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  1. Philippe Schlenker, A Simplified Modal Presentation of the ‘Non-Redundancy’ System.
    We give a simplified version of the system introduced in ‘Non-Redundancy’, presented here as a Modal Logic whose primitive elements are finite sequences. It includes a treatment of Condition C, Condition B, Condition A, and the Locality of Variable Binding, but disregards quantification and Weak and Strong Crossover effects, which are treated in the longer paper.
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  2. Philippe Schlenker, Be Articulate: A Pragmatic Theory of Presupposition Projection.
    Abstract: In the 1980s, the analysis of presupposition projection contributed to a ‘dynamic turn’ in semantics: the classical notion of meanings as truth conditions was replaced with a dynamic notion of meanings as Context Change Potentials (Heim 1983). We argue that this move was misguided, and we offer an alternative in which presupposition projection follows from the combination of a fully classical semantics and a new pragmatic principle, which we call Be Articulate. This principle requires that a meaning pp’ conceptualized (...)
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  3. Philippe Schlenker, Binding Theory - Empirical Aspects.
    [Site set up thanks to A. Furmanska, A. Lima and V. Homer as part of the NSF Project ‘Formal Semantic and Pragmatic Approaches to Binding Theory’].
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  4. Philippe Schlenker, Expressive Presuppositions.
    Potts (2005, 2007) has argued that expressives such as honky must be analyzed using an entirely new dimension of meaning. We explore a more conservative theory in which expressives are presuppositional expressions [Macià 2002] that are indexical and attitudinal (and sometimes shiftable): they predicate something of the mental state of the agent of the context (and this need not always be the agent of the actual context). Following Stalnaker’s recent work on informative presuppositions (2002), we argue that the presuppositions triggered (...)
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  5. Philippe Schlenker, Presupposition.
    (2-week course at the New York-St. Petersburg Institute of Cognitive and Cultural Studies, July 2007).
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  6. Philippe Schlenker, Properties, Plurals and Paradox.
    It has been argued that an objectual semantics for plurals falls victim to Russell’s paradox, and that a nominalistic semantics should therefore be preferred (Boolos 1984); similar considerations have sometimes been extended to other types of abstract reference, in particular to property talk. We suggest that this line of argument is mistaken: deeply entrenched features of ordinary language guarantee that property and plural talk do give rise to paradoxes. In the case of properties, the grammar of English is untyped, which (...)
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  7. Philippe Schlenker, Presupposition.
    (2-week course at the New York-St. Petersburg Institute of Cognitive and Cultural Studies, July 2007).
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  8. Emmanuel Chemla, Paul Egré & Philippe Schlenker (forthcoming). Predicting Moral Judgments From Causal Judgments. Philosophical Psychology:1-28.
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  9. Philippe Schlenker (forthcoming). Indexicality and de Se Reports. In Maienborn von Heusinger & Mouton Gruyter Portneder (eds.), Handbook of Semantics.
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  10. Philippe Schlenker (forthcoming). Iconic Features. Natural Language Semantics:1-58.
    Sign languages are known to display the same general grammatical properties as spoken languages (‘Universal Grammar’), but also to make greater use of iconic mechanisms. In Schlenker et al.’s ‘Iconic Variables’ (Linguist Philos 36(2):91–149, 2013), it was argued that loci (= positions in signing space corresponding to discourse referents) can have an iconic semantics, in the sense that certain geometric relations among loci (subset and relative complementation, as well as high/low position relative to the signer) are preserved by the interpretation (...)
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  11. Philippe Schlenker, Jonathan Lamberton & Mirko Santoro (2013). Iconic Variables. Linguistics and Philosophy 36 (2):91-149.
    We argue that some sign language loci (i.e. positions in signing space that realize discourse referents) are both formal variables and simplified representations of what they denote; in other words, they are simultaneously logical symbols and pictorial representations. We develop a 'formal semantics with iconicity' that accounts for their dual life; the key idea ('formal iconicity') is that some geometric properties of signs must be preserved by the interpretation function. We analyze in these terms three kinds of iconic effects in (...)
