Search results for 'Pharmaceutical industry Moral and ethical aspects' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  18
    M. N. G. Dukes (2005). The Law and Ethics of the Pharmaceutical Industry. Elsevier.
    As one of the most massive and successful business sectors, the pharmaceutical industry is a potent force for good in the community, yet its behaviour is frequently questioned: could it serve society at large better than it has done in the recent past? Its own internal ethics, both in business and science, may need a careful reappraisal, as may the extent to which the law - administrative, civil and criminal - succeeds in guiding (and where neccessary contraining) it. (...)
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  2.  21
    Shaili Jain (2007). Understanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry Interactions. Cambridge University Press.
    Physician-pharmaceutical industry interactions continue to generate heated debate in academic and public domains, both in the United States and abroad. Despite this, recent research suggests that physicians and physicians-in-training remain ignorant of the core issues and are ill-prepared to understand pharmaceutical industry promotion. There is a vast medical literature on this topic, but no single, concise resource. This book aims to fill that gap by providing a resource that explains the essential elements of this subject. The (...)
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  3.  9
    David Finegold (ed.) (2005). Bioindustry Ethics. Elsevier Academic Press.
    This book is the first systematic, detailed treatment of the approaches to ethical issues taken by biotech and pharmaceutical companies. The application of genetic/genomic technologies raises a whole spectrum of ethical questions affecting global health that must be addressed. Topics covered in this comprehensive survey include considerations for bioprospecting in transgenics, genomics, drug discovery, and nutrigenomics, as well as how to improve stakeholder relations, design ethical clinical trials, avoid conflicts of interest, and establish ethics advisory boards. (...)
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  4.  5
    Alex O'Meara (2009). Chasing Medical Miracles: The Promise and Perils of Clinical Trials. Walker & Co..
    Journalist Alex O’Meara is one of the more than twenty million Americans enrolled in a clinical trial—three times as many people as a decade ago. Indeed, clinical trials have become a $24 billion industry that is reshaping every aspect of health-care development and delivery in the United States and around the world. As O’Meara chronicles, twentieth-century medical trials have led to epic advances in health care, from asthma inhalers and insulin pumps to heart valves and pacemakers. And yet, although (...)
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  5.  41
    Henry Adobor (2012). Ethical Issues in Outsourcing: The Case of Contract Medical Research and the Global Pharmaceutical Industry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):239-255.
    The outsourcing of medical research has become a strategic imperative in the global pharmaceutical industry. Spurred by the challenges of competition, the need for speed in drug development, and increasing domestic costs, pharmaceutical companies across the globe continue to outsource critical parts of their value chain activities, namely contract clinical research and drug testing, to sponsors across the globe, typically into emerging markets. While it is clear that important ethical issues arise with this practice, unraveling (...) responsibility and the allocation of responsibility is not so clear, considering that contracts, by their very definition transfer responsibility from the principal to the agent. This research provides a framework for exploring some of the ethical issues, including attributions of moral responsibility associated with Contract Medical Research. Using a theory of strategic and moral behavior, the research shows that both clients and sponsors in contract research have individual and collective responsibility to ensure that due care and diligence is exercised in the performance of clinical research. The research suggests some guidelines for stakeholder action. (shrink)
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  6. Rivka Amado & Nevin M. Gewertz (2004). Intellectual Property and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Moral Crossroads Between Health and Property. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):295 - 308.
    The moral justification of intellectual property is often called into question when placed in the context of pharmaceutical patents and global health concerns. The theoretical accounts of both John Rawls and Robert Nozick provide an excellent ethical framework from which such questions can be clarified. While Nozick upholds an individuals right to intellectual property, based upon its conformation with Lockean notions of property and Nozicks ideas of just acquisition and transfer, Rawls emphasizes the importance of basic liberties, (...)
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  7.  15
    Nevin M. Gewertz & Rivka Amado (2004). Intellectual Property and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Moral Crossroads Between Health and Property. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):295 - 308.
    The moral justification of intellectual property is often called into question when placed in the context of pharmaceutical patents and global health concerns. The theoretical accounts of both John Rawls and Robert Nozick provide an excellent ethical framework from which such questions can be clarified. While Nozick upholds an individual's right to intellectual property, based upon its conformation with Lockean notions of property and Nozick's ideas of just acquisition and transfer, Rawls emphasizes the importance of basic liberties, (...)
