Search results for 'Physical measurements' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Avshalom C. Elitzur & Shahar Dolev (2008). Undoing Quantum Measurements: Novel Twists to the Physical Account of Time. In World Scientific (ed.), Physics of Emergence and Organization. 61--75.score: 74.0
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  2. Terhi Mäntylä & Ismo T. Koponen (2007). Understanding the Role of Measurements in Creating Physical Quantities: A Case Study of Learning to Quantify Temperature in Physics Teacher Education. Science and Education 16 (3-5):291-311.score: 72.0
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  3. Karl Rogers (2005). On the Metaphysics of Experimental Physics. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 68.0
    This provocative and critical work addresses the question of why scientific realists and positivists consider experimental physics to be a natural and empirical science. Taking insights from contemporary science studies, continental philosophy, and the history of physics, this book describes and analyzes the metaphysical presuppositions that underwrite the technological use of experimental apparatus and instruments to explore, model, and understand nature.
     
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  4. Daniel M. Greenberger (ed.) (1986). New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement Theory. New York Academy of Sciences.score: 66.0
  5. Brian Joseph Brinkworth (1968). An Introduction to Experimentation. New York, American Elsevier Pub. Co..score: 60.0
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  6. Bernard D' Espagnat (1976/1989). Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Addison-Wesley, Advanced Book Program.score: 60.0
  7. Russell Fox (1963/1964). The Science of Science. New York, Walker.score: 60.0
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  8. Johannes B. J. Bussmann & Rita J. G. van den Berg-Emons (2013). To Total Amount of Activity….. And Beyond: Perspectives on Measuring Physical Behavior. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 54.0
    The aim of this paper is to describe and discuss some perspectives on definitions, constructs and outcome parameters of physical behaviour. The paper focuses on the following constructs: Physical activity & active lifestyle vs. sedentary behaviour & sedentary lifestyle; Amount of physical activity vs. amount of walking; Detailed body posture & movement data vs. overall physical activity data; Behavioural context of activities; Quantity vs. quality; Physical behaviour vs. physiological response. Subsequently, the following outcome parameters provided (...)
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  9. Ranjana K. Mehta & Raja Parasuraman (2013). Neuroergonomics: A Review of Applications to Physical and Cognitive Work. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:889.score: 54.0
    Neuroergonomics is an emerging science that is defined as the study of the human brain in relation to performance at work and in everyday settings. This paper provides a critical review of the neuroergonomic approach to evaluating physical and cognitive work, particularly in mobile settings. Neuroergonomics research employing mobile and immobile brain imaging techniques are discussed in the following areas of physical and cognitive work: 1) physical work parameters; 2) physical fatigue; 3) vigilance and mental fatigue; (...)
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  10. Ave Mets (2013). Measurement Theory, Nomological Machine And Measurement Uncertainties (In Classical Physics). Studia Philosophica Estonica 5 (2):167-186.score: 48.0
    Measurement is said to be the basis of exact sciences as the process of assigning numbers to matter (things or their attributes), thus making it possible to apply the mathematically formulated laws of nature to the empirical world. Mathematics and empiria are best accorded to each other in laboratory experiments which function as what Nancy Cartwright calls nomological machine: an arrangement generating (mathematical) regularities. On the basis of accounts of measurement errors and uncertainties, I will argue for two claims: 1) (...)
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  11. Edwin J. Beggs, José Félix Costa & John V. Tucker (2010). Physical Oracles: The Turing Machine and the Wheatstone Bridge. Studia Logica 95 (1/2):279 - 300.score: 46.0
    Earlier, we have studied computations possible by physical systems and by algorithms combined with physical systems. In particular, we have analysed the idea of using an experiment as an oracle to an abstract computational device, such as the Turing machine. The theory of composite machines of this kind can be used to understand (a) a Turing machine receiving extra computational power from a physical process, or (b) an experimenter modelled as a Turing machine performing a test of (...)
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  12. Andrei Y. Khrennikov & Elena R. Loubenets (2004). On Relations Between Probabilities Under Quantum and Classical Measurements. Foundations of Physics 34 (4):689-704.score: 44.0
    We show that the so-called quantum probabilistic rule, usually introduced in the physical literature as an argument of the essential distinction between the probability relations under quantum and classical measurements, is not, as it is commonly accepted, in contrast to the rule for the addition of probabilities of mutually exclusive events. The latter is valid under all experimental situations upon classical and quantum systems. We discuss also the quantum measurement situation that is similar to the classical one, described (...)
