Search results for 'Physical measurements' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  17
    Avshalom C. Elitzur & Shahar Dolev (2008). Undoing Quantum Measurements: Novel Twists to the Physical Account of Time. In World Scientific (ed.), Physics of Emergence and Organization. 61--75.
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  2.  16
    Terhi Mäntylä & Ismo T. Koponen (2007). Understanding the Role of Measurements in Creating Physical Quantities: A Case Study of Learning to Quantify Temperature in Physics Teacher Education. Science and Education 16 (3-5):291-311.
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  3. Martin Carrier (1994). The Completeness of Scientific Theories on the Derivation of Empirical Indicators Within a Theoretical Framework : The Case of Physical Geometry.
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  4. G. W. Scott Blair (1950). Measurements of Mind and Matter. D. Dobson.
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  5. John Forge (1987). Measurement, Realism and Objectivity Essays on Measurement in the Social and Physical Sciences. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  6.  2
    Wolfgang Baer (2015). On the Necessity of Including the Observer in Physical Theory. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 11 (2):160-174.
    All statements describing physical reality are derived through interpretation of measurement results that requires a theory of the measuring instruments used to make the measurements. The ultimate measuring instrument is our body which displays its measurement results in our mind. Since a physical theory of our mind-body is unknown, the correct interpretation of its measurement results is unknown. The success of the physical sciences has led to a tendency to treat assumption in physics as indisputable facts. (...)
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  7. Elena Castellani (ed.) (1998). Interpreting Bodies Classical and Quantum Objects in Modern Physics. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
    Bewildering features of modern physics, such as relativistic space-time structure and the peculiarities of so-called quantum statistics, challenge traditional ways of conceiving of objects in space and time. Interpreting Bodies brings together essays by leading philosophers and scientists to provide a unique overview of the implications of such physical theories for questions about the nature of objects. The collection combines classic articles by Max Born, Werner Heisenberg, Hans Reichenbach, and Erwin Schrodinger with recent contributions, including several papers that have (...)
     
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  8. Bernard D' Espagnat (1976/1989). Conceptual Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Addison-Wesley, Advanced Book Program.
  9.  3
    Isabella Sarto-Jackson & Richard R. Nelson (2015). Sensory Measurements: Coordination and Standardization. Biological Theory 10 (3):200-211.
    Do sensory measurements deserve the label of “measurement”? We argue that they do. They fit with an epistemological view of measurement held in current philosophy of science, and they face the same kinds of epistemological challenges as physical measurements do: the problem of coordination and the problem of standardization. These problems are addressed through the process of “epistemic iteration,” for all measurements. We also argue for distinguishing the problem of standardization from the problem of coordination. To (...)
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  10. Daniel M. Greenberger (ed.) (1986). New Techniques and Ideas in Quantum Measurement Theory. New York Academy of Sciences.
  11. Brian Joseph Brinkworth (1968). An Introduction to Experimentation. New York, American Elsevier Pub. Co..
     
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  12. Russell Fox (1963/1964). The Science of Science. New York, Walker.
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  13. Paul Lorenzen, Horst-Heino von Borzeszkowski & Renate Wahsner (1995). Messung Als Begrèundung Oder Vermittlung? Ein Briefwechsel Mit Paul Lorenzen Èuber Protophysik Und Ein Paar Andere Dinge.
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  14. Paul M. Quay (1975). The Estimative Functions of Physical Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 6 (2):125-157.
    Attention is drawn to two closely related functions served by scientific theory which are of fundamental importance in physical science but as yet little discussed in philosophy. As indicated by their names, they constitute the theoretical basis of physical measurements. After analysing some historically important examples and sketching the historical development of these ideas, this paper examines the similarities and differences between the estimate functions of theory and such well-known functions as prediction and explanation. The pervasiveness of (...)