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  8.  6
    M. R. N. Bruijnis, V. Blok, E. N. Stassen & H. G. J. Gremmen (2015). Moral “Lock-In” in Responsible Innovation: The Ethical and Social Aspects of Killing Day-Old Chicks and Its Alternatives. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):939-960.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework that will help in understanding and evaluating, along social and ethical lines, the issue of killing day-old male chicks and two alternative directions of responsible innovations to solve this issue. The following research questions are addressed: Why is the killing of day-old chicks morally problematic? Are the proposed alternatives morally sound? To what extent do the alternatives lead to responsible innovation? The conceptual framework demonstrates clearly that there is (...)
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  9.  18
    Sue Eckstein (ed.) (2003). Manual for Research Ethics Committees. Cambridge University Press.
    The sixth edition of the Manual for Research Ethics Committees is a unique compilation of legal and ethical guidance which will prove invaluable for members of research ethics committees, researchers involved in research with humans, members of the pharmaceutical industry and students of law, medicine, ethics and philosophy. Presented in a clear and authoritative form, it incorporates the key legal and ethical guidelines and specially written chapters on major topics in bioethics by leading academic authors and (...)
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  10.  4
    Prof Raymond Spier (1995). Ethical Aspects of the University-Industry Interface. Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (2):151-162.
    Following an examination of the missions of industry and the university there is a comparison of the ‘wish-lists’ of industry and the university. These ‘wish-lists’ have both similarities and differences. Some of the differences are expressed in a further section on the kinds of interactions that neither institution wants from the other. In the canonical university, the culture values features such as openness, individuality and the de-emphasis of monetary matters, whereas in the archetypal industry the prevailing ethos (...)
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  11.  26
    David B. Resnik (2001). Developing Drugs for the Developing World: An Economic, Legal, Moral, and Political Dilemma. Developing World Bioethics 1 (1):11-32.
    This paper discusses the economic, legal, moral, and political difficulties in developing drugs for the developing world. It argues that large, global pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the developing world, and that they may exercise these responsibilities by investing in research and development related to diseases that affect developing nations, offering discounts on drug prices, and initiating drug giveaways. However, these social responsibilities are not absolute requirements and may be balanced against other obligations and commitments in light (...)
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  12.  1
    Anna Kreiner (1995). The Ethics of the Pharmaceutical Industry and the Need for a Dual Market System. Journal of Medical Humanities 16 (1):55-68.
    In an era of increasing medical costs and cries for health care reform in the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has come under intense scrutiny. Ethical issues are inherent in the pharmaceutical marketplace, and there is a need to address the moral rights and responsibilities of drug manufacturers consumers, health care professionals, and governmental agents in the production, distribution, regulation, and use of these products. A dual market system protecting individual rights to access and autonomy (...)
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  13.  7
    Raymond Spier (1995). Ethical Aspects of the University-Industry Interface. Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (2):151-162.
    Following an examination of the missions of industry and the university there is a comparison of the ‘wish-lists’ of industry and the university. These ‘wish-lists’ have both similarities and differences. Some of the differences are expressed in a further section on the kinds of interactions that neither institution wants from the other. In the canonical university, the culture values features such as openness, individuality and the de-emphasis of monetary matters, whereas in the archetypal industry the prevailing ethos (...)
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  14.  2
    Payam Moula & Per Sandin (2015). Moral “Lock-In” in Responsible Innovation: The Ethical and Social Aspects of Killing Day-Old Chicks and Its Alternatives. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (5):939-960.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework that will help in understanding and evaluating, along social and ethical lines, the issue of killing day-old male chicks and two alternative directions of responsible innovations to solve this issue. The following research questions are addressed: Why is the killing of day-old chicks morally problematic? Are the proposed alternatives morally sound? To what extent do the alternatives lead to responsible innovation? The conceptual framework demonstrates clearly that there is (...)
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  15.  3
    Vasil Gluchman (2013). Pious Aspects in the Ethical and Moral Views of Matthias Bel. History of European Ideas 39 (6):776-790.
    Summary The author of the paper studies the ethical views of Matthias Bel expressed in his Preface to Johann Arndt's treatise and in Davidian-Solomonian Ethics, which contain a critique of false Christianity and ancient (especially Aristotle's) ethics. Bel refuses any philosophical ethics based on human nature, since man, in his very essence, is sinful and vicious. This leads to the general moral downfall of the young and mankind. He only recognises ethics whose source and the highest good is (...)
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  16.  22
    Evan G. DeRenzo (forthcoming). Coercion in the Recruitment and Retention of Human Research Subjects, Pharmaceutical Industry Payments to Physician-Investigators and the Moral Courage of the IRB. IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
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  17.  46
    Richard L. Allman (2003). The Relationship Between Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry: Ethical Problems with the Every-Day Conflict of Interest. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 15 (2):155-170.