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  13. Kenneth H. Norwich (2005). Physical Entropy and the Senses. Acta Biotheoretica 53 (3).score: 44.0
    With reference to two specific modalities of sensation, the taste of saltiness of chloride salts, and the loudness of steady tones, it is shown that the laws of sensation (logarithmic and power laws) are expressions of the entropy per mole of the stimulus. That is, the laws of sensation are linear functions of molar entropy. In partial verification of this hypothesis, we are able to derive an approximate value for the gas constant, a fundamental physical constant, directly from psychophysical (...)
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  14. Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti (1989). The Determination of the Past and the Future of a Physical System in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 19 (6):633-678.score: 44.0
    The determination of the past and the future of a physical system are complementary aims of measurements. An optimal determination of the past of a system can be achieved by an informationally complete set of physical quantities. Such a set is always strongly noncommutative. An optimal determination of the future of a physical system can be obtained by a Boolean complete set of quantities. The two aims can be reconciled to a reasonable degree with using unsharp (...)
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  15. Horst-Heino von Borzeszkowski & Renate Wahsner (1988). Quantum Mechanics and the Physical Reality Concept. Foundations of Physics 18 (6):669-681.score: 44.0
    The difference between the measurement bases of classical and quantum mechanics is often interpreted as a loss of reality arising in quantum mechanics. In this paper it is shown that this apparent loss occurs only if one believes that refined everyday experience determines the Euclidean space as the real space, instead of considering this space, both in classical and quantum mechanics, as a theoretical construction needed for measurement and representing one part of a dualistic space conception. From this point of (...)
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  16. M. A. Nielsen, Computable Functions, Quantum Measurements, and Quantum Dynamics.score: 42.0
    Quantum mechanical measurements on a physical system are represented by observables - Hermitian operators on the state space of the observed system. It is an important question whether all observables may be realized, in principle, as measurements on a physical system. Dirac’s influential text ( [1], page 37) makes the following assertion on the question: The question now presents itself – Can every observable be measured? The answer theoretically is yes. In practice it may be very (...)
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  17. H. H. Pattee (2013). Epistemic, Evolutionary, and Physical Conditions for Biological Information. Biosemiotics 6 (1):9-31.score: 42.0
    The necessary but not sufficient conditions for biological informational concepts like signs, symbols, memories, instructions, and messages are (1) an object or referent that the information is about, (2) a physical embodiment or vehicle that stands for what the information is about (the object), and (3) an interpreter or agent that separates the referent information from the vehicle’s material structure, and that establishes the stands-for relation. This separation is named the epistemic cut, and explaining clearly how the stands-for relation (...)
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  18. Stojan Obradovć (2013). Empirical Evidence in the Structure of Physical Theories. Foundations of Science 18 (2):307-318.score: 42.0
    The author considers the empirical component of physical theories. He studies the origin and development of the theory of physical experiment, the structure and gnoseological hypotheses of the measuring process, as well as the relativity principle concerning the measuring equipment. Examples of modern physical theories are used in order to demonstrate the influence of experimental facts on the formation and development, verification and accepting of these theories in the structure of scientific systems. The role of accidental experimental (...)
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  19. Gianni Cassinelli & Pekka J. Lahti (1989). The Measurement Statistics Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: Possible Values and Possible Measurement Results of Physical Quantities. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 19 (7):873-890.score: 42.0
    Starting with the Born interpretation of quantum mechanics, we show that the quantum theory of measurement, supplemented by the strong law of large numbers, leads to a measurement statistics interpretation of quantum mechanics. A probabilistic characterization of the spectrum of a physical quantity is given, and an analysis of the notions of possible values and possible measurement results is carried out.
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  20. Martina Kanning (2012). Using Objective, Real-Time Measures to Investigate the Effect of Actual Physical Activity on Affective States in Everyday Life Differentiating the Contexts of Working and Leisure Time in a Sample with Students. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 42.0
    Multiple studies suggest that physical activity causes positive affective reactions and reduces depressive mood. However, studies and interventions focused mostly on structured activity programs, but rarely on actual physical activity (aPA) in daily life. Furthermore, they seldom account for the context in which the aPA occur (e.g. work, leisure). Using a prospective, real time assessment design (ambulatory assessment), we investigated the effects of aPA on affective states (valence, energetic arousal, calmness) in real time during everyday life while controlling (...)
