cognitive science and thus leaves open a (...)
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  19.  6
    Julian Jara-Ettinger, Hyowon Gweon, Laura E. Schulz & Joshua B. Tenenbaum (2016). The Naïve Utility Calculus: Computational Principles Underlying Commonsense Psychology. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 20 (8):589-604.
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  20.  9
    Elizabeth Baraff Bonawitz, Darlene Ferranti, Rebecca Saxe, Alison Gopnik, Andrew N. Meltzoff, James Woodward & Laura E. Schulz (2010). Just Do It? Investigating the Gap Between Prediction and Action in Toddlers’ Causal Inferences. Cognition 115 (1):104-117.
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  21.  5
    Andrew Shtulman & Laura Schulz (2008). The Relation Between Essentialist Beliefs and Evolutionary Reasoning. Cognitive Science 32 (6):1049-1062.
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  22.  19
    Laura Schulz (2012). The Origins of Inquiry: Inductive Inference and Exploration in Early Childhood. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 16 (7):382-389.
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  23.  15
    Armin Schulz (2011). The Adaptive Importance of Cognitive Efficiency: An Alternative Theory of Why We Have Beliefs and Desires. Biology and Philosophy 26 (1):31-50.
    Finding out why we have beliefs and desires is important for a thorough understanding of the nature of our minds (and those of other animals). It is therefore unsurprising that several accounts have been presented that are meant to answer this question. At least in the philosophical literature, the most widely accepted of these are due to Kim Sterelny and Peter Godfrey-Smith, who argue that beliefs and desires evolved due to their enabling us to be behaviourally flexible in a way (...)
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  24.  33
    Armin W. Schulz (2013). Overextension: The Extended Mind and Arguments From Evolutionary Biology. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):241-255.
    I critically assess two widely cited evolutionary biological arguments for two versions of the ‘Extended Mind Thesis’ (EMT): namely, an argument appealing to Dawkins’s ‘Extended Phenotype Thesis’ (EPT) and an argument appealing to ‘Developmental Systems Theory’ (DST). Specifically, I argue that, firstly, appealing to the EPT is not useful for supporting the EMT (in either version), as it is structured and motivated too differently from the latter to be able to corroborate or elucidate it. Secondly, I extend and defend Rupert’s (...)
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  25. Benjamin Schnieder, Moritz Schulz & Alexander Steinberg (2010). What Might Be and What Might Have Been. In S.-J. Conrad & S. Imhof (eds.), Strawson - Concept and Object. Ontos
    The article is an extended comment on Strawson’s neglected paper ‘Maybes and Might Have Beens’, in which he suggests that both statements about what may be the case and statements about what might have been the case can be understood epistemically. We argue that Strawson is right about the first sort of statements but wrong about the second. Finally, we discuss some of Strawson’s claims which are related to positions of Origin Essentialism.
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  26.  59
    Armin W. Schulz (2011). Simulation, Simplicity, and Selection: An Evolutionary Perspective on High-Level Mindreading. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 152 (2):271 - 285.
    In this paper, I argue that a natural selection-based perspective gives reasons for thinking that the core of the ability to mindread cognitively complex mental states is subserved by a simulationist process—that is, that it relies on nonspecialised mechanisms in the attributer's cognitive architecture whose primary function is the generation of her own decisions and inferences. In more detail, I try to establish three conclusions. First, I try to make clearer what the dispute between simulationist and non-simulationist theories of mindreading (...)
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  27.  16
    Stefan Sütterlin, Stefan M. Schulz, Theresa Stumpf, Paul Pauli & Claus Vögele (2013). Enhanced Cardiac Perception Is Associated With Increased Susceptibility to Framing Effects. Cognitive Science 37 (5):922-935.
    Previous studies suggest in line with dual process models that interoceptive skills affect controlled decisions via automatic or implicit processing. The “framing effect” is considered to capture implicit effects of task-irrelevant emotional stimuli on decision-making. We hypothesized that cardiac awareness, as a measure of interoceptive skills, is positively associated with susceptibility to the framing effect. Forty volunteers performed a risky-choice framing task in which the effect of loss versus gain frames on decisions based on identical information was assessed. The results (...)
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  28.  13
    Moritz Schulz (2014). Counterfactuals and Arbitrariness. Mind 123 (492):1021-1055.
