Search results for 'Pharmaceutical industry Standards' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  17
    M. N. G. Dukes (2005). The Law and Ethics of the Pharmaceutical Industry. Elsevier.
    As one of the most massive and successful business sectors, the pharmaceutical industry is a potent force for good in the community, yet its behaviour is frequently questioned: could it serve society at large better than it has done in the recent past? Its own internal ethics, both in business and science, may need a careful reappraisal, as may the extent to which the law - administrative, civil and criminal - succeeds in guiding (and where neccessary contraining) (...)
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  2.  53
    Joel Lexchin (2012). Those Who Have the Gold Make the Evidence: How the Pharmaceutical Industry Biases the Outcomes of Clinical Trials of Medications. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):247-261.
    Pharmaceutical companies fund the bulk of clinical research that is carried out on medications. Poor outcomes from these studies can have negative effects on sales of medicines. Previous research has shown that company funded research is much more likely to yield positive outcomes than research with any other sponsorship. The aim of this article is to investigate the possible ways in which bias can be introduced into research outcomes by drawing on concrete examples from the published literature. Poorer (...)
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  3.  39
    Matthew Lee & Jillian Kohler (2010). Benchmarking and Transparency: Incentives for the Pharmaceutical Industry's Corporate Social Responsibility. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 95 (4):641-658.
    With over 2 billion people lacking medicines for treatable diseases and 14 million people dying annually from infectious disease, there is undeniable need for increased access to medicines. There has been an increasing trend to benchmark the pharmaceutical industry on their corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance in access to medicines. Benchmarking creates a competitive inter-business environment and acts as incentive for improving CSR. This article investigates the corporate feedback discourses pharmaceutical companies make in response to criticisms from (...)
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  4.  27
    Thomas A. Hemphill (2010). Extraordinary Pricing of Orphan Drugs: Is It a Socially Responsible Strategy for the U.S. Pharmaceutical Industry? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (2):225 - 242.
    The PRIME Institute of the College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota, recently released preliminary research findings indicating a trend of extraordinary pharmaceutical industry pricing of drug products in the United States (U.S.). According to researchers at the PRIME Institute, such extraordinary price increases are defined as any price increase that is equal to, or greater than, 100% at a single point in time. In some instances, PRIME Institute researchers found that drugs exhibiting extraordinary price increases are categorized (...)
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  5.  6
    Wendy Lipworth, Kathleen Montgomery & Miles Little (2013). How Pharmaceutical Industry Employees Manage Competing Commitments in the Face of Public Criticism. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (3):355-367.
    The pharmaceutical industry has been criticised for pervasive misconduct. These concerns have generally resulted in increasing regulation. While such regulation is no doubt necessary, it tends to assume that everyone working for pharmaceutical companies is equally motivated by commerce, without much understanding of the specific views and experiences of those who work in different parts of the industry. In order to gain a more nuanced picture of the work that goes on in the “medical affairs” departments (...)
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  6.  11
    Ya-Hui Hsu, Wenchang Fang & Yuanchung Lee (2009). Ethically Questionable Behavior in Sales Representatives — An Example From the Taiwanese Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):155 - 166.
    Recent corporate disgraces and corruption have heightened concerns about ethically questionable behavior in business. The construct of ethically questionable behavior is an under-portrayed area of management field research, and deserves further studying, especially in sales positions. This study uses four variables from the human resource management field to explain the ethically questionable behavior of sales representatives in the pharmaceutical industry. These variables include frame pattern, commission structure, behavior control type, and marketing norm perceptions. This work uses a 2 (...)
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  7.  13
    Włodzimierz Kubiak (2005). Medicine and Pharmacy — Facts and Myths About the Development of an Innovative Pharmaceutical Industry in Poland. Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (1):41-51.
    Innovation is fundamental to the pharmaceutical industry and a key to improvements in healthcare. Its effectiveness depends on huge, constant investments in research. This innovative industry directly affects the course of studies in healthcare and medicine. Its efforts translate directly into the length and quality of our lives. For several years now, the progress underway in pharmaceutical industry has produced measurable benefits. Doctors have new pharmaceuticals at their disposal, including many types of antibiotics and anti-viral (...)