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  21. Diederik Aerts (2014). Quantum and Concept Combination, Entangled Measurements, and Prototype Theory. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):129-137.score: 42.0
    We analyze the meaning of the violation of the marginal probability law for situations of correlation measurements where entanglement is identified. We show that for quantum theory applied to the cognitive realm such a violation does not lead to the type of problems commonly believed to occur in situations of quantum theory applied to the physical realm. We briefly situate our quantum approach for modeling concepts and their combinations with respect to the notions of “extension” and “intension” in (...)
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  22. Arkadiy Lipkin (2008). "Object Theoretic-Operational" View of Physical Knowledge. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 43:109-116.score: 42.0
    The "object theoretic operational view" suggests a new structure of physical knowledge. This view takes branches of physics as basic units. Its main concepts are primary (PIO) and secondary (SIO) ideal objects with the explicit definition of SIO through PIO and the implicit definition of PIOs within appropriate systems of statements, called a "nucleus of a branch of physics" (NBP). Within an NBP (which has a definite structure) the focus shifts from discovering "laws of nature" to definition of a (...)
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  23. John T. Roberts (2005). Measurability and Physical Laws. Synthese 144 (3):433Ð447.score: 40.0
    I propose and motivate a new account of fundamental physical laws, the Measurability Account of Laws (MAL). This account has a distinctive logical form, in that it takes the primary nomological concept to be that of a law relative to a given theory, and defines a law simpliciter as a law relative to some true theory. What makes a proposition a law relative to a theory is that it plays an indispensable role in demonstrating that some quantity posited by (...)
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  24. Brent Mundy (1987). Faithful Representation, Physical Extensive Measurement Theory and Archimedean Axioms. Synthese 70 (3):373 - 400.score: 40.0
    The formal methods of the representational theory of measurement (RTM) are applied to the extensive scales of physical science, with some modifications of interpretation and of formalism. The interpretative modification is in the direction of theoretical realism rather than the narrow empiricism which is characteristic of RTM. The formal issues concern the formal representational conditions which extensive scales should be assumed to satisfy; I argue in the physical case for conditions related to weak rather than strong extensive measurement, (...)
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  25. R. N. Sen (2008). Physics and the Measurement of Continuous Variables. Foundations of Physics 38 (4):301-316.score: 38.0
    This paper addresses the doubts voiced by Wigner about the physical relevance of the concept of geometrical points by exploiting some facts known to all but honored by none: Almost all real numbers are transcendental; the explicit representation of any one will require an infinite amount of physical resources. An instrument devised to measure a continuous real variable will need a continuum of internal states to achieve perfect resolution. Consequently, a laboratory instrument for measuring a continuous variable in (...)
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  26. Y. V. Kononets (2010). Charge Conservation, Klein's Paradox and the Concept of Paulions in the Dirac Electron Theory. Foundations of Physics 40 (5):545-572.score: 38.0
    An algebraic block-diagonalization of the Dirac Hamiltonian in a time-independent external field reveals a charge-index conservation law which forbids the physical phenomena of the Klein paradox type and guarantees a single-particle nature of the Dirac equation in strong external fields. Simultaneously, the method defines simpler quantum-mechanical objects—paulions and antipaulions, whose 2-component wave functions determine the Dirac electron states through exact operator relations. Based on algebraic symmetry, the presented theory leads to a new understanding of the Dirac equation physics, including (...)
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  27. Gunnar Sperber (1974). On Measurement and Irreversible Processes. Foundations of Physics 4 (2):163-179.score: 38.0
    The nature of physical measurements performed on microscopic systems is discussed, and it is suggested that the procedures which are conventionally referred to as “measurements” fall into at least three different categories. The connection between observation processes and irreversible processes is stressed. The customary quantum mechanical treatment of irreversible processes is discussed, and its deficiencies from the philosophical point of view are criticized. The standpoint that quantum mechanics should not be considered as a basic philosophical system but (...)