    The pattern of credences we are inclined to assign to counterfactuals challenges standard accounts of counterfactuals. In response to this problem, the paper develops a semantics of counterfactuals in terms of the epsilon-operator. The proposed semantics stays close to the standard account: the epsilon-operator substitutes the universal quantifier present in standard semantics by arbitrarily binding the open world-variable. Various applications of the suggested semantics are explored including, in particular, an explanation of how the puzzling credences in counterfactuals come about.
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  29.  18
    Armin W. Schulz (2011). Gigerenzer's Evolutionary Arguments Against Rational Choice Theory: An Assessment. Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1272-1282.
  30. E. Bonawitz, D. Ferranti, R. Saxe, A. Gopnik, A. Meltzoff, J. Woodward & L. Schulz (2010). Just Do It? Toddlers' Ability to Integrate Prediction and Action. Cognition 115:104-117.
     
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  31. Julian Jara-Ettinger, Hyowon Gweon, Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Laura E. Schulz (2015). Children’s Understanding of the Costs and Rewards Underlying Rational Action. Cognition 140:14-23.
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  32.  1
    Alison Gopnik, Clark Glymour, David M. Sobel, Laura E. Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & David Danks (2004). A Theory of Causal Learning in Children: Causal Maps and Bayes Nets. Psychological Review 111 (1):3-32.
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  33. Laura Schulz, Tamar Kushnir & Alison Gopnik (2007). Learning From Doing: Intervention and Causal Inference. In Alison Gopnik & Laura Schulz (eds.), Causal Learning: Psychology, Philosophy, and Computation. Oxford University Press 67--85.
     
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  34.  1
    Claire Cook, Noah D. Goodman & Laura E. Schulz (2011). Where Science Starts: Spontaneous Experiments in Preschoolers’ Exploratory Play. Cognition 120 (3):341-349.
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  35.  15
    Sven Rosenkranz & Moritz Schulz (2015). Peer Disagreement: A Call for the Revision of Prior Probabilities. Dialectica 69 (4):551-586.
    The current debate about peer disagreement has so far mainly focused on the question of whether peer disagreements provide genuine counterevidence to which we should respond by revising our credences. By contrast, comparatively little attention has been devoted to the question by which process, if any, such revision should be brought about. The standard assumption is that we update our credences by conditionalizing on the evidence that peer disagreements provide. In this paper, we argue that non-dogmatist views have good reasons (...)
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  36.  54
    Katrin Schulz (2011). “If You'd Wiggled A, Then B Would've Changed”. Synthese 179 (2):239-251.
    This paper deals with the truth conditions of conditional sentences. It focuses on a particular class of problematic examples for semantic theories for these sentences. I will argue that the examples show the need to refer to dynamic, in particular causal laws in an approach to their truth conditions. More particularly, I will claim that we need a causal notion of consequence. The proposal subsequently made uses a representation of causal dependencies as proposed in Pearl (2000) to formalize a causal (...)
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  37.  28
    Katrin Schulz (2005). A Pragmatic Solution for the Paradox of Free Choice Permission. Synthese 147 (2):343 - 377.
    In this paper, a pragmatic approach to the phenomenon of free choice permission is proposed. Free choice permission is explained as due to taking the speaker (i) to obey certain Gricean maxims of conversation and (ii) to be competent on the deontic options, i.e. to know the valid obligations and permissions. The approach differs from other pragmatic approaches to free choice permission in giving a formally precise description of the class of inferences that can be derived based on these two (...)
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  38.  21
    Eric Goles, Oliver Schulz & Mario Markus (2001). Prime Number Selection of Cycles in a Predator‐Prey Model. Complexity 6 (4):33-38.
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  39.  70
    Moritz Schulz (2010). Wondering What Might Be. Philosophical Studies 149 (3):367 - 386.
    This paper explores the possibility of supplementing the suppositional view of indicative conditionals with a corresponding view of epistemic modals. The most striking feature of the suppositional view consists in its claim that indicative conditionals are to be evaluated by conditional probabilities. On the basis of a natural link between indicative conditionals and epistemic modals, a corresponding thesis about the probabilities of statements governed by epistemic modals can be derived. The paper proceeds by deriving further consequences of this thesis, in (...)
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  40.  4
    Hyowon Gweon, Hannah Pelton, Jaclyn A. Konopka & Laura E. Schulz (2014). Sins of Omission: Children Selectively Explore When Teachers Are Under-Informative. Cognition 132 (3):335-341.
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  41.  9
    Armin W. Schulz (2014). Niche Construction, Adaptive Preferences, and the Differences Between Fitness and Utility. Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):315-335.
