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  1. Philip M. Merikle, N Early 300 Years Ago Leibniz, in His.
    moment there is in us an infinity of perceptions, unaccompanied by awareness or reflection; that is, of alterations in the soul itself, of which we are unaware because the impressions are either too minute or too numerous, or else too unvarying, so that they are not sufficiently distinctive on their own.
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  2. Philip M. Merikle, P€1`C€pt1OI1 W1tho\1t &W3.I`€1'1€SS.
    Many studies directed at demonstrating perception without awareness have relied on the dissociation paradigm. Although the logic underlying this paradigm is relatively straightforward, definitive results have been elusive in the absence of any general consensus as to what constitutes an adequate measure of awareness. We propose an alternative approach that involves comparisons of the relative sensitivity of comparable direct and indirect indexes of perception. The only assumption required by the proposed approach is that the sensitivity of (...)
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  3. Philip M. Merikle, UHCOHSCIOUS Processes.
    The idea that cognitive processes can be meaningfully classified as conscious or unconscious has a long history in philosophy and psychology (see Ellenberger 1970: Erdelyi 1985; Perry and Laurence 1984, for reviews). However, even though many experimental reports during the past 100 years claim to demonstrate perception, Ieaming, or memory without conscious awareness, the distinction between conscious and unconscious ’ processes remains highly controversial. For example, the same empirical findings that Holender 1986 concludes provide little or no evidence for unconscious (...)
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  4. Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold, Iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii.
    There are hundreds of indications leading us to conclude that at every moment there is in us an infinity of perceptions, unaccompanied by awareness or reflection; that is, of alterations in the soul itself, of which we are unaware because the impressions are either too minute or too numerous, or else too unvarying, so that they are not sufficiently distinctive on their own. But when they are combined with others they do nevertheless have their effect and make themselves felt, at (...)
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  5. Daniel Smilek, Alicia Callejas, Mike J. Dixon & Philip M. Merikle (2010). Corrigendum to “Ovals of Time: Time–Space Associations in Synaesthesia” [Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2008) 507–519]. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):504-.
    The illustration of a time–space shown in Fig. 1A of the paper was based on an illustration by Carol Steen entitled “PD’s Time Space” that appeared in Duffy . Blue cats and chartreuse kittens: How synesthetes color their worlds. New York: Henry Holt and Company).
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  6. Troy A. W. Visser, Philip M. Merikle & Vincent Di Lollo (2005). Priming in the Attentional Blink: Perception Without Awareness? Visual Cognition 12 (7):1362-1372.
  7. Philip M. Merikle & Daniel Smilek (2001). Perception Without Awareness: Perspectives From Cognitive Psychology. Cognition 79 (1):115-34.
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  8. M. Dixon, Daniel Smilek, C. Cudahy & Philip M. Merikle (2000). Five Plus Two Equals Yellow: Mental Arithmetic in People with Synaesthesia is Not Coloured by Visual Experience. Nature 406.
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  9. Philip M. Merikle & M. Daneman (2000). Conscious Vs. Unconscious Perception. In Michael S. Gazzaniga (ed.), The New Cognitive Neurosciences: 2nd Edition. Mit Press.
     