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  28. Robert DiSalle (2006). Understanding Space-Time: The Philosophical Development of Physics From Newton to Einstein. Cambridge University Press.score: 36.0
    Presenting the history of space-time physics, from Newton to Einstein, as a philosophical development DiSalle reflects our increasing understanding of the connections between ideas of space and time and our physical knowledge. He suggests that philosophy's greatest impact on physics has come about, less by the influence of philosophical hypotheses, than by the philosophical analysis of concepts of space, time, and motion and the roles they play in our assumptions about physical objects and physical measurements. This (...)
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  29. Olival Freire Jr (2004). The Historical Roots of ''Foundations of Quantum Physics'' as a Field of Research (1950–1970). Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1741-1760.score: 36.0
    The rising interest, in the late 20th century, in the foundations of quantum physics, a subject in which Franco Selleri has excelled, has suggested the fair question: how did it become so? The current answer says that experiments have allowed to bring into the laboratories some previous gedanken experiments, beginning with those about EPR and related to Bell’s inequalities. I want to explore an alternative view, by which there would have been, before Bell’s inequalities experimental tests, a change in the (...)
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  30. Robert L. Causey (1969). Derived Measurement, Dimensions, and Dimensional Analysis. Philosophy of Science 36 (3):252-270.score: 36.0
    This paper presents a representational theory of derived physical measurements. The theory proceeds from a formal definition of a class of similar systems. It is shown that such a class of systems possesses a natural proportionality structure. A derived measure of a class of systems is defined to be a proportionality-preserving representation whose values are n-tuples of positive real numbers. Therefore, the derived measures are measures of entire physical systems. The theory provides an interpretation of the dimensional (...)
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  31. John Ellis (2000). Quantum Reflections. Cambridge University Press.score: 34.0
    This volume introduces some of the basic philosophical and conceptual questions underlying the formulation of quantum mechanics, one of the most baffling and far-reaching aspects of modern physics. The book consists of articles by leading thinkers in this field, who have been inspired by the profound work of the late John Bell. Some of the deepest issues concerning the nature of physical reality are debated, including the theory of physical measurements, how to test quantum mechanics, and how (...)
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  32. Matthias Neuber (2012). Invariance, Structure, Measurement – Eino Kaila and the History of Logical Empiricism. Theoria 78 (4):358-383.score: 34.0
    Eino Kaila's thought occupies a curious position within the logical empiricist movement. Along with Hans Reichenbach, Herbert Feigl, and the early Moritz Schlick, Kaila advocates a realist approach towards science and the project of a “scientific world conception”. This realist approach was chiefly directed at both Kantianism and Poincaréan conventionalism. The case in point was the theory of measurement. According to Kaila, the foundations of physical reality are characterized by the existence of invariant systems of relations, which he called (...)
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  33. C. D'Antonl & P. Scanzano (1980). An Application of Information Theory: Longitudinal Measurability Bounds in Classical and Quantum Physics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 10 (11-12):875-885.score: 34.0
    We examine the problem of the existence (in classical and/or quantum physics) of longitudinal limitations of measurability, defined as limitations preventing the measurement of a given quantity with arbitrarily high accuracy. We consider a measuring device as a generalized communication system, which enables us to use methods of information theory. As a direct consequence of the Shannon theorem on channel capacity, we obtain an inequality which limits the accuracy of a measurement in terms of the average power necessary to transmit (...)
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  34. Louis Narens (ed.) (1985). Abstract Measurement Theory. MIT Press.score: 34.0
    The need for quantitative measurement represents a unifying bond that links all the physical, biological, and social sciences. Measurements of such disparate phenomena as subatomic masses, uncertainty, information, and human values share common features whose explication is central to the achievement of foundational work in any particular mathematical science as well as for the development of a coherent philosophy of science. This book presents a theory of measurement, one that is "abstract" in that it is concerned with highly (...)
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  35. Henry E. Kyburg (ed.) (1984). Theory and Measurement. Cambridge University Press.score: 34.0
    Measurement is fundamental to all the sciences, the behavioural and social as well as the physical and in the latter its results provide our paradigms of 'objective fact'. But the basis and justification of measurement is not well understood and is often simply taken for granted. Henry Kyburg Jr proposes here an original, carefully worked out theory of the foundations of measurement, to show how quantities can be defined, why certain mathematical structures are appropriate to them and what meaning (...)
