Search results for 'Physiology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Ewald R. Webel, C. Richard Taylor, Liana Bolis & International Conference on Comparative Physiology (1998). Principles of Animal Design the Optimization and Symmorphosis Debate. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  2.  22
    Gary Hatfield (1992). Descartes' Physiology and its Relation to His Psychology. In John Cottingham (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Descartes. Cambridge University Press 335--370.
    Descartes understood the subject matter of physics (or natural philosophy) to encompass the whole of nature, including living things. It therefore comprised not only nonvital phenomena, including those we would now denominate as physical, chemical, minerological, magnetic, and atmospheric; it also extended to the world of plants and animals, including the human animal (with the exception of those aspects of the human mind that Descartes assigned to solely to thinking substance: pure intellect and will). Descartes wrote extensively on physiology (...)
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  3. A. Berthoz (2008). The Physiology and Phenomenology of Action. Oxford University Press.
    Though many philosophers of mind have taken an interest in the great developments in the brain sciences, the interest is seldom reciprocated by scientists, who frequently ignore the contributions philosophers have made to our understanding of the mind and brain. In a rare collaboration, a world famous brain scientist and an eminent philosopher have joined forces in an effort to understand how our brain interacts with the world. Does the brain behave as a calculator, combining sensory data before deciding how (...)
     
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  4.  69
    Eugen Fischer (2001). Unfair to Physiology. Acta Analytica 16 (26):135-155.
    The paper seeks to refute the idea that physiology can explain at best an organism’s behaviour, outward and inner, but not the conscious experiences that accompany that behaviour. To do so, the paper clarifies the idea by confrontation with an actual example of psychophysical explanation of perceptual experience. This reveals that the idea relies on a prejudice about physiological practice. Then the paper explores some peculiar ways in which this prejudice may survive its refutation. This is to bring out (...)
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  5.  14
    Cheryl A. Logan (2002). Before There Were Standards: The Role of Test Animals in the Production of Empirical Generality in Physiology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 35 (2):329-363.
    After 1900, the selective breeding of a few standard animals for research in the life sciences changed the way science was done. Among the pervasive changes was a transformation in scientists' assumptions about relationship between diversity and generality. Examination of the contents of two prominent physiology journals between 1885 and 1900, reveals that scientists used a diverse array of organisms in empirical research. Experimental physiologists gave many reasons for the choice of test animals, some practical and others truly comparative. (...)
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  6.  4
    Henning Schmidgen (2004). Pictures, Preparations, and Living Processes: The Production of Immediate Visual Perception (Anschauung) in Late-19th-Century Physiology. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):477 - 513.
    This paper addresses the visual culture of late-19th-century experimental physiology. Taking the case of Johann Nepomuk Czermak (1828-1873) as a key example, it argues that images played a crucial role in acquiring experimental physiological skills. Czermak, Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) and other late-19th-century physiologists sought to present the achievements and perspective of their discipline by way of "immediate visual perception (unmittelbare Anschauung)." However, the images they produced and presented for this purpose were strongly mediated. By means of specifically designed (...)
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  7.  4
    Jorge Marques da Silva & Elena Casetta (2015). The Evolutionary Stages of Plant Physiology and a Plea for Transdisciplinarity. Axiomathes 25 (2):205-215.
    In this paper, the need of increasing transdisciplinarity research is advocated. After having set out some peculiarity of transdisciplinarity compared with related concepts such as multidisciplinarity and interdisciplinarity, four evolutionary stages of scientific disciplines, based on a model recently proposed are presented. This model is then applied to the case of Plant Physiology in order to attempt an evaluation of the potential for transdisciplinary engagement of the discipline, and each of the four stages of the discipline is evaluated. In (...)
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  8.  51
    Scott Edgar (2015). The Physiology of the Sense Organs and Early Neo-Kantian Conceptions of Objectivity: Helmholtz, Lange, Liebmann. In Flavia Padovani, Alan Richardson & Jonathan Y. Tsou (eds.), Objectivity in Science: Approaches to Historical Epistemology. Boston Studies in Philosophy and History of Science. Springer
    The physiologist Johannes Müller’s doctrine of specific nerve energies had a decisive influence on neo-Kantian conceptions of the objectivity of knowledge in the 1850s - 1870s. In the first half of the nineteenth century, Müller amassed a body of experimental evidence to support his doctrine, according to which the character of our sensations is determined by the structures of our own sensory nerves, and not by the external objects that cause the sensations. Neo-Kantians such as Hermann von Helmholtz, F.A. Lange, (...)
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  9.  16
    Tamás Demeter (2012). The Anatomy and Physiology of Mind: Hume's Vitalistic Account. In H. F. J. Horstmanshoff, H. King & C. Zittel (eds.), Blood, Sweat and Tears: The Changing Concepts of Physiology from Antiquity into Early Modern Europe. Brill
    In this paper I challenge the widely held view which associates Hume’s philosophy with mechanical philosophies of nature and particularly with Newton. This view presents Hume’s account of the human mind as passive receiver of impressions which bring into motion, from the outside, a mental machinery whose functioning is described in terms of mechanical causal principles. Instead, I propose an interpretation which suggests that for Hume the human mind is composed of faculties that can be characterized by their active contribution (...)