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  8.  17
    Shaili Jain (2007). Understanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry Interactions. Cambridge University Press.
    Physician-pharmaceutical industry interactions continue to generate heated debate in academic and public domains, both in the United States and abroad. Despite this, recent research suggests that physicians and physicians-in-training remain ignorant of the core issues and are ill-prepared to understand pharmaceutical industry promotion. There is a vast medical literature on this topic, but no single, concise resource. This book aims to fill that gap by providing a resource that explains the essential elements of this (...)
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  9.  5
    Stephan Sahm (2013). Of Mugs, Meals and More: The Intricate Relations Between Physicians and the Medical Industry. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):265-273.
    Empirical research has proven the influence exerted by the medical industry on physicians’ decision-making. Physicians are the gatekeepers who determine how money is spent within the healthcare system. Hence, they are the target group of powerful lobbies in the field, i.e. the manufacturers of medical devices and the pharmaceutical industry. As clinical research lies in the hands of physicians, they play an exclusive and central role in launching new medical products. There are many ethical problems involved here: (...)
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  10. John Braithwaite (1984). Corporate Crime in the Pharmaceutical Industry.
     
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  11.  7
    Howard Brody (2007). Hooked: Ethics, the Medical Profession, and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This book explores the controversial relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry, identifies the ethical tensions and controversies, and proposes numerous reforms both for medicine's own professional integrity and for effective public regulation of the industry.
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  12.  7
    Sean Ekins & Richard J. McGowan (2002). Postgraduate Education and the Changing Interaction with the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 7 (4):413-424.
    This paper examines therelationship between industry and academia withregard to pharmaceutical research. Thecontinuous technological flux in researchpresents challenges to industry in obtainingadequately prepared scientists withoutinterfering in or disrupting a youngscientists' academic preparation. We presentour recommendations concerning the kinds ofskills required by changing technology andobserve the increasingly collaborativerelationship between academia and industry. Wesuggest the need for broader education forPh.D. and post-graduate students, inducing inthem transferable and productive skills for arapidly changing market. These skills,typically acquired in the liberal (...)
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  13. S. Nassir Ghaemi (2013). Postmodern Medicine: An Analysis of the Pharmaceutical Industry and Its Critics. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56 (2):223-235.
    There is an important cultural context to the relationship between physicians and the pharmaceutical industry. I'll label it, for simplicity, "postmodernism" (Kaplan 1993). Any single definition of a large cultural force, like socialism or communism or conservatism or liberalism, is bound to be inadequate in some ways. Yet general concepts can apply to such large forces. Postmodernism can have various nuances, but generally it applies to a way of thinking that is quite common nowadays: a skepticism about truth, (...)
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  14.  4
    John Abraham (2008). The Politics and Bio-Ethics of Regulatory Trust: Case-Studies of Pharmaceuticals. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (4):415-426.
    Drawing on case studies from the modern era of pharmaceutical regulation in the UK, US and Europe, I examine how the extent and distribution of trust between regulators, the pharmaceutical industry, and the medical profession about drug testing and monitoring influences knowledge and regulatory judgements about the efficacy and safety of prescription drugs. Introducing the concepts of ‘acquiescent’ and ‘investigative’ norms of regulatory trust, I demonstrate how investigative norms of regulatory trust—which deter pharmaceutical companies from assuming (...)
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  15.  3
    W. Lipworth, I. Kerridge, M. Sweet, C. Jordens, C. Bonfiglioli & R. Forsyth (2012). Widening the Debate About Conflict of Interest: Addressing Relationships Between Journalists and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (8):492-495.
    The phone-hacking scandal that led to the closure of the News of the World newspaper in Britain has prompted international debate about media practices and regulation. It is timely to broaden the discussion about journalistic ethics and conduct to include consideration of the impact of media practices upon the population's health. Many commercial organisations cultivate relationships with journalists and news organisations with the aim of influencing the content of health-related news and information communicated through the media. Given the significant influence (...)
