Search results for 'Phyllis McKay' (try it on Scholar)

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Profile: Phyllis McKay Illari (University of Kent at Canterbury)
  1. Phyllis McKay (2004). Newcomb's Problem: The Causalists Get Rich. Analysis 64 (2):187–189.
  2.  39
    Phyllis Kirstin McKay (2007). Freedom, Fiction and Evidential Decision Theory. Erkenntnis 66 (3):393 - 407.
    This paper argues against evidential decision-theory, by showing that the newest responses to its biggest current problem – the medical Newcomb problems – don’t work. The latest approach is described, and the arguments of two main proponents of it – Huw Price and CR Hitchcock – clearly distinguished and examined. It is argued that since neither new defence is successful, causation remains essential to understanding means-end agency.
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  3. Phyllis Kirstin McKay (2007). Freedom, Fiction and Evidential Decision Theory. Erkenntnis 66 (3):393-407.
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  4.  67
    Thomas J. McKay (2006). Plural Predication. Oxford University Press.
    Plural predication is a pervasive part of ordinary language. We can say that some people are fifty in number, are surrounding a building, come from many countries, and are classmates. These predicates can be true of some people without being true of any one of them; they are non-distributive predications. However, the apparatus of modern logic does not allow a place for them. Thomas McKay here explores the enrichment of logic with non-distributive plural predication and quantification. His book will (...)
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  5.  20
    John Sutton, Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett (2009). Adaptive Misbeliefs and False Memories. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):535.
    McKay & Dennett (M&D) suggest that some positive illusions are adaptive. But there is a bidirectional link between memory and positive illusions: Biased autobiographical memories filter incoming information, and self-enhancing information is preferentially attended and used to update memory. Extending M&D's approach, I ask if certain false memories might be adaptive, defending a broad view of the psychosocial functions of remembering.
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  6.  19
    Dan Sperber, Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett (2009). Culturally Transmitted Misbeliefs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):534.
    Most human beliefs are acquired through communication, and so are most misbeliefs. Just like the misbeliefs discussed by McKay & Dennett (M&D), culturally transmitted misbeliefs tend to result from limitations rather than malfunctions of the mechanisms that produce them, and few if any can be argued to be adaptations. However, the mechanisms involved, the contents, and the hypothetical adaptive value tend to be specific to the cultural case.
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  7.  10
    Ara Norenzayan, Azim F. Shariff, Will M. Gervais, Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett (2009). The Evolution of Religious Misbelief. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):531.
    Inducing religious thoughts increases prosocial behavior among strangers in anonymous contexts. These effects can be explained both by behavioral priming processes as well as by reputational mechanisms. We examine whether belief in moralizing supernatural agents supplies a case for what McKay & Dennett (M&D) call evolved misbelief, concluding that they might be more persuasively seen as an example of culturally evolved misbelief.
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  8.  12
    James R. Liddle, Todd K. Shackelford, Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett (2009). Are Beliefs the Proper Targets of Adaptationist Analyses? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):528.
    McKay & Dennett's (M&D's) description of beliefs, and misbeliefs in particular, is a commendable contribution to the literature; but we argue that referring to beliefs as adaptive or maladaptive can cause conceptual confusion. is inconsistently defined in the article, which adds to confusion and renders it difficult to evaluate the claims, particularly the possibility of.
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  9.  9
    Phyllis McKay Illari (2012). The Heuristics of Mechanism Discovery. Metascience 21 (3):693-697.
    The heuristics of mechanism discovery Content Type Journal Article Category Essay Review Pages 1-5 DOI 10.1007/s11016-012-9649-2 Authors Phyllis McKay Illari, Philosophy, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL10 9AB UK Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  10. Ryan McKay, Danica Mijovi??-Prelec, Dra?? en Prelec, William von Hippel & Robert Trivers (2011). Protesting Too Much: Self-Deception and Self-Signaling. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (1):34.