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  36. John F. Cyranski (1979). Measurement Theory for Physics. Foundations of Physics 9 (9-10):641-671.score: 34.0
    A highly abstracted theory of measurement is synthesized from classical measurement theory, fuzzy set theory, generalized information theory, and predicate calculus. The theory does not require specific truth value concepts, nor does it specify what subsets of the reals can be observed, thus avoiding the usual fundamental difficulties. Problems such as the definition of systems, the significance of observations, numerical scales and observables, etc. are examined. The general logico-algebraic approach to quantum/classical physics is justified as a special case of measurement (...)
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  37. Hidde de Jong, Nicolaas Mars & Paul van der Vet (1999). Computer-Supported Resolution of Measurement Conflicts: A Case-Study in Materials Science. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 4 (4):427-461.score: 34.0
    Resolving conflicts between different measurements ofa property of a physical system may be a key step in a discoveryprocess. With the emergence of large-scale databases and knowledgebases with property measurements, computer support for the task ofconflict resolution has become highly desirable. We will describe amethod for model-based conflict resolution and the accompanyingcomputer tool KIMA, which have been applied in a case-study inmaterials science. In order to be a useful aid to scientists, the toolneeds to be integrated with (...)
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  38. Eran Tal (2012). The Epistemology of Measurement: A Model-Based Account. Dissertation, University of Torontoscore: 32.0
    This work develops an epistemology of measurement, that is, an account of the conditions under which measurement and standardization methods produce knowledge as well as the nature, scope, and limits of this knowledge. I focus on three questions: (i) how is it possible to tell whether an instrument measures the quantity it is intended to? (ii) what do claims to measurement accuracy amount to, and how might such claims be justified? (iii) when is disagreement among instruments a sign of error, (...)
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  39. O. Darrigol (2003). Number and Measure: Hermann Von Helmholtz at the Crossroads of Mathematics, Physics, and Psychology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 34 (3):515-573.score: 32.0
    In 1887 Helmholtz discussed the foundations of measurement in science as a last contribution to his philosophy of knowledge. This essay borrowed from earlier debates on the foundations of mathematics (Grassmann / Du Bois), on the possibility of quantitative psychology (Fechner / Kries, Wundt / Zeller), and on the meaning of temperature measurement (Maxwell, Mach). Late nineteenth-century scrutinisers of the foundations of mathematics (Dedekind, Cantor, Frege, Russell) made little of Helmholtz's essay. Yet it inspired two mathematicians with an eye on (...)
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  40. Stanley Gudder (1973). Generalized Measure Theory. Foundations of Physics 3 (3):399-411.score: 32.0
    It is argued that a reformulation of classical measure theory is necessary if the theory is to accurately describe measurements of physical phenomena. The postulates of a generalized measure theory are given and the fundamentals of this theory are developed, and the reader is introduced to some open questions and possible applications. Specifically, generalized measure spaces and integration theory are considered, the partial order structure is studied, and applications to hidden variables and the logic of quantum mechanics are (...)
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  41. F. Jenč (1979). The Conceptual Analysis (CA) Method in Theories of Microchannels: Application to Quantum Theory. Part II. Idealizations. “Perfect Measurements”. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 9 (9-10):707-737.score: 32.0
    The application of the conceptual analysis (CA) method outlined in Part I is illustrated on the example of quantum mechanics. In Part II, we deduce the complete-lattice structure in quantum mechanics from postulates specifying the idealizations that are accepted in the theory. The idealized abstract concepts are introduced by means of a topological extension of the basic structure (obtained in Part I) in accord with the “approximation principle”; the relevant topologies are not arbitrarily chosen; they are fixed by the choice (...)
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  42. Rodolfo Gambini & Jorge Pullin (2007). Relational Physics with Real Rods and Clocks and the Measurement Problem of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 37 (7):1074-1092.score: 32.0
    The use of real clocks and measuring rods in quantum mechanics implies a natural loss of unitarity in the description of the theory. We briefly review this point and then discuss the implications it has for the measurement problem in quantum mechanics. The intrinsic loss of coherence allows to circumvent some of the usual objections to the measurement process as due to environmental decoherence.
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  43. Izuru Fujiwara (1972). Quantum Theory of State Reduction and Measurement. Foundations of Physics 2 (2-3):83-110.score: 32.0
    The central problem in the quantum theory of measurement, how to describe the process of state reduction in terms of the quantum mechanical formalism, is solved on the basis of the relativity of quantal states, which implies that once the apparatus is detected in a well-defined state, the object state must reduce to a corresponding one. This is a process termed by Schrödinger disentanglement. Here, it is essential to observe that Renninger's negative result does constitute an actual measurement process. From (...)