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  16.  45
    Sergio Sismondo, Ghost Management: How Much of the Medical Literature is Shaped Behind the Scenes by the Pharmaceutical Industry?
    Anecdotes have shown that some articles on profitable drugs are constructed by and shepherded through publication by pharmaceutical companies and their agents, whose influence is largely invisible to readers. This is ghost-management, the substantial but unrecognized research, analysis, writing, editing and/or facilitation behind publication. Publicly available documents suggest that these practices extremely widespread affecting up to 40% of clinical trial reports in key periods but it has been unclear how representative these documents are. This article presents the results (...)
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  17.  3
    Matthew Lee & Julian Kohler (2010). Benchmarking and Transparency: Incentives for the Pharmaceutical Industry's Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 95 (4):641 - 658.
    With over 2 billion people lacking medicines for treatable diseases and 14 million people dying annually from infectious disease, there is undeniable need for increased access to medicines. There has been an increasing trend to benchmark the pharmaceutical industry on their corporate social responsibility (CSR) performance in access to medicines. Benchmarking creates a competitive inter-business environment and acts as incentive for improving CSR. This article investigates the corporate feedback discourses pharmaceutical companies make in response to criticisms from (...)
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  18.  9
    Marc A. Rodwin (2011). Reforming Pharmaceutical Industry-Physician Financial Relationships: Lessons From the United States, France, and Japan. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 39 (4):662-670.
    This article compares the means that the United States, France, and Japan use to oversee pharmaceutical industry-physician financial relationships. These countries rely on professional and/or industry ethical codes, anti-kickback laws, and fair trade practice laws. They restrict kickbacks the most strictly, allow wide latitude on gifts, and generally permit drug firms to fund professional activities and associations. Consequently, to avoid legal liability, drug firms often replace kickbacks with gifts and grants. The paper concludes by proposing reforms that (...)
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  19.  26
    Edward R. Balotsky (2009). Where Strategy and Ethics Converge: Pharmaceutical Industry Pricing Policy for Medicare Part D Beneficiaries. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 84 (1):75 - 88.
    On January 1, 2006, Medicare Part D prescription drug coverage was initiated. Concern was immediately voiced by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP) and Families USA that, in response to this program, the pharmaceutical industry may raise prices for drugs most often used by the elderly. This article examines the ethical implications of a revenue-maximizing pricing strategy in an industry in which third party financing mitigates an end product's true cost to the user. The perspectives of (...)
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  20.  36
    Henry Adobor (2012). Ethical Issues in Outsourcing: The Case of Contract Medical Research and the Global Pharmaceutical Industry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):239-255.
    The outsourcing of medical research has become a strategic imperative in the global pharmaceutical industry. Spurred by the challenges of competition, the need for speed in drug development, and increasing domestic costs, pharmaceutical companies across the globe continue to outsource critical parts of their value chain activities, namely contract clinical research and drug testing, to sponsors across the globe, typically into emerging markets. While it is clear that important ethical issues arise with this practice, unraveling moral responsibility (...)
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  21.  8
    Yuval Feldman, Rebecca Gauthier & Troy Schuler (2013). Curbing Misconduct in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Insights From Behavioral Ethics and the Behavioral Approach to Law. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41 (3):620-628.
    Two insights of psychology on which we would like to draw are that people react to law in more complex ways than rational-choice models assume and that good people sometimes do bad things. With that starting point, this article provides a behavioral perspective on some of the factors that policymakers seeking to reduce the level of misconduct in the pharmaceutical industry should consider. Effective regulation and enforcement need to address the following questions: Who are the regulation's targeted actors (...)
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  22.  4
    Howard Brody (2009). Pharmaceutical Industry Financial Support for Medical Education: Benefit, or Undue Influence? Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 37 (3):451-460.
