Search results for 'Physical measurements' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Avshalom C. Elitzur & Shahar Dolev (2008). Undoing Quantum Measurements: Novel Twists to the Physical Account of Time. In World Scientific (ed.), Physics of Emergence and Organization. 61--75.score: 122.0
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  2. Terhi Mäntylä & Ismo T. Koponen (2007). Understanding the Role of Measurements in Creating Physical Quantities: A Case Study of Learning to Quantify Temperature in Physics Teacher Education. Science and Education 16 (3-5):291-311.score: 120.0
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  3. Johannes B. J. Bussmann & Rita J. G. van den Berg-Emons (2013). To Total Amount of Activity….. And Beyond: Perspectives on Measuring Physical Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 74.0
    The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs and outcome parameters of physical behaviour. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity & active lifestyle vs. sedentary behaviour & sedentary lifestyle; Amount of physical activity vs. amount of walking; Detailed body posture & movement data vs. overall physical activity data; Behavioural context of activities; Quantity vs. quality; Physical behaviour vs. physiological response. Subsequently, the following outcome parameters provided (...)
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  4. Karl Rogers (2005). On the Metaphysics of Experimental Physics. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 72.0
    This provocative and critical work addresses the question of why scientific realists and positivists consider experimental physics to be a natural and empirical science. Taking insights from contemporary science studies, continental philosophy, and the history of physics, this book describes and analyzes the metaphysical presuppositions that underwrite the technological use of experimental apparatus and instruments to explore, model, and understand nature.
     
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  5. Daniel M. Greenberger (ed.) (1986). New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement Theory. New York Academy of Sciences.score: 70.0
  6. [deleted]Ranjana K. Mehta & Raja Parasuraman (2013). Neuroergonomics: A Review of Applications to Physical and Cognitive Work. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:889.score: 66.0
    Neuroergonomics is an emerging science that is defined as the study of the human brain in relation to performance at work and in everyday settings. This paper provides a critical review of the neuroergonomic approach to evaluating physical and cognitive work, particularly in mobile settings. Neuroergonomics research employing mobile and immobile brain imaging techniques are discussed in the following areas of physical and cognitive work: 1) physical work parameters; 2) physical fatigue; 3) vigilance and mental fatigue; (...)
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  7. Ave Mets (2013). Measurement Theory, Nomological Machine And Measurement Uncertainties (In Classical Physics). Studia Philosophica Estonica 5 (2):167-186.score: 64.0
    Measurement is said to be the basis of exact sciences as the process of assigning numbers to matter (things or their attributes), thus making it possible to apply the mathematically formulated laws of nature to the empirical world. Mathematics and empiria are best accorded to each other in laboratory experiments which function as what Nancy Cartwright calls nomological machine: an arrangement generating (mathematical) regularities. On the basis of accounts of measurement errors and uncertainties, I will argue for two claims: 1) (...)
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  8. Gianni Cassinelli & Pekka J. Lahti (1989). The Measurement Statistics Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: Possible Values and Possible Measurement Results of Physical Quantities. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 19 (7):873-890.score: 62.0
    Starting with the Born interpretation of quantum mechanics, we show that the quantum theory of measurement, supplemented by the strong law of large numbers, leads to a measurement statistics interpretation of quantum mechanics. A probabilistic characterization of the spectrum of a physical quantity is given, and an analysis of the notions of possible values and possible measurement results is carried out.
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  9. Martina Kanning (2012). Using Objective, Real-Time Measures to Investigate the Effect of Actual Physical Activity on Affective States in Everyday Life Differentiating the Contexts of Working and Leisure Time in a Sample with Students. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 62.0
    Multiple studies suggest that physical activity causes positive affective reactions and reduces depressive mood. However, studies and interventions focused mostly on structured activity programs, but rarely on actual physical activity (aPA) in daily life. Furthermore, they seldom account for the context in which the aPA occur (e.g. work, leisure). Using a prospective, real time assessment design (ambulatory assessment), we investigated the effects of aPA on affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness) in real time during everyday life while controlling (...)
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  10. John T. Roberts (2005). Measurability and Physical Laws. Synthese 144 (3):433Ð447.score: 60.0
    I propose and motivate a new account of fundamental physical laws, the Measurability Account of Laws (MAL). This account has a distinctive logical form, in that it takes the primary nomological concept to be that of a law relative to a given theory, and defines a law simpliciter as a law relative to some true theory. What makes a proposition a law relative to a theory is that it plays an indispensable role in demonstrating that some quantity posited by (...)