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  15. Karl Rogers (2005). On the Metaphysics of Experimental Physics. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This provocative and critical work addresses the question of why scientific realists and positivists consider experimental physics to be a natural and empirical science. Taking insights from contemporary science studies, continental philosophy, and the history of physics, this book describes and analyzes the metaphysical presuppositions that underwrite the technological use of experimental apparatus and instruments to explore, model, and understand nature.
     
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  16.  4
    Harald Martens & Achim Kohler (2009). Mathematics and Measurements for High-Throughput Quantitative Biology. Biological Theory 4 (1):29-43.
    Bioscientists generate far more data than their minds can handle, and this trend is likely to continue. With the aid of a small set of versatile tools for mathematical modeling and statistical assessment, bioscientists can explore their real-world systems without experiencing data overflow. This article outlines an approach for combining modern high-throughput, low-cost, but non-selective biospectroscopy measurements with soft, multivariate biochemometrics data modeling to overview complex systems, test hypotheses, and making new discoveries. From preliminary, broad hypotheses and goals, many (...)
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  17.  6
    Martin Niss (2016). Brownian Motion as a Limit to Physical Measuring Processes: A Chapter in the History of Noise From the Physicists’ Point of View. Perspectives on Science 24 (1):29-44.
    In this paper, we examine the history of the idea among physicists that there is a fundamental limit to physical measuring processes and that this limit is set by noise. In contrast to previous studies, that have focused on the realization of the existence of such a limit, we focus on the noise aspect of this history. In his monograph entitled Noise from 1954, the Dutch-American physicist and pioneer of noise Alder van der Ziel described how noise came to (...)
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  18. M. A. Nielsen, Computable Functions, Quantum Measurements, and Quantum Dynamics.
    Quantum mechanical measurements on a physical system are represented by observables - Hermitian operators on the state space of the observed system. It is an important question whether all observables may be realized, in principle, as measurements on a physical system. Dirac’s influential text ( [1], page 37) makes the following assertion on the question: The question now presents itself – Can every observable be measured? The answer theoretically is yes. In practice it may be (...)
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  19.  13
    Diederik Aerts (2014). Quantum and Concept Combination, Entangled Measurements, and Prototype Theory. Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (1):129-137.
    We analyze the meaning of the violation of the marginal probability law for situations of correlation measurements where entanglement is identified. We show that for quantum theory applied to the cognitive realm such a violation does not lead to the type of problems commonly believed to occur in situations of quantum theory applied to the physical realm. We briefly situate our quantum approach for modeling concepts and their combinations with respect to the notions of “extension” and “intension” in (...)
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  20.  6
    Paul Busch & Pekka J. Lahti (1989). The Determination of the Past and the Future of a Physical System in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 19 (6):633-678.
    The determination of the past and the future of a physical system are complementary aims of measurements. An optimal determination of the past of a system can be achieved by an informationally complete set of physical quantities. Such a set is always strongly noncommutative. An optimal determination of the future of a physical system can be obtained by a Boolean complete set of quantities. The two aims can be reconciled to a reasonable degree with using unsharp (...)
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  21.  18
    Andrei Y. Khrennikov & Elena R. Loubenets (2004). On Relations Between Probabilities Under Quantum and Classical Measurements. Foundations of Physics 34 (4):689-704.
    We show that the so-called quantum probabilistic rule, usually introduced in the physical literature as an argument of the essential distinction between the probability relations under quantum and classical measurements, is not, as it is commonly accepted, in contrast to the rule for the addition of probabilities of mutually exclusive events. The latter is valid under all experimental situations upon classical and quantum systems. We discuss also the quantum measurement situation that is similar to the classical one, described (...)
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  22.  4
    Shan Gao, Protective Measurements and the Meaning of the Wave Function in the de Broglie-Bohm Theory.
    There are three possible interpretations of the wave function in the de Broglie-Bohm theory: taking the wave function as corresponding to a physical entity or a property of the Bohmian particles or a law. In this paper, we argue that the first interpretation is favored by an analysis of protective measurements.