    Presently, the pharmaceutical industry funds about half of the costs of continuing medical education programs in the U.S. This contributes to the ethical problems that pervade the relationship between medicine and the pharmaceutical industry: trustworthiness and conflicts of interest. The problems are exacerbated by rationalizations prevalent on both sides that deny the ethical concerns. Commercialism and commercial bias are highly visible at large CME gatherings, and available data, while scanty, back up the view that physician attendees' (...)
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  23.  1
    S. L. Pinto, E. Lipowski, R. Segal, C. Kimberlin & J. Algina (2007). Physicians' Intent to Comply with the American Medical Association's Guidelines on Gifts From the Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (6):313-319.
    Objective: To identify factors that predict physicians’ intent to comply with the American Medical Association’s ethical guidelines on gifts from the pharmaceutical industry.Methods: A survey was designed and mailed in June 2004 to a random sample of 850 physicians in Florida, USA, excluding physicians with inactive licences, incomplete addresses, addresses in other states and pretest participants. Factor analysis extracted six factors: attitude towards following the guidelines, subjective norms , facilitating conditions , profession-specific precedents , individual-specific precedents and intent. (...)
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  24.  3
    Joyce Plaza (2004). The Big Fix: How the Pharmaceutical Industry Rips Off American Consumers. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 13 (4):420-421.
    The Big Fix is, as Greider describes, “the utter folly of allowing a profit-driven industry to name its price, while quietly making over our public-health agenda in its own image”—the theme of the book. Written in an easy-to-understand, conversational manner targeted to the American consumer, The Big Fix is a comprehensive description of the commonly held views of critics of the pharmaceutical industry, although most of the points made are not novel. In eight chapters, each given a (...)
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  25. Anna Kreiner (1995). The Ethics of the Pharmaceutical Industry and the Need for a Dual Market System. Journal of Medical Humanities 16 (1):55-68.
    In an era of increasing medical costs and cries for health care reform in the United States, the pharmaceutical industry has come under intense scrutiny. Ethical issues are inherent in the pharmaceutical marketplace, and there is a need to address the moral rights and responsibilities of drug manufacturers consumers, health care professionals, and governmental agents in the production, distribution, regulation, and use of these products. A dual market system protecting individual rights to access and autonomy without placing (...)
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  26. Barbara Russell (2009). Pharmacists, the Pharmaceutical Industry, and Ethics. Journal of Ethics in Mental Health 4:1-5.
    Considerable ethics-related focus has been directed to the pharmaceutical industry’s relationship with physicians, in part because physicians have the only profession able to prescribe much of what the industry manufactures. In Alberta, however, pharmacists have recently been permitted to modify physician prescriptions for a patient and even to prescribe without physician involvement. This paper will examine how this change in responsibilities could change pharmacists’ relationships with the industry.
     
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  27.  1
    M. A. Morgan (2006). Interactions of Doctors with the Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (10):559-563.
    Objective: To assess the opinions and practice patterns of obstetrician-gynaecologists on acceptance and use of free drug samples and other incentive items from pharmaceutical representatives.Methods: A questionnaire was mailed in March 2003 to 397 members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists who participate in the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network.Results: The response rate was 55%. Most respondents thought it proper to accept drug samples , an informational lunch , an anatomical model or a well-paid consultantship from pharmaceutical (...)
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  28. Rivka Amado & Nevin M. Gewertz (2004). Intellectual Property and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Moral Crossroads Between Health and Property. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):295 - 308.
    The moral justification of intellectual property is often called into question when placed in the context of pharmaceutical patents and global health concerns. The theoretical accounts of both John Rawls and Robert Nozick provide an excellent ethical framework from which such questions can be clarified. While Nozick upholds an individuals right to intellectual property, based upon its conformation with Lockean notions of property and Nozicks ideas of just acquisition and transfer, Rawls emphasizes the importance of basic liberties, such as (...)
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  29.  14
    Nevin M. Gewertz & Rivka Amado (2004). Intellectual Property and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Moral Crossroads Between Health and Property. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 55 (3):295 - 308.