    Von Hippel & Trivers (VH&T) propose that self-deception has evolved to facilitate the deception of others. However, they ignore the subjective moral costs of deception and the crucial issue of credibility in self-deceptive speech. A self-signaling interpretation can account for the ritualistic quality of some self-deceptive affirmations and for the often-noted gap between what self-deceivers say and what they truly believe.
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  11.  30
    Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett (2009). The Evolution of Misbelief. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):493.
    From an evolutionary standpoint, a default presumption is that true beliefs are adaptive and misbeliefs maladaptive. But if humans are biologically engineered to appraise the world accurately and to form true beliefs, how are we to explain the routine exceptions to this rule? How can we account for mistaken beliefs, bizarre delusions, and instances of self-deception? We explore this question in some detail. We begin by articulating a distinction between two general types of misbelief: those resulting from a breakdown in (...)
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  12. Yvette N. Lamb, Christopher S. Thompson, Nicole S. McKay, Karen E. Waldie & Ian J. Kirk (2015). The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66met Polymorphism Differentially Affects Performance on Subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  13.  39
    Phyllis McKay Illari (2011). Mechanistic Evidence: Disambiguating the Russo–Williamson Thesis. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (2):139 - 157.
    Russo and Williamson claim that establishing causal claims requires mechanistic and difference-making evidence. In this article, I will argue that Russo and Williamson's formulation of their thesis is multiply ambiguous. I will make three distinctions: mechanistic evidence as type vs object of evidence; what mechanism or mechanisms we want evidence of; and how much evidence of a mechanism we require. I will feed these more precise meanings back into the Russo?Williamson thesis and argue that it is both true and false: (...)
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  14. Thomas McKay & David Johnson (1996). A Reconsideration of an Argument Against Compatibilism. Philosophical Topics 24 (2):113-122.
  15.  14
    Ryan Mckay (2012). Delusional Inference. Mind and Language 27 (3):330-355.
    Does the formation of delusions involve abnormal reasoning? According to the prominent ‘two-factor’ theory of delusions (e.g. Coltheart, 2007), the answer is yes. The second factor in this theory is supposed to affect a deluded individual's ability to evaluate candidates for belief. However, most published accounts of the two-factor theory have not said much about the nature of this second factor. In an effort to remedy this shortcoming, Coltheart, Menzies and Sutton (2010) recently put forward a Bayesian account of inference (...)
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  16.  32
    Phyllis McKay Illari & Jon Williamson (2010). Function and Organization: Comparing the Mechanisms of Protein Synthesis and Natural Selection. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 41 (3):279-291.
    In this paper, we compare the mechanisms of protein synthesis and natural selection. We identify three core elements of mechanistic explanation: functional individuation, hierarchical nestedness or decomposition, and organization. These are now well understood elements of mechanistic explanation in fields such as protein synthesis, and widely accepted in the mechanisms literature. But Skipper and Millstein have argued that natural selection is neither decomposable nor organized. This would mean that much of the current mechanisms literature does not apply to the mechanism (...)
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  17.  39
    Thomas J. McKay (2015). Stuff and Coincidence. Philosophical Studies 172 (11):3081-3100.
    Anyone who admits the existence of composite objects allows a certain kind of coincidence, coincidence of a thing with its parts. I argue here that a similar sort of coincidence, coincidence of a thing with the stuff that constitutes it, should be equally acceptable. Acknowledgement of this is enough to solve the traditional problem of the coincidence of a statue and the clay or bronze it is made of. In support of this, I offer some principles for the persistence of (...)
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  18.  90
    Phyllis McKay Illari & Jon Williamson (2011). Mechanisms Are Real and Local. In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. OUP Oxford
    Mechanisms have become much-discussed, yet there is still no consensus on how to characterise them. In this paper, we start with something everyone is agreed on – that mechanisms explain – and investigate what constraints this imposes on our metaphysics of mechanisms. We examine two widely shared premises about how to understand mechanistic explanation: (1) that mechanistic explanation offers a welcome alternative to traditional laws-based explanation and (2) that there are two senses of mechanistic explanation that we call ‘epistemic explanation’ (...)