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  23.  10
    Horst-Heino von Borzeszkowski & Renate Wahsner (1988). Quantum Mechanics and the Physical Reality Concept. Foundations of Physics 18 (6):669-681.
    The difference between the measurement bases of classical and quantum mechanics is often interpreted as a loss of reality arising in quantum mechanics. In this paper it is shown that this apparent loss occurs only if one believes that refined everyday experience determines the Euclidean space as the real space, instead of considering this space, both in classical and quantum mechanics, as a theoretical construction needed for measurement and representing one part of a dualistic space conception. From this point of (...)
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  24.  4
    Arkadiy Lipkin (2008). "Object Theoretic-Operational" View of Physical Knowledge. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 43:109-116.
    The "object theoretic operational view" suggests a new structure of physical knowledge. This view takes branches of physics as basic units. Its main concepts are primary (PIO) and secondary (SIO) ideal objects with the explicit definition of SIO through PIO and the implicit definition of PIOs within appropriate systems of statements, called a "nucleus of a branch of physics" (NBP). Within an NBP (which has a definite structure) the focus shifts from discovering "laws of nature" to definition of a (...)
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  25.  13
    Kenneth H. Norwich (2005). Physical Entropy and the Senses. Acta Biotheoretica 53 (3):167-180.
    With reference to two specific modalities of sensation, the taste of saltiness of chloride salts, and the loudness of steady tones, it is shown that the laws of sensation (logarithmic and power laws) are expressions of the entropy per mole of the stimulus. That is, the laws of sensation are linear functions of molar entropy. In partial verification of this hypothesis, we are able to derive an approximate value for the gas constant, a fundamental physical constant, directly from psychophysical (...)
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  26. Philip Calabrese (2006). The Logic of Quantum Measurements in Terms of Conditional Events. Logic Journal of the Igpl 14 (3):435-455.
    This paper shows that the non-Boolean logic of quantum measurements is more naturally represented by a relatively new 4-operation system of Boolean fractions—conditional events—than by the standard representation using Hilbert Space. After the requirements of quantum mechanics and the properties of conditional event algebra are introduced, the quantum concepts of orthogonality, completeness, simultaneous verifiability, logical operations, and deductions are expressed in terms of conditional events thereby demonstrating the adequacy and efficacy of this formulation. Since conditional event algebra is nearly (...)
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  27.  10
    Shant Shahbazian & Mansour Zahedi (2006). The Role of Observables and Non-Observables in Chemistry: A Critique of Chemical Language. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 8 (1):37-52.
    In this paper, aspects of observable and non-observable based models are discussed. A survey of recent literature was done to show how using non-observable-based language carelessly may cause disagreement, even in professional research programs and incorrect assertions, even in prestigious journals. The relation between physical measurements and observables is discussed and it is shown that, in contrast to general belief, this relation may be complicated and not always straightforward. The decomposition of the system into basic subsystems ( (...) or conceptual) is traced as the origin of non-observable-based languages. The possibility of defining new quantum mechanical observables for open quantum subsystems and of replacing them with non-observable-based concepts has been mentioned and the AIM theory is explained as an example. An account of some current non-observable-based models for molecular geometry is discussed and it is shown that not all non-observable-based languages possess the same effectiveness. In the end, the need to develop a clear chemical language is stressed. (shrink)
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  28. Henry P. Stapp, A Model of the Quantum-Classical and Mind-Brain Connections, and of the Role of The Quantum Zeno Effect in the Physical Implementation of Conscious Intent.
    A simple exactly solvable model is given of the dynamical coupling between a person’s classically described perceptions and that person’s quantum mechanically described brain. The model is based jointly upon von Neumann’s theory of measurements and the empirical findings of close connections between conscious intentions and synchronous oscillations in well separated parts of the brain. A quantum-Zeno-effect-based mechanism is described that allows conscious intentions to influence brain activity in a functionally appropriate way. The robustness of this mechanism in the (...)
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  29. Henry Margenau (1963). Measurements and Quantum States: Part II. Philosophy of Science 30 (2):138-157.