    The moral justification of intellectual property is often called into question when placed in the context of pharmaceutical patents and global health concerns. The theoretical accounts of both John Rawls and Robert Nozick provide an excellent ethical framework from which such questions can be clarified. While Nozick upholds an individual's right to intellectual property, based upon its conformation with Lockean notions of property and Nozick's ideas of just acquisition and transfer, Rawls emphasizes the importance of basic liberties, such (...)
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  30.  2
    Jim Bingen & Andile Siyengo (2002). Standards and Corporate Reconstruction in the Michigan Dry Bean Industry. Agriculture and Human Values 19 (4):311-323.
    Since the turn of the lastcentury, Michigan farmers, elevators, and stategovernment have used production and processstandards to shape the dry bean industry totheir interests and set a worldwide standardfor quality dry beans. Over the last 20 years,however, multinational agro/food firms haveintroduced their market criteria into standardssetting, and recent changes in Michigan beanstandards largely accommodate the interests ofthese firms. A review of the changes in thesestandards over time allows us to explore howconcepts of accountability and control improveour understanding of changes (...)
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  31.  6
    Nancie Fimbel & Jerome S. Burstein (1990). Defining the Ethical Standards of the High-Technology Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 9 (12):929 - 948.
    At least five sets of ethical standards influence business people's decisions: general cultural, company, personal, situational, and industry standards. Each has an official or espoused form encoded in written documents such as policy statements and codes of ethics and an unofficial form that develops as people use the espoused standards. (We call these unofficial standards values in action.) To determine whether the high-technology industry deserves its reputation for moral laxness, a pilot questionnaire was designed. (...)
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  32.  61
    Richard A. Spinello (1992). Ethics, Pricing and the Pharmaceutical Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 11 (8):617 - 626.
    This paper explores the ethical obligations of pharmaceutical companies to charge fair prices for essential medicines. The moral issue at stake here is distributive justice. Rawls'' framework is especially germane since it underlines the material benefits everyone deserves as Kantian persons and the need for an egalitarian approach for the distribution of society''s essential commodities such as health care. This concern for distributive justice should be a critical factor in the equation of variables used to set prices for (...)
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  33.  19
    Jon F. Merz, Arthur L. Caplan & Dana Katz (2010). All Gifts Large and Small: Toward an Understanding of the Ethics of Pharmaceutical Industry Gift-Giving. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (10):11-17.
    Much attention has been focused in recent years on the ethical acceptability of physicians receiving gifts from drug companies. Professional guidelines recognize industry gifts as a conflict of interest and establish thresholds prohibiting the exchange of large gifts while expressly allowing for the exchange of small gifts such as pens, note pads, and coffee. Considerable evidence from the social sciences suggests that gifts of negligible value can influence the behavior of the recipient in ways the recipient does not always (...)
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  34.  41
    Matthias Adam (2005). Integrating Research and Development: The Emergence of Rational Drug Design in the Pharmaceutical Industry. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 36 (3):513-537.
    Rational drug design is a method for developing new pharmaceuticals that typically involves the elucidation of fundamental physiological mechanisms. It thus combines the quest for a scientific understanding of natural phenomena with the design of useful technology and hence integrates epistemic and practical aims of research and development. Case studies of the rational design of the cardiovascular drugs propranolol, captopril and losartan provide insights into characteristics and conditions of this integration. Rational drug design became possible in the 1950s when theoretical (...)
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  35. David Rygl, Markus G. Kittler & Carina Friedmann (2007). Fighting HIV/AIDS: The Role of the Pharmaceutical Industry and the Sustainability of its Actions in Sub-Saharan Africa—An Empirical Investigation. International Corporate Responsibility Series 3:189-205.
    Since the first diagnosis of an HIV infection in 1956, the number of victims infected with the virus has dramatically increased to 40.3 million in 2005. The countries of sub-Saharan Africa carry the largest burden of HIV/AIDS worldwide. Various programs against the spread of the epidemic in this region have been promised. The objective of this article is to analyze to what extent these programs can achieve a sustainable effect. This article examines in detail the sustainability of thirteen programmes initiated (...)
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  36.  2
    Lois Stanford (2002). Constructing ``Quality'': The Political Economy of Standards in Mexico's Avocado Industry. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 19 (4):293-310.