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  19.  2
    Lukasz Piwek, Lawrie S. McKay & Frank E. Pollick (2014). Empirical Evaluation of the Uncanny Valley Hypothesis Fails to Confirm the Predicted Effect of Motion. Cognition 130 (3):271-277.
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  20.  66
    Lorenzo Casini, Phyllis Mckay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (2011). Models for Prediction, Explanation and Control. Theoria 26 (1):5-33.
    The Recursive Bayesian Net (RBN) formalism was originally developed for modelling nested causal relationships. In this paper we argue that the formalism can also be applied to modelling the hierarchical structure of mechanisms. The resulting network contains quantitative information about probabilities, as well as qualitative information about mechanistic structure and causal relations. Since information about probabilities, mechanisms and causal relations is vital for prediction, explanation and control respectively, an RBN can be applied to all these tasks. We show in particular (...)
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  21.  20
    R. Mckay & L. CipoLotti (2007). Attributional Style in a Case of Cotard Delusion. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):349-359.
    Young and colleagues . Betwixt life and death: case studies of the Cotard delusion. In P. W. Halligan & J. C. Marshall , Method in madness: Case studies in cognitive neuropsychiatry. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.) have suggested that cases of the Cotard delusion result when a particular perceptual anomaly occurs in the context of an internalising attributional style. This hypothesis has not previously been tested directly. We report here an investigation of attributional style in a 24-year-old woman with Cotard (...)
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  22.  16
    Maarten Boudry, Michael Vlerick & Ryan McKay (2015). Can Evolution Get Us Off the Hook? Evaluating the Ecological Defence of Human Rationality. Consciousness and Cognition 33:524-535.
    This paper discusses the ecological case for epistemic innocence: does biased cognition have evolutionary benefits, and if so, does that exculpate human reasoners from irrationality? Proponents of ‘ecological rationality’ have challenged the bleak view of human reasoning emerging from research on biases and fallacies. If we approach the human mind as an adaptive toolbox, tailored to the structure of the environment, many alleged biases and fallacies turn out to be artefacts of narrow norms and artificial set-ups. However, we argue that (...)
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  23. T. D. Campbell & A. J. M. McKay (1978). Antenatal Injury and the Rights of the Foetus. Philosophical Quarterly 28 (110):17-30.
  24. C. G. McKay (1971). A Class of Decidable Intermediate Propositional Logics. Journal of Symbolic Logic 36 (1):127-128.
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  25.  15
    Matthew G. McKay (2015). Reflecting on Access to Common Property Coastal Resources Via a Case Study Along Connecticut’s Shoreline. Environment, Space, Place 7 (1):68-104.
    Public access to the commons is often restricted, thus leading to implicit regulations. This is relevant toward spatial systems, as an important geographical issue is access to various sites over space, and this paper presents varying degrees of accessibility in different places. There is a dialectic struggle to enhance access to the commons as a fundamental right of the public, with the need to balance tourism and recreational uses of coastal resources with conservation and preservation eff orts. This paper will (...)
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  26.  5
    Robert Stewart, Sabrina D. Volpone, Derek R. Avery & Patrick McKay (2011). You Support Diversity, But Are You Ethical? Examining the Interactive Effects of Diversity and Ethical Climate Perceptions on Turnover Intentions. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 100 (4):581 - 593.
    Efforts to identify antecedents of employee turnover are likely to offer value to organizations through money saved on recruitment and new-hire training. The authors utilized the stakeholder perspective to corporate social responsibility to examine the effects of a perceived climate for ethics on the relationship between diversity climate and voluntary turnover intentions. Specifically, they examined how ethics climate (employees' perceptions that their organization values and enforces ethically correct behavior) affected the diversity climate-turnover intentions relationship. Results indicated that ethics climate moderated (...)