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  10. Daniel Smilek, Jonathan Eastwood & Philip M. Merikle (2000). Does Unattended Information Facilitate Change Detection? Journal of Experimental Psychology 26:480-487.
  11. J. A. Stolz & Philip M. Merikle (2000). Conscious and Unconscious Influences of Memory: Temporal Dynamics. Memory 8 (5):333-343.
  12. Troy A. W. Visser & Philip M. Merikle (1999). Conscious and Unconscious Processes: The Effects of Motivation. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (1):94-113.
    The process-dissociation procedure has been used in a variety of experimental contexts to assess the contributions of conscious and unconscious processes to task performance. To evaluate whether motivation affects estimates of conscious and unconscious processes, participants were given incentives to follow inclusion and exclusion instructions in a perception task and a memory task. Relative to a control condition in which no performance incentives were given, the results for the perception task indicated that incentives increased the participants' ability to exclude previously (...)
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  13. Philip M. Merikle & M. Daneman (1997). Psychological Investigations of Unconscious Perception. Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (1):5-18.
    This paper reviews the history of psychological investigations of unconscious perception and summarizes the current status of experimental research in this area of investigation. The research findings described in the paper illustrate how it is possible to distinguish experimentally between conscious and unconscious perception. The most successful experimental strategy has been to show that a stimulus can have qualitatively different consequences on cognitive and affective reactions depending on whether it was consciously or unconsciously perceived. In addition, recent studies of patients (...)
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  14. Philip M. Merikle & S. Joordens (1997). Parallels Between Perception Without Attention and Perception Without Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):219-36.
    Do studies of perception without awareness and studies of perception without attention address a similar underlying concept of awareness? To answer this question, we compared qualitative differences in performance across variations in stimulus quality with qualitative differences in performance across variations in the direction of attention . The qualitative differences were based on three different phenomena: Stroop priming, false recognition, and exclusion failure. In all cases, variations in stimulus quality and variations in the direction of attention led to parallel findings. (...)
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  15. Philip M. Merikle & M. Daneman (1996). Memory for Events During Anesthesia: A Meta-Analysis. In B. Bonke, J. G. Bovill & N. Moerman (eds.), Memory and Awareness in Anesthesia III. Van Gorcum.
  16. Philip M. Merikle & M. Daneman (1996). Memory for Unconsciously Perceived Events: Evidence From Anesthetized Patients. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (4):525-541.
    Studies investigating memory for events during anesthesia show a confusing pattern of positive and negative results. To establish whether there are any consistent patterns of findings across studies, we conducted a meta-analysis of the data from 2517 patients in 44 studies. The meta-analysis included two measures of the effects of positive suggestions on postoperative recovery: the duration of postoperative hospitalization and the amount of morphine administered via patient-controlled anesthesia, as well as two measures of memory for specific information presented during (...)
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  17. Philip M. Merikle, S. Joordens & J. A. Stolz (1995). Measuring the Relative Magnitude of Unconscious Influences. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (4):422-39.
    As an alternative to establishing awareness thresholds, stimulus contexts in which there were either greater conscious or greater unconscious influences were defined on the basis of performance on an exclusion task. Target words were presented for brief durations and each target word was followed immediately by its three-letter stem. Subjects were instructed to complete each stem with any word other than the target word. With this task, failures to exclude target words indicate greater unconscious influences, whereas successful exclusion indicates greater (...)
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  18. G. Caseley-Rondi, Philip M. Merikle & K. S. Bowers (1994). Unconscious Cognition in the Context of General Anesthesia. Consciousness and Cognition 3 (2):166-95.
    In the present article we consider general anesthesia as a means of exploring questions regarding unconscious influence. The primary questions addressed in the research are whether surgical patients who are under adequate general anesthesia unconsciously perceive auditory information and whether they can benefit from such information. In addition, we consider the relevance of individual hypnotic ability for perceptual processing in this context. Ninety-six adult patients, undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy, were randomly allocated to one of four tape-recorded conditions: therapeutic suggestions, melodies, (...)
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  19. Philip M. Merikle (1994). On the Futility of Attempting to Demonstrate Null Awareness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):412-412.
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  20. S. Joordens & Philip M. Merikle (1993). Independence or Redundancy? Two Models of Conscious and Unconscious Influences. Journal of Experimental Psychology 122 (4):462-67.
  21. Mark van Selst & Philip M. Merikle (1993). Perception Below the Objective Threshold? Consciousness and Cognition 2 (3):194-203.
    The experiments reported by Snodgrass, Shevrin, and Kopka appear to demonstrate that words are perceived even when overall forced-choice discrimination performance does not deviate from chance. We replicated their critical finding in two separate experiments; our results indicated that the subjects′ preferences for one of the two strategy conditions predicted significant deviations from chance performance in the pop condition, even though the overall performance in this condition did not differ from chance. In addition, we found that task preference had no (...)
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  22. Philip M. Merikle (1992). Perception Without Awareness: Critical Issues. American Psychologist 47:792-5.
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  23. Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold (1992). Measuring Unconscious Processes. In Robert F. Bornstein & T. S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. Guilford.
     
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  24. Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold (1992). Measuring Unconscious Perceptual Processes. In R.F. Bornstein & T.S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. New York: Guilford Press. 55-80.
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  25. Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold (1991). Comparing Direct (Explicit) to Indirect (Implicit) Measures to Study Unconscious Memory. Journal Of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory And Cognition 17 (2):224-233.
  26. Eyal M. Reingold & Philip M. Merikle (1991). Theory and Measurement in the Study of Unconscious Processes. Mind and Language 5:9-28.
     
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  27. Philip M. Merikle & Eyal M. Reingold (1990). Recognition and Lexical Decision Without Detection: Unconscious Perception? Journal of Experimental Psychology 16:574-83.
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  28. Eyal M. Reingold & Philip M. Merikle (1990). On the Inter-Relatedness of Theory and Measurement in the Study of Unconscious Processes. Mind and Language 5 (1):9-28.
  29. Eyal M. Reingold & Philip M. Merikle (1988). Using Direct and Indirect Measures to Study Perception Without Awareness. Perception and Psychophysics 44:563-575.
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  30. J. Cheesman & Philip M. Merikle (1986). Distinguishing Conscious From Unconscious Perceptual Processes. Canadian Journal of Psychology 40:343-67.
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  31. Philip M. Merikle & Jim Cheesman (1986). Consciousness is a “Subjective” State. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (1):42.
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  32. Philip M. Merikle & Jim Cheesman (1985). Conscious and Unconscious Processes: Same or Different? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):547-548.
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  33. J. Cheesman & Philip M. Merikle (1984). Priming with and Without Awareness. Perception and Psychophysics 36:387-95.
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  34. Philip M. Merikle (1984). Toward a Definition of Awareness. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22 (5):449-50.
  35. Philip M. Merikle (1982). Unconscious Perception Revisited. Perception and Psychophysics 31:298-301.
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  36. Philip M. Merikle & Nancy J. Gorewich (1979). Spatial Selectivity in Vision: Field Size Depends Upon Noise Size. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 14 (5):343-346.
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  37. Mark Dallas & Philip M. Merikle (1976). Response Processes and Semantic-Context Effects. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 8 (6):441-444.
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  38. Philip M. Merikle (1974). Selective Backward Masking with an Unpredictable Mask. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (3):589.
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  39. Philip M. Merikle (1968). Unit Size and Interpolated-Task Difficulty as Determinants of Short-Term Retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (3p1):370.
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