    As the world's leader inavocado production, Mexico produces anestimated 900,000 tons/year, of which the stateof Michoacán produces 83% of nationalproduction and 40% of world avocado productionwithin five regional districts. In 1914 theUnited States imposed a phytosanitary banagainst Mexican avocado exports to the USmarket, a non-tariff barrier that stood despiteNAFTA. This paper examines increasedstandardization of product quality in avocadoas a political process in Michoacán duringthe 1980s and 1990s, during which differentregional groups and firms struggled to imposetheir standards and defend their (...)
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  37.  21
    Evan G. DeRenzo (forthcoming). Coercion in the Recruitment and Retention of Human Research Subjects, Pharmaceutical Industry Payments to Physician-Investigators and the Moral Courage of the IRB. IRB: Ethics & Human Research.
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  38.  4
    Klaus M. Leisinger (2005). The Corporate Social Responsibility of The Pharmaceutical Industry: Idealism Without Illusion and Realism Without Resignation. Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (4):577-594.
    In recent years society has come to expect more from the “socially-responsible” company and the global HIV/AIDS pandemic in particular has resulted in some critics saying that the “Big Pharma” companies have not been living up to their social responsibilities. Corporate social responsibility can be understood as the socio-economic product of the organizational division of labor in complex modern society. Global poverty and poor health conditions are in the main the responsibilities of the world’s national governments and international (...)
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  39.  19
    Klaus M. Leisinger (2005). The Corporate Social Responsibility of The Pharmaceutical Industry. Business Ethics Quarterly 15 (4):577-594.
    In recent years society has come to expect more from the “socially-responsible” company and the global HIV/AIDS pandemic in particular has resulted in some critics saying that the “Big Pharma” companies have not been living up to their social responsibilities. Corporate social responsibility can be understood as the socio-economic product of the organizational division of labor in complex modern society. Global poverty and poor health conditions are in the main the responsibilities of the world’s national governments and international (...)
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  40. Morris A. Fisher (2003). Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Dysfunctional Relationship. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 46 (2):254-272.
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  41. Cedric E. Dawkins (2005). First to Market: Issue Management Pacesetters and the Pharmaceutical Industry Response to AIDS in Africa. Business and Society 44 (3):244-282.
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  42.  9
    Elizabeth A. Kitsis (2011). Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry: Working Together on Conflict of Interest. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):51 - 52.
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  43. Marc A. Rodwin (2011). Reforming Pharmaceutical Industry-Physician Financial Relationships: Lessons From the United States, France, and Japan. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 39 (4):662-670.
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  44.  82
    Joakim Sandberg (2010). Ethics and the Pharmaceutical Industry. [REVIEW] European Journal of Health Law 17:211-214.
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  45. Yuval Feldman, Rebecca Gauthier & Troy Schuler (2013). Curbing Misconduct in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Insights From Behavioral Ethics and the Behavioral Approach to Law. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (3):620-628.
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  46.  10
    Elizabeth A. Kitsis (2009). Rx for the Pharmaceutical Industry: Call Your Doctors. Hastings Center Report 39 (4):18-21.
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  47.  2
    Rusla Anne Springer (2011). Pharmaceutical Industry Discursives and the Marketization of Nursing Work: A Case Example. Nursing Philosophy 12 (3):214-228.
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  48.  1
    Jack Beetson (2011). Collaborating with the Pharmaceutical Industry: An Aboriginal Perspective. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (2):326-328.
    Firstly I would like to acknowledge the Traditional Owners whose land we are meeting on today. I acknowledge that I stand before you on the shoulders of Indigenous Peoples globally, past and present that have been marginalised, had their knowledge exploited, and generally had their inherent native title rights ripped off for the financial and health benefit of others.
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  49.  38
    Richard L. Allman (2003). The Relationship Between Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry: Ethical Problems with the Every-Day Conflict of Interest. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 15 (2):155-170.
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  50.  1
    Howard Brody (2003). Pens and Other Pharmaceutical Industry Gifts. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):58-60.
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