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  11. Brent Mundy (1987). Faithful Representation, Physical Extensive Measurement Theory and Archimedean Axioms. Synthese 70 (3):373 - 400.score: 60.0
    The formal methods of the representational theory of measurement (RTM) are applied to the extensive scales of physical science, with some modifications of interpretation and of formalism. The interpretative modification is in the direction of theoretical realism rather than the narrow empiricism which is characteristic of RTM. The formal issues concern the formal representational conditions which extensive scales should be assumed to satisfy; I argue in the physical case for conditions related to weak rather than strong extensive measurement, (...)
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  12. Brian Joseph Brinkworth (1968). An Introduction to Experimentation. New York, American Elsevier Pub. Co..score: 60.0
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  13. Bernard D' Espagnat (1976/1989). Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Addison-Wesley, Advanced Book Program.score: 60.0
  14. Russell Fox (1963/1964). The Science of Science. New York, Walker.score: 60.0
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  15. Andrei Y. Khrennikov & Elena R. Loubenets (2004). On Relations Between Probabilities Under Quantum and Classical Measurements. Foundations of Physics 34 (4):689-704.score: 56.0
    We show that the so-called quantum probabilistic rule, usually introduced in the physical literature as an argument of the essential distinction between the probability relations under quantum and classical measurements, is not, as it is commonly accepted, in contrast to the rule for the addition of probabilities of mutually exclusive events. The latter is valid under all experimental situations upon classical and quantum systems. We discuss also the quantum measurement situation that is similar to the classical one, described (...)
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  16. Kenneth H. Norwich (2005). Physical Entropy and the Senses. Acta Biotheoretica 53 (3).score: 56.0
    With reference to two specific modalities of sensation, the taste of saltiness of chloride salts, and the loudness of steady tones, it is shown that the laws of sensation (logarithmic and power laws) are expressions of the entropy per mole of the stimulus. That is, the laws of sensation are linear functions of molar entropy. In partial verification of this hypothesis, we are able to derive an approximate value for the gas constant, a fundamental physical constant, directly from psychophysical (...)
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  17. Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti (1989). The Determination of the Past and the Future of a Physical System in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 19 (6):633-678.score: 56.0
    The determination of the past and the future of a physical system are complementary aims of measurements. An optimal determination of the past of a system can be achieved by an informationally complete set of physical quantities. Such a set is always strongly noncommutative. An optimal determination of the future of a physical system can be obtained by a Boolean complete set of quantities. The two aims can be reconciled to a reasonable degree with using unsharp (...)
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  18. Horst-Heino von Borzeszkowski & Renate Wahsner (1988). Quantum Mechanics and the Physical Reality Concept. Foundations of Physics 18 (6):669-681.score: 56.0
    The difference between the measurement bases of classical and quantum mechanics is often interpreted as a loss of reality arising in quantum mechanics. In this paper it is shown that this apparent loss occurs only if one believes that refined everyday experience determines the Euclidean space as the real space, instead of considering this space, both in classical and quantum mechanics, as a theoretical construction needed for measurement and representing one part of a dualistic space conception. From this point of (...)
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  19. M. A. Nielsen, Computable Functions, Quantum Measurements, and Quantum Dynamics.score: 54.0
    Quantum mechanical measurements on a physical system are represented by observables - Hermitian operators on the state space of the observed system. It is an important question whether all observables may be realized, in principle, as measurements on a physical system. Dirac’s influential text ( [1], page 37) makes the following assertion on the question: The question now presents itself – Can every observable be measured? The answer theoretically is yes. In practice it may be very (...)
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  20. R. N. Sen (2008). Physics and the Measurement of Continuous Variables. Foundations of Physics 38 (4):301-316.score: 54.0
    This paper addresses the doubts voiced by Wigner about the physical relevance of the concept of geometrical points by exploiting some facts known to all but honored by none: Almost all real numbers are transcendental; the explicit representation of any one will require an infinite amount of physical resources. An instrument devised to measure a continuous real variable will need a continuum of internal states to achieve perfect resolution. Consequently, a laboratory instrument for measuring a continuous variable in (...)
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  21. Edwin J. Beggs, José Félix Costa & John V. Tucker (2010). Physical Oracles: The Turing Machine and the Wheatstone Bridge. Studia Logica 95 (1/2):279 - 300.score: 54.0
    Earlier, we have studied computations possible by physical systems and by algorithms combined with physical systems. In particular, we have analysed the idea of using an experiment as an oracle to an abstract computational device, such as the Turing machine. The theory of composite machines of this kind can be used to understand (a) a Turing machine receiving extra computational power from a physical process, or (b) an experimenter modelled as a Turing machine performing a test of (...)