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  27.  41
    Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.) (2011). Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press.
    The book tackles these questions as well as others concerning the use of causality in the sciences.
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  28.  12
    R. Mckay, R. Langdon & M. Coltheart (2007). Models of Misbelief: Integrating Motivational and Deficit Theories of Delusions. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (4):932-941.
    The impact of our desires and preferences upon our ordinary, everyday beliefs is well-documented [Gilovich, T. . How we know what isn’t so: The fallibility of human reason in everyday life. New York: The Free Press.]. The influence of such motivational factors on delusions, which are instances of pathological misbelief, has tended however to be neglected by certain prevailing models of delusion formation and maintenance. This paper explores a distinction between two general classes of theoretical explanation for delusions; the motivational (...)
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  29.  22
    Thomas McKay, Propositional Attitude Reports. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  30.  16
    Kerri L. Johnson, Lawrie S. McKay & Frank E. Pollick (2011). He Throws Like a Girl : Emotion Affects Sex-Decoding of Biological Motion Displays. Cognition 119 (2):265-280.
  31.  14
    Pascal Boyer, Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett (2009). Extending the Range of Adaptive Misbelief: Memory “Distortions” as Functional Features. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):513.
    A large amount of research in cognitive psychology is focused on memory distortions, understood as deviations from various (largely implicit) standards. Many alleged distortions actually suggest a highly functional system that balances the cost of acquiring new information with the benefit of relevant, contextually appropriate decision-making. In this sense many memories may be examples of functionally adaptive misbelief.
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  32. Steve McKay, Biological Rationalism.
    I argue that contemporary philosophy of language in the analytic tradition rests on two fundamentally wrong assumptions: empiricism and externalism. After I show why these two assumptions are incorrect, I turn my attention to biological rationalism. Biological rationalism—a research program inspired by the work of Noam Chomsky—is committed to nativism and internalism. I believe biological rationalism provides the best framework to achieve a genuine understanding of language. I try to show this by considering the biological rationalist answers to major problems (...)
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  33.  4
    John McKay, Paul Bowie & Murray Lough (2006). Variations in the Ability of General Medical Practitioners to Apply Two Methods of Clinical Audit: A Five‐Year Study of Assessment by Peer Review. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (6):622-629.
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  34.  50
    Thomas McKay (1981). On Proper Names in Belief Ascriptions. Philosophical Studies 39 (3):287-303.
  35.  15
    Thomas J. McKay (2008). Critical Notice. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (2):301-323.
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  36.  92
    Thomas J. McKay (2008). Review of H. Laycock, Words Without Objects: Semantics, Ontology, and Logic for Non-Singularity. [REVIEW] Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (2):pp. 301-323.
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  37.  24
    George Ainslie, Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett (2009). Non-Instrumental Belief is Largely Founded on Singularity 1. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):511.
    The radical evolutionary step that divides human decision-making from that of nonhumans is the ability to excite the reward process for its own sake, in imagination. Combined with hyperbolic over-valuation of the present, this ability is a potential threat to both the individual's long term survival and the natural selection of high intelligence. Human belief is intrinsically or under-founded, which may or may not be adaptive.
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  38.  54
    T. J. McKay (2012). New Essays on Singular Thought * Edited by Robin Jeshion. Analysis 72 (1):177-181.
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  39.  6
    Paul Bowie, Sarah Cooke, Penny Lo, John McKay & Murray Lough (2007). The Assessment of Criterion Audit Cycles by External Peer Review – When is an Audit Not an Audit? Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 13 (3):352-357.
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  40.  35
    Thomas Mckay & Peter Van Inwagen (1977). Counterfactuals with Disjunctive Antecedents. Philosophical Studies 31 (5):353 - 356.
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  41.  24
    Daniel Dennett & Ryan McKay (2006). A Continuum of Mindfulness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (4):353-354.