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  12. Emmanuel Chemla & Philippe Schlenker (2012). Incremental Vs. Symmetric Accounts of Presupposition Projection: An Experimental Approach. Natural Language Semantics 20 (2):177-226.
    The presupposition triggered by an expression E is generally satisfied by information that comes before rather than after E in the sentence or discourse. In Heim’s classic theory (1983), this left-right asymmetry is encoded in the lexical semantics of dynamic connectives and operators. But several recent analyses offer a more nuanced approach, in which presupposition satisfaction has two separate components: a general principle (which varies from theory to theory) specifies under what conditions a presupposition triggered by an expression E is (...)
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  13. Philippe Schlenker (2012). Maximize Presupposition and Gricean Reasoning. Natural Language Semantics 20 (4):391-429.
    Recent semantic research has made increasing use of a principle, Maximize Presupposition, which requires that under certain circumstances the strongest possible presupposition be marked. This principle is generally taken to be irreducible to standard Gricean reasoning because the forms that are in competition have the same assertive content. We suggest, however, that Maximize Presupposition might be reducible to the theory of scalar implicatures. (i)First, we consider a special case: the speaker utters a sentence with a presupposition p which is not (...)
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  14. Philippe Schlenker (2011). Donkey Anaphora: The View From Sign Language (ASL and LSF). [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 34 (4):341-395.
    There are two main approaches to the problem of donkey anaphora (e.g. If John owns a donkey , he beats it ). Proponents of dynamic approaches take the pronoun to be a logical variable, but they revise the semantics of quantifiers so as to allow them to bind variables that are not within their syntactic scope. Older dynamic approaches took this measure to apply solely to existential quantifiers; recent dynamic approaches have extended it to all quantifiers. By contrast, proponents of (...)
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  15. Philippe Schlenker (2011). DRT with Local Contexts. Natural Language Semantics 19 (4):373-392.
    In this note, we reconstruct some results of the DRT analysis of presupposition projection within the theory of local contexts of Schlenker (2009). The latter offered a way to annotate every sentence with variables that denote the various local context sets that play a crucial role in Heim’s satisfaction theory (Heim 1983). In standard satisfaction theories, a presupposition must be entailed by its local context. Here we allow a presupposition to be indexed with other local contexts, and we propose, following (...)
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  16. Philippe Schlenker (2011). Erratum To: DRT with Local Contexts. [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 19 (4):393-393.
  17. Philippe Schlenker (2011). Quantifiers and Variables: Insights From Sign Language (ASL and LSF). The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 6 (1):16.
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  18. Philippe Schlenker (2011). The Proviso Problem: A Note. [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 19 (4):395-422.
    Several theories of presupposition projection predict that some sentences which intuitively yield unconditional presuppositions should have weaker, conditional ones. For instance, If John is realistic, he knows that he is incompetent is predicted to have the presupposition that if John is realistic, he is incompetent, whereas one certainly infers that John is in fact incompetent. We summarize some difficulties faced by three solutions, DRT, Singh’s ‘Formal Alternatives’, and Singh’s ‘Interacting Alternatives’; we then offer a new analysis which is compatible with (...)
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  19. Philippe Schlenker (2010). Local Contexts and Local Meanings. Philosophical Studies 151 (1):115--142.
    Stalnaker ( 1978 ) made two seminal claims about presuppositions. The most influential one was that presupposition projection is computed by a pragmatic mechanism based on a notion of ‘local context’ . Due to conceptual and technical difficulties, however, the latter notion was reinterpreted in purely semantic terms within ‘dynamic semantics’ (Heim 1983 ). The second claim was that some instances of presupposition generation should also be explained in pragmatic terms . But despite various attempts, the definition of a precise (...)
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  20. Philippe Schlenker (2010). Super Liars. Review of Symbolic Logic 3 (3):374-414.