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  22. Diederik Aerts (2014). Quantum and Concept Combination, Entangled Measurements, and Prototype Theory. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):129-137.score: 54.0
    We analyze the meaning of the violation of the marginal probability law for situations of correlation measurements where entanglement is identified. We show that for quantum theory applied to the cognitive realm such a violation does not lead to the type of problems commonly believed to occur in situations of quantum theory applied to the physical realm. We briefly situate our quantum approach for modeling concepts and their combinations with respect to the notions of “extension” and “intension” in (...)
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  23. Arkadiy Lipkin (2008). "Object Theoretic-Operational" View of Physical Knowledge. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 43:109-116.score: 54.0
    The "object theoretic operational view" suggests a new structure of physical knowledge. This view takes branches of physics as basic units. Its main concepts are primary (PIO) and secondary (SIO) ideal objects with the explicit definition of SIO through PIO and the implicit definition of PIOs within appropriate systems of statements, called a "nucleus of a branch of physics" (NBP). Within an NBP (which has a definite structure) the focus shifts from discovering "laws of nature" to definition of a (...)
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  24. H. H. Pattee (2013). Epistemic, Evolutionary, and Physical Conditions for Biological Information. Biosemiotics 6 (1):9-31.score: 50.0
    The necessary but not sufficient conditions for biological informational concepts like signs, symbols, memories, instructions, and messages are (1) an object or referent that the information is about, (2) a physical embodiment or vehicle that stands for what the information is about (the object), and (3) an interpreter or agent that separates the referent information from the vehicle’s material structure, and that establishes the stands-for relation. This separation is named the epistemic cut, and explaining clearly how the stands-for relation (...)
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  25. C. D'Antonl & P. Scanzano (1980). An Application of Information Theory: Longitudinal Measurability Bounds in Classical and Quantum Physics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 10 (11-12):875-885.score: 50.0
    We examine the problem of the existence (in classical and/or quantum physics) of longitudinal limitations of measurability, defined as limitations preventing the measurement of a given quantity with arbitrarily high accuracy. We consider a measuring device as a generalized communication system, which enables us to use methods of information theory. As a direct consequence of the Shannon theorem on channel capacity, we obtain an inequality which limits the accuracy of a measurement in terms of the average power necessary to transmit (...)
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  26. Stojan Obradovć (2013). Empirical Evidence in the Structure of Physical Theories. Foundations of Science 18 (2):307-318.score: 50.0
    The author considers the empirical component of physical theories. He studies the origin and development of the theory of physical experiment, the structure and gnoseological hypotheses of the measuring process, as well as the relativity principle concerning the measuring equipment. Examples of modern physical theories are used in order to demonstrate the influence of experimental facts on the formation and development, verification and accepting of these theories in the structure of scientific systems. The role of accidental experimental (...)
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  27. John F. Cyranski (1979). Measurement Theory for Physics. Foundations of Physics 9 (9-10):641-671.score: 50.0
    A highly abstracted theory of measurement is synthesized from classical measurement theory, fuzzy set theory, generalized information theory, and predicate calculus. The theory does not require specific truth value concepts, nor does it specify what subsets of the reals can be observed, thus avoiding the usual fundamental difficulties. Problems such as the definition of systems, the significance of observations, numerical scales and observables, etc. are examined. The general logico-algebraic approach to quantum/classical physics is justified as a special case of measurement (...)
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  28. O. Darrigol (2003). Number and Measure: Hermann Von Helmholtz at the Crossroads of Mathematics, Physics, and Psychology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (3):515-573.score: 48.0
    In 1887 Helmholtz discussed the foundations of measurement in science as a last contribution to his philosophy of knowledge. This essay borrowed from earlier debates on the foundations of mathematics (Grassmann / Du Bois), on the possibility of quantitative psychology (Fechner / Kries, Wundt / Zeller), and on the meaning of temperature measurement (Maxwell, Mach). Late nineteenth-century scrutinisers of the foundations of mathematics (Dedekind, Cantor, Frege, Russell) made little of Helmholtz's essay. Yet it inspired two mathematicians with an eye on (...)
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  29. Rodolfo Gambini & Jorge Pullin (2007). Relational Physics with Real Rods and Clocks and the Measurement Problem of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 37 (7):1074-1092.score: 48.0
    The use of real clocks and measuring rods in quantum mechanics implies a natural loss of unitarity in the description of the theory. We briefly review this point and then discuss the implications it has for the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. The intrinsic loss of coherence allows to circumvent some of the usual objections to the measurement process as due to environmental decoherence.