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  44. G. S. Paraoanu (2011). Partial Measurements and the Realization of Quantum-Mechanical Counterfactuals. Foundations of Physics 41 (7):1214-1235.score: 32.0
    We propose partial measurements as a conceptual tool to understand how to operate with counterfactual claims in quantum physics. Indeed, unlike standard von Neumann measurements, partial measurements can be reversed probabilistically. We first analyze the consequences of this rather unusual feature for the principle of superposition, for the complementarity principle, and for the issue of hidden variables. Then we move on to exploring non-local contexts, by reformulating the EPR paradox, the quantum teleportation experiment, and the entanglement-swapping protocol (...)
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  45. Ed Seidewitz (2011). Consistent Histories of Systems and Measurements in Spacetime. Foundations of Physics 41 (7):1163-1192.score: 32.0
    Traditional interpretations of quantum theory in terms of wave function collapse are particularly unappealing when considering the universe as a whole, where there is no clean separation between classical observer and quantum system and where the description is inherently relativistic. As an alternative, the consistent histories approach provides an attractive “no collapse” interpretation of quantum physics. Consistent histories can also be linked to path-integral formulations that may be readily generalized to the relativistic case. A previous paper described how, in such (...)
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  46. Claudio Garola & Luigi Solombrino (1996). The Theoretical Apparatus of Semantic Realism: A New Language for Classical and Quantum Physics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 26 (9):1121-1164.score: 32.0
    The standard interpretation of quantum physics (QP) and some recent generalizations of this theory rest on the adoption of a rerificationist theory of truth and meaning, while most proposals for modifying and interpreting QP in a “realistic” way attribute an ontological status to theoretical physical entities (ontological realism). Both terms of this dichotomy are criticizable, and many quantum paradoxes can be attributed to it. We discuss a new viewpoint in this paper (semantic realism, or briefly SR), which applies both (...)
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  47. W. G. Unruh (2014). Has Hawking Radiation Been Measured? Foundations of Physics 44 (5):532-545.score: 32.0
    It is argued that Hawking radiation has indeed been measured and shown to posses a thermal spectrum, as predicted. This contention is based on three separate legs. The first is that the essential physics of the Hawking process for black holes can be modelled in other physical systems. The second is the white hole horizons are the time inverse of black hole horizons, and thus the physics of both is the same. The third is that the quantum emission, which (...)
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  48. Daniel Jon Mitchell (2012). Measurement in French Experimental Physics From Regnault to Lippmann. Rhetoric and Theoretical Practice. Annals of Science 69 (4):453-482.score: 32.0
    Summary This paper explores the legacy of the great French experimental physicist Victor Regnault through the example of Gabriel Lippmann, whose engagement with electrical standardization during the early 1880s was guided by Regnault's methodological precept to measure ?directly?. Lippmann's education reveals that the theoretical practice of ?direct? measurement entailed eliminating extraneous physical effects through the experimental design, rather than, like physicists in Britain and Germany, making numerical ?corrections? to measured values. It also provides, paradoxically, exemplars of the qualitative theoretical (...)
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  49. Michel Bitbol, Consciousness, Situations, and the Measurement Problem of Quantum Mechanics.score: 30.0
    There are two versions of the putative connection between consciousness and the measurement problem of quantum mechanics : consciousness as the cause of state vector reduction, and state vector reduction as the physical basis of consciousness. In this article, these controversial ideas are neither accepted uncritically, nor rejected from the outset in the name of some prejudice about objective knowledge. Instead, their origin is sought in our most cherished (but disputable) beliefs about the place of mind and consciousness in (...)
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  50. Hasok Chang (1997). Can Planck's Constant Be Measured with Classical Mechanics? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 11 (3):223 – 243.score: 30.0
    An interesting case of the complex interaction between theory and experiment can be found in many experiments in quantum physics employing classical reasoning. It is expected that this practice would lead to quantitative inaccuracy, unless the measurements' results were averaged. Whether or not this inaccuracy is significant depends critically on the details of the particular experimental situation. The example of Millikan's photoelectric experiment, in which he obtained a precise value of Planck's constant, provides a good case for illustrating the (...)
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