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  18.  50
    Gary Duhon (2008). An Uncomfortable Refusal Pp. 15-15 HTML Version | PDF Version (78k) Subject Headings: Premature Infants -- Medical Care -- Moral and Ethical Aspects. Commentary. [REVIEW] Hastings Center Report 38 (5):pp. 15-16.
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  19. Rivka Amado & Nevin M. Gewertz (2004). Intellectual Property and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Moral Crossroads Between Health and Property. Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):295-308.
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  20.  14
    J. Arlebrink (1997). The Moral Roots of Prenatal Diagnosis. Ethical Aspects of the Early Introduction and Presentation of Prenatal Diagnosis in Sweden. Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (4):260-261.
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  21. William Ernest Barton (1966). The Moral Challenge of Communism: Some Ethical Aspects of Marxist-Leninist Society. London, Friends Home Service Committee.
     
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  22. R. C. Noble (1993). Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Alliance with Unhealthy Aspects. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 36 (3):376.
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  23.  14
    S. M. van Geelen, L. L. E. Bolt & M. J. H. van Summeren (2010). Moral Aspects of Bariatric Surgery for Obese Children and Adolescents: The Urgent Need for Empirical-Ethical Research. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (12):30-32.
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  24.  27
    E. Doyle McCarthy (1993). Moral and Ethical Dilemmas in a Personal Sales Industry. Business Ethics Quarterly 3 (4):445-452.
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  25.  25
    Richard Hull, Philosophical, Ethical, and Moral Aspects of Health Care Rationing: A Review of Daniel Callahan's Setting Limits. [REVIEW]
    My assigned task in today’s colloquium is to review philosophers’ perspectives on the broad question of whether health care rationing ought to target the elderly. This is a revolutionary question, particularly in a society that is so sensitive to apparent discrimination, and the question must be approached carefully if it is to be successfully dealt with. Three subordinate questions attend this one and must be addressed in the course of answering it. The first such question has to do with the (...)
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  26.  13
    B. G. Gazzard (1992). AIDS a Moral Issue -- Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects. Journal of Medical Ethics 18 (1):51-52.
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  27.  24
    Temple Grandin (ed.) (2010). Improving Animal Welfare: A Practical Approach. Cab International.
    Drawing on the editor's extensive experience in teaching and auditing, and contributions from international experts, this book provides a guide to practical ...
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  28. Yukio Tsunoda (2012). Kagaku Gijutsusha No Tame No Jissen Seimei Rinri. Shōwadō.
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  29. Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.) (2003). Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Research: Readings and Commentary. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    All investigators funded by the National Institutes of Health are now required to receive training about the ethics of clinical research. Based on a course taught by the editors at NIH, Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Research is the first book designed to help investigators meet this new requirement. The book begins with the history of human subjects research and guidelines instituted since World War II. It then covers various stages and components of the clinical trial process: (...)
     
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  30.  17
    Suzanne Shale (2012). Moral Leadership in Medicine: Building Ethical Healthcare Organizations. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Why medicine needs moral leaders; 2. Creating an organizational narrative; 3. Understanding normative expectations in medical moral leadership; Prologue to chapters four and five; 4. Expressing fiduciary, bureaucratic and collegial propriety; 5. Expressing inquisitorial and restorative propriety; Epilogue to chapters four and five; 6. Understanding organizational moral narrative; 7. Moral leadership for ethical organizations; Appendix 1. How the research was done; Appendix 2. Accountability for clinical performance: individuals and (...)
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  31.  14
    Thomas W. Kallert, Juan E. Mezzich & John Monahan (eds.) (2011). Coercive Treatment in Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Aspects. Wiley-Blackwell.
    This book considers coercion within the healing and ethical framework of therapeutic relationships and partnerships at all levels, and addresses the universal ...
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  32.  67
    Richard A. Spinello (1992). Ethics, Pricing and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 11 (8):617 - 626.
    This paper explores the ethical obligations of pharmaceutical companies to charge fair prices for essential medicines. The moral issue at stake here is distributive justice. Rawls'' framework is especially germane since it underlines the material benefits everyone deserves as Kantian persons and the need for an egalitarian approach for the distribution of society''s essential commodities such as health care. This concern for distributive justice should be a critical factor in the equation of variables used to set prices (...)