    Kripke’s theory of truth succeeded in providing a trivalent semantics for a language that contains its own truth predicate and means of self-reference; but it did so by radically restricting the expressive power of the logic. In Kripke’s analysis, the Liar (e.g. This very sentence is not true) receives the indeterminate truth value; but the logic cannot express the fact that the Liar is something other than true: in order to do so, a weak negation not* would be needed, but (...)
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  21. Philippe Schlenker (2010). Singular Pronouns with Split Antecedents. Philosophy 14 (1):39-100.
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  22. Philippe Schlenker (2009). Anselm's Argument and Berry's Paradox. Noûs 43 (2):214 - 223.
    We argue that Anselm’s ontological argument (or at least one reconstruction of it) is based on an empirical version of Berry’s paradox. It is invalid, but it takes some understanding of trivalence to see why this is so. Under our analysis, Anselm’s use of the notion of existence is not the heart of the matter; rather, trivalence is.
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  23. Philippe Schlenker (2007). Anti-Dynamics: Presupposition Projection Without Dynamic Semantics. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (3):325--356.
    Heim 1983 suggested that the analysis of presupposition projection requires that the classical notion of meanings as truth conditions be replaced with a dynamic notion of meanings as Context Change Potentials. But as several researchers (including Heim herself) later noted, the dynamic framework is insufficiently predictive: although it allows one to state that, say, the dynamic effect of F and G is to first update a Context Set C with F and then with G (i.e., C[F and G] = C[F][G]), (...)
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  24. Philippe Schlenker (2007). How to Eliminate Self-Reference: A Précis. Synthese 158 (1):127 - 138.
    We provide a systematic recipe for eliminating self-reference from a simple language in which semantic paradoxes (whether purely logical or empirical) can be expressed. We start from a non-quantificational language L which contains a truth predicate and sentence names, and we associate to each sentence F of L an infinite series of translations h 0(F), h 1(F), ..., stated in a quantificational language L *. Under certain conditions, we show that none of the translations is self-referential, but that any one (...)
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  25. Philippe Schlenker (2006). Ontological Symmetry in Language: A Brief Manifesto. Mind and Language 21 (4):504–539.
    In the tradition of quantified modal logic, it was assumed that significantly different linguistic systems underlie reference to individuals, to times and to 'possible worlds'. Various results from recent research in formal semantics suggest that this is not so, and that there is in fact a pervasive symmetry between the linguistic means with which we refer to these three domains. Reference to individuals, times and worlds is uniformly effected through generalized quantifiers, definite descriptions, and pronouns, and in each domain grammatical (...)
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  26. Philippe Schlenker (2005). Minimize Restrictors!(Notes on Definite Descriptions, Condition Cand Epithets). In Emar Maier, Corien Bary & Janneke Huitink (eds.), Proceedings of Sub9.
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  27. Philippe Schlenker (2005). Non-Redundancy: Towards a Semantic Reinterpretation of Binding Theory. Natural Language Semantics 13 (1):1-92.
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  28. Philippe Schlenker (2004). Context of Thought and Context of Utterance: A Note on Free Indirect Discourse and the Historical Present. Mind and Language 19 (3):279–304.
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  29. Philippe Schlenker (2003). A Plea for Monsters. Linguistics and Philosophy 26 (1):29-120.
    Kaplan claims in Demonstratives that no operator may manipulate the context of evaluation of natural language indexicals. We show that this is not so. In fact, attitude reports always manipulate a context parameter (or, rather, a context variable). This is shown by (i) the existence of De Se readings of attitude reports in English (which Kaplan has no account for), and (ii) the existence of a variety of indexicals across languages whose point of evaluation can be shifted, but only in (...)
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  30. Philippe Schlenker (2003). Indexicality, Logophoricity, and Plural Pronouns. In Jacqueline Lecarme (ed.), Afroasiatic Grammar Ii: Selected Papers From the Fifth Conference on Afroasiatic Languages, Paris, 2000. John Benjamins. 409-428.
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