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  30. Daniel Jon Mitchell (2012). Measurement in French Experimental Physics From Regnault to Lippmann. Rhetoric and Theoretical Practice. Annals of Science 69 (4):453-482.score: 48.0
    Summary This paper explores the legacy of the great French experimental physicist Victor Regnault through the example of Gabriel Lippmann, whose engagement with electrical standardization during the early 1880s was guided by Regnault's methodological precept to measure ?directly?. Lippmann's education reveals that the theoretical practice of ?direct? measurement entailed eliminating extraneous physical effects through the experimental design, rather than, like physicists in Britain and Germany, making numerical ?corrections? to measured values. It also provides, paradoxically, exemplars of the qualitative theoretical (...)
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  31. J. E. Baggott (2004). Beyond Measure: Modern Physics, Philosophy, and the Meaning of Quantum Theory. Oxford University Press.score: 46.0
    Quantum theory is one the most important and successful theories of modern physical science. It has been estimated that its principles form the basis for about 30 per cent of the world's manufacturing economy. This is all the more remarkable because quantum theory is a theory that nobody understands. The meaning of Quantum Theory introduces science students to the theory's fundamental conceptual and philosophical problems, and the basis of its non-understandability. It does this with the barest minimum of jargon (...)
     
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  32. James L. Park & William Band (1992). Preparation and Measurement in Quantum Physics. Foundations of Physics 22 (5):657-668.score: 44.0
    To honor Henry Margenau on the occasion of his 90th birthday, we attempt in this essay to integrate certain aspects of the physics, philosophy, and pedagogy of quantum mechanics in a manner very much inspired by Margenau's idealist scientific epistemology. Over half a century ago, Margenau was perhaps the first philosopher of science to recognize and elaborate upon the essential distinction between thepreparation of a quantum state and themeasurement of an observable associated with a system in that state; yet in (...)
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  33. F. Jenč (1979). The Conceptual Analysis (CA) Method in Theories of Microchannels: Application to Quantum Theory. Part II. Idealizations. “Perfect Measurements”. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 9 (9-10):707-737.score: 44.0
    The application of the conceptual analysis (CA) method outlined in Part I is illustrated on the example of quantum mechanics. In Part II, we deduce the complete-lattice structure in quantum mechanics from postulates specifying the idealizations that are accepted in the theory. The idealized abstract concepts are introduced by means of a topological extension of the basic structure (obtained in Part I) in accord with the “approximation principle”; the relevant topologies are not arbitrarily chosen; they are fixed by the choice (...)
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  34. Henry Margenau & James L. Park (1973). The Physics and the Semantics of Quantum Measurement. Foundations of Physics 3 (1):19-28.score: 44.0
    In a recent paper, Prugovečki offered a theory of simultaneous measurements based upon an axiomatic description of the measurement act which excludes certain illustrations of simultaneous measurement previously discussed by the present writers. In this article, the fundamental conceptions of state preparation, state determination, and measurement which underlie our research are compared to Prugovečki's interpretations of the analogous constructs in his theory of measurement.
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  35. T. E. Feuchtwang, E. Kazes & P. H. Cutler (1986). Generalized Gauge Independence and the Physical Limitations on the von Neumann Measurement Postulate. Foundations of Physics 16 (12):1263-1284.score: 44.0
    An analysis is presented of the significance and consequent limitations on the applicability of the von Neumann measurement postulate in quantum mechanics. Directly observable quantities, such as the expectation value of the velocity operator, are distinguished from mathematical constructs, such as the expectation value of the canonical momentum, which are not directly observable. A simple criterion to distinguish between the two types of operators is derived. The non-observability of the electromagnetic four-potentials is shown to imply the non-measurability of the canonical (...)
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  36. Christopher E. Degenhardt (2008). Feminine Ethics in the New Measure of Humanity: A Review of Dr George R. Cockburn's Book: A Bio-Aesthetic Key to Creative Physics and Art (1984). [REVIEW] Escape Gallery.score: 44.0
     
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  37. Henry Margenau (1963). Measurements and Quantum States: Part II. Philosophy of Science 30 (2):138-157.score: 42.0
    This is the second, mathematically more detailed part of a paper consisting of two articles, the first having appeared in the immediately preceding issue of this Journal. It shows that a measurement converts a pure case into a mixture with reducible probabilities. The measurement as such permits no inference whatever as to the state of the physical system subjected to measurement after the measurement has been performed. But because the probabilities after the act are classical and therefore reducible, it (...)