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  33.  32
    Jari Syrjälä & Tuomo Takala (2008). Ethical Aspects in Nordic Business Mergers: The Case of Electro-Business. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 80 (3):531 - 545.
    Postmerger integration is a highly challenging and demanding task. Its success depends not only on economic factors but also on the organisational members' feelings and their personal contribution to the new entity. Mergers are usually made for the sake of profitability in the first place, whereas less attention is paid to employees in such situations. This article describes various ethical observations made in our study on corporate mergers in the Nordic Electro-business industry. We examine how the organisational change (...)
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  34. Iva Smit, Wendell Wallach & G. E. Lasker (eds.) (2005). Cognitive, Emotive, and Ethical Aspects of Decision Making in Humans and in Ai. International Institute for Advanced Studies in Systems Research and Cybernetics.
     
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  35.  31
    Thomas A. Hemphill (2010). Extraordinary Pricing of Orphan Drugs: Is It a Socially Responsible Strategy for the U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (2):225 - 242.
    The PRIME Institute of the College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, recently released preliminary research findings indicating a trend of extraordinary pharmaceutical industry pricing of drug products in the United States (U.S.). According to researchers at the PRIME Institute, such extraordinary price increases are defined as any price increase that is equal to, or greater than, 100% at a single point in time. In some instances, PRIME Institute researchers found that drugs exhibiting extraordinary price increases are categorized as (...)
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  36.  17
    Piotr Zaborowski & Adam Górski (2004). Informed Consent and the Use of Placebo in Poland: Ethical and Legal Aspects. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):167-178.
    The concept of informed consent was one of the most fruitful ideas that deeply changed the relationships between physicians and their patients from paternalism to respect for the personal autonomy of subjects needing professional medical care. The great progress in medicine, also involving the pharmaceutical industry, has created an increasing need to perform different clinical and experimental trials. The evolution of clinical research in the last decades has influenced strongly the design of these studies. One of the most (...)
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  37.  8
    Prof Piotr Zaborowski & Adam Górski (2004). Informed Consent and the Use of Placebo in Poland: Ethical and Legal Aspects. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (1):167-178.
    The concept of informed consent was one of the most fruitful ideas that deeply changed the relationships between physicians and their patients from paternalism to respect for the personal autonomy of subjects needing professional medical care. The great progress in medicine, also involving the pharmaceutical industry, has created an increasing need to perform different clinical and experimental trials. The evolution of clinical research in the last decades has influenced strongly the design of these studies. One of the most (...)
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  38.  26
    Gosia M. Brykczyńska & Joan Simons (eds.) (2011). Ethical and Philosophical Aspects of Nursing Children and Young People. John Wiley & Sons.
    This important new book provides a philosophical and historical analysis of the subject, looking at a review of sociological and political theories concerning ...
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  39. Lars-Eric Nilsson (2008). "But Can't You See They Are Lying": Student Moral Positions and Ethical Practices in the Wake of Technological Change. Distribution, Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis.
     
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  40.  2
    Jeffrey Francer, Jose Z. Izquierdo, Tamara Music, Kirti Narsai, Chrisoula Nikidis, Heather Simmonds & Paul Woods (2014). Ethical Pharmaceutical Promotion and Communications Worldwide: Codes and Regulations. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 9 (1):7.
    The international pharmaceutical industry has made significant efforts towards ensuring compliant and ethical communication and interaction with physicians and patients. This article presents the current status of the worldwide governance of communication practices by pharmaceutical companies, concentrating on prescription-only medicines. It analyzes legislative, regulatory, and code-based compliance control mechanisms and highlights significant developments, including the 2006 and 2012 revisions of the International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers and Associations (IFPMA) Code of Practice.
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  41.  22
    Nan Young Kim & Graham Miller (2008). Perceptions of the Ethical Climate in the Korean Tourism Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 82 (4):941 - 954.
    This study investigates the ethical climate types presented in the Korean tourism industry, the differences in the perceptions of these ethical climate types based on individual/organizational characteristics, and the influence of ethical climate types based on job satisfaction/organizational commitment. Empirical findings of this study identify six ethical climate types and demonstrate significant difference and significant influence of the proposed relationships. This research contributes to the existing body of academic work by using empirical data collected from (...)
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  42.  10
    Howard Brody (2007). Hooked: Ethics, the Medical Profession, and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book explores the controversial relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, identifies the ethical tensions and controversies, and proposes numerous reforms both for medicine's own professional integrity and for effective public regulation of the industry.
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  43.  4
    Richard T. De George (2005). Intellectual Property and Pharmaceutical Drugs: An Ethical Analysis. Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (4):549-575.