    This is the second, mathematically more detailed part of a paper consisting of two articles, the first having appeared in the immediately preceding issue of this Journal. It shows that a measurement converts a pure case into a mixture with reducible probabilities. The measurement as such permits no inference whatever as to the state of the physical system subjected to measurement after the measurement has been performed. But because the probabilities after the act are classical and therefore reducible, it (...)
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  30.  53
    C. W. Rietdijk (1987). Retroactive Effects From Measurements. Foundations of Physics 17 (3):297-311.
    We consider several thought and practical experiments, and variations thereof, from which the existence can be inferred of retroactive effects on the assumptions of conservation of linear and angular momentum and of realism defined in a wide sense. Such conclusion is made less counterintuitive by research into the proper physical background of the relativistic length contraction of a moving arrow, viz. the fact that the universe is four-dimensional indeed. In one of the experiments considered, the evidence of retroactivity is (...)
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  31.  27
    M. Navascués, T. Cooney, D. Pérez-García & N. Villanueva (2012). A Physical Approach to Tsirelson's Problem. Foundations of Physics 42 (8):985-995.
    Tsirelson’s problem deals with how to model separate measurements in quantum mechanics. In addition to its theoretical importance, the resolution of Tsirelson’s problem could have great consequences for device independent quantum key distribution and certified randomness. Unfortunately, understanding present literature on the subject requires a heavy mathematical background. In this paper, we introduce quansality, a new theoretical concept that allows to reinterpret Tsirelson’s problem from a foundational point of view. Using quansality as a guide, we recover all known results (...)
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  32.  25
    F. Jenč (1979). The Conceptual Analysis (CA) Method in Theories of Microchannels: Application to Quantum Theory. Part II. Idealizations. “Perfect Measurements”. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 9 (9-10):707-737.
    The application of the conceptual analysis (CA) method outlined in Part I is illustrated on the example of quantum mechanics. In Part II, we deduce the complete-lattice structure in quantum mechanics from postulates specifying the idealizations that are accepted in the theory. The idealized abstract concepts are introduced by means of a topological extension of the basic structure (obtained in Part I) in accord with the “approximation principle”; the relevant topologies are not arbitrarily chosen; they are fixed by the choice (...)
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  33.  4
    Arthur E. Ruark (1975). The Physical Rationale for Special Relativity. Foundations of Physics 5 (1):21-36.
    The structure of the Lorentz transformation depends intimately on the conventional operations for measurement of lengths (L) and time intervals (T). The prescription for length measurement leads to justifiable utilization of Euclidean geometry over finite values of the coordinates. Then T-values can be regarded as ratios of length measurements within a suitably defined clock. In certain cases the synchronization process should be supplemented by measurements providing position certification. The Lorentz transformation emerges from three specific symmetry statements, assured by (...)
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  34.  7
    Y. V. Kononets (2010). Charge Conservation, Klein's Paradox and the Concept of Paulions in the Dirac Electron Theory. Foundations of Physics 40 (5):545-572.
    An algebraic block-diagonalization of the Dirac Hamiltonian in a time-independent external field reveals a charge-index conservation law which forbids the physical phenomena of the Klein paradox type and guarantees a single-particle nature of the Dirac equation in strong external fields. Simultaneously, the method defines simpler quantum-mechanical objects—paulions and antipaulions, whose 2-component wave functions determine the Dirac electron states through exact operator relations. Based on algebraic symmetry, the presented theory leads to a new understanding of the Dirac equation physics, including (...)
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  35. Robert DiSalle (2006). Understanding Space-Time: The Philosophical Development of Physics From Newton to Einstein. Cambridge University Press.
    Presenting the history of space-time physics, from Newton to Einstein, as a philosophical development DiSalle reflects our increasing understanding of the connections between ideas of space and time and our physical knowledge. He suggests that philosophy's greatest impact on physics has come about, less by the influence of philosophical hypotheses, than by the philosophical analysis of concepts of space, time, and motion and the roles they play in our assumptions about physical objects and physical measurements. This (...)