    Mesoudi et al. overlook an illuminating parallel between cultural and biological evolution, namely, the existence in each realm of a continuum from intelligent, mindful evolution through to oblivious, mindless evolution. In addition, they underplay the independence of cultural fitness from biological fitness. The assumption that successful cultural traits enhance genetic fitness must be sidelined, as must the assumption that such traits will at least be considered worth having. (Published Online November 9 2006).
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  42.  66
    Thomas J. McKay (1975). Essentialism in Quantified Modal Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 4 (4):423 - 438.
    This paper mentions several different sorts of "essentialism," and examines various senses in which quantified modal logic is "committed to" the most troublesome kind of essentialism. It is argued that essentialism is neither provable, Nor entailed by any contingently true non-Modal sentence. But quantified modal logic is committed to the meaningfulness of essentialism. This sort of commitment may be made innocuous by requiring that essentialism simply be made logically false; some of the consequences of taking this line are explored.
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  43.  2
    Thomas McKay & Peter Van Inwagen (1977). Counterfactuals with Disjunctive Antecedents. Philosophical Studies 31 (5):353 - 356.
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  44.  4
    C. G. McKay (1967). A Note on The Jaśkowski Sequence. Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 13 (6):95-96.
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  45.  35
    Ruth Burnice McKay (2000). Consequential Utilitarianism: Addressing Ethical Deficiencies in the Municipal Landfill Siting Process. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 26 (4):289 - 306.
    This paper examines ethical concerns of the utilitarian paradigm, the greatest good for the greatest number, advocated by many proponents and consultants in siting landfills. The implications of the consequentialist utilitarian approach are considered through the examination of a landfill-site-search case study in Ontario, Canada. Limitations to such an approach, in terms of differing values, equal consideration, equitable participation, distributive justice and the emphasis on non-quantifiable factors are discussed. Recommendations to improve the process are made based on the ethical analysis (...)
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  46.  4
    P. McKay (2004). Newcomb's Problem: The Causalists Get Rich. Analysis 64 (2):187-189.
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  47.  7
    Robert McKay (2001). Getting Close to Animals with Alice Walker's The Temple of My Familiar. Society and Animals 9 (3):253-271.
    This article offers an analysis of Alice Walker's novel The Temple of My Familiar. It critiques the claim that humans' ability to use language, regarded in this article as equivalent to one sense of the word representation, marks the essential difference of humans from animals. The argument has two stages. The first claims that the novel offers a way to bridge this supposed fundamental difference in order that representation, in a second sense of speaking or advocating for animals, can effectively (...)
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  48.  9
    Dominic Dp Johnson, Ryan T. McKay & Daniel C. Dennett (2009). God Would Be a Costly Accident: Supernatural Beliefs as Adaptive. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):523.
    I take up the challenge of why false beliefs are better than (target article, sect. 9) in navigating adaptive problems with asymmetric errors. I then suggest that there are interactions between supernatural beliefs, self-deception, and positive illusions, rendering elements of all such misbeliefs adaptive. Finally, I argue that supernatural beliefs cannot be rejected as adaptive simply because recent experiments are inconclusive. The great costs of religion betray its even greater adaptive benefits – we just have not yet nailed down exactly (...)
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  49.  13
    A. C. McKay (2002). Supererogation and the Profession of Medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics 28 (2):70-73.
    In the light of increasing public mistrust, there is an urgent need to clarify the moral status of the medical profession and of the relationship of the clinician to his/her patients. In addressing this question, I first establish the coherence, within moral philosophy generally, of the concept of supererogation . I adopt the notion of an act of “unqualified” supererogation as one that is non-derivatively good, praiseworthy, and freely undertaken for others' benefit at the risk of some cost to the (...)
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  50.  2
    Daniel McKay (2015). The Poetics of Apology. Common Knowledge 21 (3):464-483.
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