    The pharmaceutical industry has in recent years come under attack from an ethical point of view concerning its patents and thenon-accessibility of life-saving drugs for many of the poor both in less developed countries and in the United States. The industry has replied with economic and legal justifications for its actions. The result has been a communication gap between the industry on the one hand and poor nations and American critics on the other. This paper (...)
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  44.  18
    Bernice Bovenkerk & Franck L. B. Meijboom (2012). The Moral Status of Fish. The Importance and Limitations of a Fundamental Discussion for Practical Ethical Questions in Fish Farming. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 25 (6):843-860.
    As the world population is growing and government directives tell us to consume more fatty acids, the demand for fish is increasing. Due to declines in wild fish populations, we have come to rely more and more on aquaculture. Despite rapid expansion of aquaculture, this sector is still in a relatively early developmental stage. This means that this sector can still be steered in a favorable direction, which requires discussion about sustainability. If we want to avoid similar problems to the (...)
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  45.  10
    Marc A. Rodwin (2011). Reforming Pharmaceutical Industry-Physician Financial Relationships: Lessons From the United States, France, and Japan. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 39 (4):662-670.
    This article compares the means that the United States, France, and Japan use to oversee pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships. These countries rely on professional and/or industry ethical codes, anti-kickback laws, and fair trade practice laws. They restrict kickbacks the most strictly, allow wide latitude on gifts, and generally permit drug firms to fund professional activities and associations. Consequently, to avoid legal liability, drug firms often replace kickbacks with gifts and grants. The paper concludes by proposing reforms (...)
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  46.  28
    Edward R. Balotsky (2009). Where Strategy and Ethics Converge: Pharmaceutical Industry Pricing Policy for Medicare Part D Beneficiaries. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1):75 - 88.
    On January 1, 2006, Medicare Part D prescription drug coverage was initiated. Concern was immediately voiced by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) and Families USA that, in response to this program, the pharmaceutical industry may raise prices for drugs most often used by the elderly. This article examines the ethical implications of a revenue-maximizing pricing strategy in an industry in which third party financing mitigates an end product's true cost to the user. The perspectives (...)
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  47.  2
    M. W. Ross (1989). Psychosocial Ethical Aspects of AIDS. Journal of Medical Ethics 15 (2):74-81.
    The psychosocial morbidity associated with HIV infection and responses to such infection may exceed morbidity associated with medical sequelae of such infection. This paper argues that negative judgements on those with HIV infection or in groups associated with such infection will cause avoidable psychological and social distress. Moral judgements made regarding HIV infection may also harm the common good by promoting conditions which may increase the spread of HIV infection. This paper examines these two lines of argument with regard (...)
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  48.  4
    Howard Brody (2009). Pharmaceutical Industry Financial Support for Medical Education: Benefit, or Undue Influence? Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 37 (3):451-460.
    Presently, the pharmaceutical industry funds about half of the costs of continuing medical education programs in the U.S. This contributes to the ethical problems that pervade the relationship between medicine and the pharmaceutical industry: trustworthiness and conflicts of interest. The problems are exacerbated by rationalizations prevalent on both sides that deny the ethical concerns. Commercialism and commercial bias are highly visible at large CME gatherings, and available data, while scanty, back up the view that (...)
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  49.  1
    S. L. Pinto, E. Lipowski, R. Segal, C. Kimberlin & J. Algina (2007). Physicians' Intent to Comply with the American Medical Association's Guidelines on Gifts From the Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (6):313-319.
    Objective: To identify factors that predict physicians’ intent to comply with the American Medical Association’s ethical guidelines on gifts from the pharmaceutical industry.Methods: A survey was designed and mailed in June 2004 to a random sample of 850 physicians in Florida, USA, excluding physicians with inactive licences, incomplete addresses, addresses in other states and pretest participants. Factor analysis extracted six factors: attitude towards following the guidelines, subjective norms , facilitating conditions , profession-specific precedents , individual-specific precedents and (...)
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  50.  24
    Gregor Betz & Sebastian Cacean (2012). Ethical Aspects of Climate Engineering. Karlsruhe. KIT Scientific Publishing.
    This study investigates the ethical aspects of deploying and researching into so-called climate engineering methods, i.e. large-scale technical interventions in the climate system with the objective of offsetting anthropogenic climate change. The moral reasons in favour of and against R&D into and deployment of CE methods are analysed by means of argument maps. These argument maps provide an overview of the CE controversy and help to structure the complex debate.
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