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  36. H. Chang & S. Yi (2004). The Absolute and its Measurement; William Thomson on Temperature. Annals of Science 62 (3):281-308.
    In this paper we give a full account of the work of William Thomson on absolute temperature, which to this day provides the theoretical underpinnings for the most rigorous measurements of temperature. When Thomson fashioned his concepts of ‘absolute’ temperature, his main concern was to make the definition of temperature independent of the properties of particular thermometric substances . He tried out a succession of definitions based on the thermodynamics of ideal heat engines; most notably, in 1854 he gave (...)
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  37.  10
    Robert W. Spekkens (2007). Evidence for the Epistemic View of Quantum States: A Toy Theory. Physical Review A 75:032110.
    We present a toy theory that is based on a simple principle: the number of questions about the physical state of a system that are answered must always be equal to the number that are unanswered in a state of maximal knowledge. Many quantum phenomena are found to have analogues within this toy theory. These include the noncommutativity of measurements, interference, the multiplicity of convex decompositions of a mixed state, the impossibility of discriminating nonorthogonal states, the impossibility of (...)
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  38.  33
    Zee Perry, Intensive and Extensive Quantities.
    Quantities are properties and relations which exhibit "quantitative structure". For physical quantities, this structure can impact the non-quantitative world in different ways. In this paper I introduce and motivate a novel distinction between quantities based on the way their quantitative structure constrains the possible mereological structure of their instances. Specifically, I identify a category of “properly extensive” quantities, which are a proper sub-class of the additive or extensive quantities. I present and motivate this distinction using two case studies of (...)
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  39. Robert L. Causey (1969). Derived Measurement, Dimensions, and Dimensional Analysis. Philosophy of Science 36 (3):252-270.
    This paper presents a representational theory of derived physical measurements. The theory proceeds from a formal definition of a class of similar systems. It is shown that such a class of systems possesses a natural proportionality structure. A derived measure of a class of systems is defined to be a proportionality-preserving representation whose values are n-tuples of positive real numbers. Therefore, the derived measures are measures of entire physical systems. The theory provides an interpretation of the dimensional (...)
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  40.  2
    Rinat M. Nugayev (1987). Origin and Resolution of Theory-Choice Situations in Modern Theory of Gravity. Methodology and Science 20 (4):177-197.
    A methodological model of origin and settlement of theory-choice situations (previously tried on the theories of Einstein and Lorentz in electrodynamics) is applied to modern Theory of Gravity. The process of origin and growth of empirically-equivalent relativistic theories of gravitation is theoretically reproduced. It is argued that all of them are proposed within the two rival research programmes – (1) metric (A. Einstein et al.) and (2) nonmetric (H. Poincare et al.). Each programme aims at elimination of the cross-contradiction between (...)
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  41.  13
    Werner Backhaus (1999). How to Compare Color Sensations in Different Brains. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (6):944-945.
    The qualitative and quantitative properties of color sensations and neuronal color coding are discussed in relation to physiological color exchanges and their evolutionary constraints. Based on the identity mind/matter thesis, additional physical measurements on color sensations are described that will allow us, at least in principle, to compare the qualitative properties of color sensations in different brains.
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  42.  4
    Gunnar Sperber (1974). On Measurement and Irreversible Processes. Foundations of Physics 4 (2):163-179.
    The nature of physical measurements performed on microscopic systems is discussed, and it is suggested that the procedures which are conventionally referred to as “measurements” fall into at least three different categories. The connection between observation processes and irreversible processes is stressed. The customary quantum mechanical treatment of irreversible processes is discussed, and its deficiencies from the philosophical point of view are criticized. The standpoint that quantum mechanics should not be considered as a basic philosophical system but (...)
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  43.  5
    Mairi Levitt (2011). Relating to Participants: How Close Do Biobanks and Donors Really Want to Be? [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 19 (3):220-230.