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  38. J. Wackermann (2008). Measure of Time: A Meeting Point of Psychophysics and Fundamental Physics. Mind and Matter 6 (1):9-50.score: 42.0
    In the present paper the relation between objective and subjective time is studied from a neutral non-dualist perspective Adoption of the relational concept of time leads to fundamental problems of time measurement of the uniformity of time measures, and of a native measure of duration in subjective experience. Experimental data on discrimination and reproduction of time intervals are reviewed and relevant models of internal time representations are discussed. Special attention is given to the 'dual klepsydra model' (DKM)and to the outstanding (...)
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  39. Gunnar Sperber (1974). On Measurement and Irreversible Processes. Foundations of Physics 4 (2):163-179.score: 42.0
    The nature of physical measurements performed on microscopic systems is discussed, and it is suggested that the procedures which are conventionally referred to as “measurements” fall into at least three different categories. The connection between observation processes and irreversible processes is stressed. The customary quantum mechanical treatment of irreversible processes is discussed, and its deficiencies from the philosophical point of view are criticized. The standpoint that quantum mechanics should not be considered as a basic philosophical system but (...)
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  40. Robert DiSalle (2006). Understanding Space-Time: The Philosophical Development of Physics From Newton to Einstein. Cambridge University Press.score: 40.0
    Presenting the history of space-time physics, from Newton to Einstein, as a philosophical development DiSalle reflects our increasing understanding of the connections between ideas of space and time and our physical knowledge. He suggests that philosophy's greatest impact on physics has come about, less by the influence of philosophical hypotheses, than by the philosophical analysis of concepts of space, time, and motion and the roles they play in our assumptions about physical objects and physical measurements. This (...)
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  41. Thomas S. Kuhn (1961). The Function of Measurement in Modern Physical Sciences. Isis 52:161-193.score: 40.0
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  42. G. S. Paraoanu (2011). Partial Measurements and the Realization of Quantum-Mechanical Counterfactuals. Foundations of Physics 41 (7):1214-1235.score: 40.0
    We propose partial measurements as a conceptual tool to understand how to operate with counterfactual claims in quantum physics. Indeed, unlike standard von Neumann measurements, partial measurements can be reversed probabilistically. We first analyze the consequences of this rather unusual feature for the principle of superposition, for the complementarity principle, and for the issue of hidden variables. Then we move on to exploring non-local contexts, by reformulating the EPR paradox, the quantum teleportation experiment, and the entanglement-swapping protocol (...)
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  43. Olival Freire Jr (2004). The Historical Roots of ''Foundations of Quantum Physics'' as a Field of Research (1950–1970). Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1741-1760.score: 40.0
    The rising interest, in the late 20th century, in the foundations of quantum physics, a subject in which Franco Selleri has excelled, has suggested the fair question: how did it become so? The current answer says that experiments have allowed to bring into the laboratories some previous gedanken experiments, beginning with those about EPR and related to Bell’s inequalities. I want to explore an alternative view, by which there would have been, before Bell’s inequalities experimental tests, a change in the (...)
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  44. Jenann Ismael, Probability in Classical Physics: The Fundamental Measure.score: 40.0
  45. Henry Margenau (1958). Philosophical Problems Concerning the Meaning of Measurement in Physics. Philosophy of Science 25 (1):23-33.score: 40.0
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  46. Robert L. Causey (1969). Derived Measurement, Dimensions, and Dimensional Analysis. Philosophy of Science 36 (3):252-270.score: 40.0
    This paper presents a representational theory of derived physical measurements. The theory proceeds from a formal definition of a class of similar systems. It is shown that such a class of systems possesses a natural proportionality structure. A derived measure of a class of systems is defined to be a proportionality-preserving representation whose values are n-tuples of positive real numbers. Therefore, the derived measures are measures of entire physical systems. The theory provides an interpretation of the dimensional (...)
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  47. Ed Seidewitz (2011). Consistent Histories of Systems and Measurements in Spacetime. Foundations of Physics 41 (7):1163-1192.score: 40.0
    Traditional interpretations of quantum theory in terms of wave function collapse are particularly unappealing when considering the universe as a whole, where there is no clean separation between classical observer and quantum system and where the description is inherently relativistic. As an alternative, the consistent histories approach provides an attractive “no collapse” interpretation of quantum physics. Consistent histories can also be linked to path-integral formulations that may be readily generalized to the relativistic case. A previous paper described how, in such (...)
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  48. Carl A. Richmond (1937). The Measurement of Time: A First Chapter of Physics. Philosophy of Science 4 (2):173-201.score: 40.0
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  49. Martin Carrier, Physical Force of Geometrical Curvature? Einstein, Grünbaum, and the Measurability of Physical Geometry.score: 40.0
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