    A number of scholars have recently defended the claim that there is a close connection between the evolutionary biological notion of fitness and the economic notion of utility: both are said to refer to an organism’s success in dealing with its environment, and both are said to play the same theoretical roles in their respective sciences. However, an analysis of two seemingly disparate but in fact structurally related phenomena—‘niche construction’ (the case where organisms change their environment to make it fit (...)
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  42.  17
    Armin Schulz (2013). The Benefits of Rule Following: A New Account of the Evolution of Desires. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 44 (4a):595-603.
    A key component of much current research in behavioral ecology, cognitive science, and economics is a model of the mind at least partly based on beliefs and desires. However, despite this prevalence, there are still many open questions concerning both the structure and the applicability of this model. This is especially so when it comes to its ‘desire’ part: in particular, it is not yet entirely clear when and why we should expect organisms to be desire-based—understood so as to imply (...)
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  43.  12
    Tamar Kushnir, Alison Gopnik, Chris Lucas & Laura Schulz (2010). Inferring Hidden Causal Structure. Cognitive Science 34 (1):148-160.
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  44.  39
    Nick Haverkamp & Moritz Schulz (2012). A Note on Comparative Probability. Erkenntnis 76 (3):395-402.
    A possible event always seems to be more probable than an impossible event. Although this constraint, usually alluded to as regularity , is prima facie very attractive, it cannot hold for standard probabilities. Moreover, in a recent paper Timothy Williamson has challenged even the idea that regularity can be integrated into a comparative conception of probability by showing that the standard comparative axioms conflict with certain cases if regularity is assumed. In this note, we suggest that there is a natural (...)
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  45.  24
    Katrin Schulz (2015). Conditionals From a Linguistic Point of View: Two Case Studies. Journal of Philosophical Logic 44 (6):805-816.
    IntroductionThe meaning of conditional sentences bears an intrinsic relation to a number of central philosophical problems, like the nature of reasoning, the possibility of knowledge, and the status of laws of nature. This has incited philosophers to spend a lot of time working on conditionals and to fill countless bookshelves with inspiring and sophisticated theories on their meaning. However, the overall question of how to approach the meaning of conditionals is still open. There are many different theories on the market, (...)
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  46.  18
    Elena Beisswanger, Stefan Schulz, Holger Stenzhorn & Udo Hahn (2008). BioTop: An Upper Domain Ontology for the Life sciencesA Description of its Current Structure, Contents and Interfaces to OBO Ontologies. Applied Ontology 3 (4):205-212.
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  47.  1
    Armin W. Schulz (2013). The Benefits of Rule Following: A New Account of the Evolution of Desires. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):595-603.
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  48.  77
    Peter J. Schulz & Bert Meuffels (2012). “It is About Our Body, Our Own Body!”: On the Difficulty of Telling Dutch Women Under 50 That Mammography is Not for Them. Journal of Argumentation in Context 1 (1):130-142.
    This article is concerned with the reasons why sometimes good arguments in health communication leaflets fail to convince the targeted audience. As an illustrative example it uses the age-dependent eligibility of women in the Netherlands to receive routine breast cancer screening examinations: according to Dutch regulations women under 50 are ineligible for them. The present qualitative study rests on and complements three experimental studies on the persuasiveness of mammography information leaflets; it uses interviews to elucidate reasons why the arguments in (...)
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  49.  66
    Moritz Schulz (2010). The Dynamics of Indexical Belief. Erkenntnis 72 (3):337 - 351.
    Indexical beliefs pose a special problem for standard theories of Bayesian updating. Sometimes we are uncertain about our location in time and space. How are we to update our beliefs in situations like these? In a stepwise fashion, I develop a constraint on the dynamics of indexical belief. As an application, the suggested constraint is brought to bear on the Sleeping Beauty problem.
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  50.  72
    Moritz Schulz (2010). Epistemic Modals and Informational Consequence. Synthese 174 (3):385 - 395.
    Recently, Yalcin (Epistemic modals. Mind, 116 , 983–1026, 2007) put forward a novel account of epistemic modals. It is based on the observation that sentences of the form ‘ & Might ’ do not embed under ‘suppose’ and ‘if’. Yalcin concludes that such sentences must be contradictory and develops a notion of informational consequence which validates this idea. I will show that informational consequence is inadequate as an account of the logic of epistemic modals: it cannot deal with reasoning from (...)
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