    Modern biobanks typically rely on the public to freely donate genetic data, undergo physical measurements and tests, allow access to medical records and give other personal information by questionnaire or interview. Given the demands on participants it is not surprising that there has been extensive public consultation even before biobanks in the UK and elsewhere began to recruit. This paper considers the different ways in which biobanks have attempted to engage and appeal to their publics and the reaction (...)
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  44. Robert DiSalle (2009). Understanding Space-Time: The Philosophical Development of Physics From Newton to Einstein. Cambridge University Press.
    Presenting the history of space-time physics, from Newton to Einstein, as a philosophical development DiSalle reflects our increasing understanding of the connections between ideas of space and time and our physical knowledge. He suggests that philosophy's greatest impact on physics has come about, less by the influence of philosophical hypotheses, than by the philosophical analysis of concepts of space, time and motion, and the roles they play in our assumptions about physical objects and physical measurements. This (...)
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  45. Robert DiSalle (2008). Understanding Space-Time: The Philosophical Development of Physics From Newton to Einstein. Cambridge University Press.
    Presenting the history of space-time physics, from Newton to Einstein, as a philosophical development DiSalle reflects our increasing understanding of the connections between ideas of space and time and our physical knowledge. He suggests that philosophy's greatest impact on physics has come about, less by the influence of philosophical hypotheses, than by the philosophical analysis of concepts of space, time and motion, and the roles they play in our assumptions about physical objects and physical measurements. This (...)
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  46.  26
    John Ellis (2000). Quantum Reflections. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume introduces some of the basic philosophical and conceptual questions underlying the formulation of quantum mechanics, one of the most baffling and far-reaching aspects of modern physics. The book consists of articles by leading thinkers in this field, who have been inspired by the profound work of the late John Bell. Some of the deepest issues concerning the nature of physical reality are debated, including the theory of physical measurements, how to test quantum mechanics, and how (...)
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  47. David-Hillel Ruben (2015). The Physical Action Theory of Trying. Methode 4 (6).
    Metaphysically speaking, just what is trying? There appear to be two options: to place it on the side of the mind or on the side of the world. Volitionists, who think that to try is to engage in a mental act, perhaps identical to willing and perhaps not, take the mind-side option. The second, or world-side option identifies trying to do something with one of the more basic actions by which one tries to do that thing. The trying is then (...)
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  48. Rob Clifton, Jeffrey Bub & Hans Halvorson (2003). Characterizing Quantum Theory in Terms of Information-Theoretic Constraints. Foundations of Physics 33 (11):1561-1591.
    We show that three fundamental information-theoretic constraints -- the impossibility of superluminal information transfer between two physical systems by performing measurements on one of them, the impossibility of broadcasting the information contained in an unknown physical state, and the impossibility of unconditionally secure bit commitment -- suffice to entail that the observables and state space of a physical theory are quantum-mechanical. We demonstrate the converse derivation in part, and consider the implications of alternative answers to a (...)
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  49. Erik Curiel (2014). Classical Mechanics Is Lagrangian; It Is Not Hamiltonian. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (2):269-321.
    One can (for the most part) formulate a model of a classical system in either the Lagrangian or the Hamiltonian framework. Though it is often thought that those two formulations are equivalent in all important ways, this is not true: the underlying geometrical structures one uses to formulate each theory are not isomorphic. This raises the question of whether one of the two is a more natural framework for the representation of classical systems. In the event, the answer is yes: (...)
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  50.  47
    Louis Narens (ed.) (1985). Abstract Measurement Theory. MIT Press.
    The need for quantitative measurement represents a unifying bond that links all the physical, biological, and social sciences. Measurements of such disparate phenomena as subatomic masses, uncertainty, information, and human values share common features whose explication is central to the achievement of foundational work in any particular mathematical science as well as for the development of a coherent philosophy of science. This book presents a theory of measurement, one that is "abstract" in that it is concerned with highly (...)
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