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  10.  8
    Eduard Glas (1979). Chemistry and Physiology in Their Historical and Philosophical Relations. Delft University Press.
    On the whole our study has made a plea for the combined research into the history, methodology and philosophy of science. There is an intricate communication between these aspects of science, philosophy being both a fruit of scientific developments and a higher-level frame of reference for discussion on the inevicable metaphysical issues in science.As such philosophy can be very useful to science, but should never impose its ideas on the conduct of scientists . ... Zie: Summary.
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  11.  28
    Charles A. Campbell (1953). Philosophy and Brain Physiology. Philosophical Quarterly 3 (January):51-56.
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  12.  20
    P. L. McKee (1971). Perception and Physiology. Mind 80 (October):594-596.
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  13.  1
    F. J. Mullin, N. Kleitman & N. R. Cooperman (1937). Studies on the Physiology of Sleep Changes in Irritability to Auditory Stimuli During Sleep. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (1):88.
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  14. G. J. Goodfield (1975). The Growth of Scientific Physiology Physiological Method and the Mechanist-Vitalist Controversy, Illustrated by the Problems of Respiration and Animal Heat.
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  15. Frank Stahnisch (2012). Medicine, Life and Function: Experimental Strategies and Medical Modernity at the Intersection of Pathology and Physiology. Project Verlag.
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  16.  12
    Charles T. Wolfe & Philippe Huneman (forthcoming). “Man-Machines and Embodiment: From Cartesian Physiology to Claude Bernard’s ‘Living Machine’”. In Justin E. H. Smith (ed.), Embodiment, Oxford Philosophical Concepts. Oxford
    A common and enduring early modern intuition is that materialists reduce organisms in general and human beings in particular to automata. Wasn’t a famous book of the time entitled L’Homme-Machine? In fact, the machine is employed as an analogy, and there was a specifically materialist form of embodiment, in which the body is not reduced to an inanimate machine, but is conceived as an affective, flesh-and-blood entity. We discuss how mechanist and vitalist models of organism exist in a more complementary (...)
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  17.  9
    Charles T. Wolfe (2016). “The ‘Physiology of the Understanding’ and the ‘Mechanics of the Soul’: Reflections on Some Phantom Philosophical Projects”. Quaestio 16.
    In reflecting on the relation between early empiricist conceptions of the mind and more experimentally motivated materialist philosophies of mind in the mid-eighteenth century, I suggest that we take seriously the existence of what I shall call ‘phantom philosophical projects’. A canonical empiricist like Locke goes out of his way to state that their project to investigate and articulate the ‘logic of ideas’ is not a scientific project: “I shall not at present meddle with the Physical consideration of the Mind” (...)
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  18.  4
    Marij van Strien (2015). Vital Instability: Life and Free Will in Physics and Physiology, 1860–1880. Annals of Science 72 (3):381-400.
    During the period 1860-1880, a number of physicists and mathematicians, including Maxwell, Stewart, Cournot and Boussinesq, used theories formulated in terms of physics to argue that the mind, the soul or a vital principle could have an impact on the body. This paper shows that what was primarily at stake for these authors was a concern about the irreducibility of life and the mind to physics, and that their theories can be regarded primarily as reactions to the law of conservation (...)
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  19.  1
    Jason Oakes (2015). Alliances in Human Biology: The Harvard Committee on Industrial Physiology, 1929–1939. Journal of the History of Biology 48 (3):365-390.
    In 1929 the newly-reorganized Rockefeller Foundation funded the work of a cross-disciplinary group at Harvard University called the Committee on Industrial Physiology. The committee’s research and pedagogical work was oriented towards different things for different members of the alliance. The CIP program included a research component in the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and Elton May’s interpretation of the Hawthorne Studies; a pedagogical aspect as part of Wallace Donham’s curriculum for Harvard Business School; and Lawrence Henderson’s work with the Harvard Pareto (...)
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  20.  77
    Robert Michael Brain (2008). The Pulse of Modernism: Experimental Physiology and Aesthetic Avant-Gardes Circa 1900. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (3):393-417.
    When discussing the changing sense of reality around 1900 in the cultural arts the lexicon of early modernism reigns supreme. This essay contends that a critical condition for the possibility of many of the turn of the century modernist movements in the arts can be found in exchange of instruments, concepts, and media of representation between the sciences and the arts. One route of interaction came through physiological aesthetics, the attempt to ‘elucidate physiologically the nature of our Aesthetic feelings’ and (...)
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  21.  20
    A. Cunningham (2002). The Pen and the Sword: Recovering the Disciplinary Identity of Physiology and Anatomy Before 1800 - I: Old Physiology-the Pen. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 33 (4):631-665.
    It is argued that the disciplinary identity of anatomy and physiology before 1800 are unknown to us due to the subsequent creation, success and historiographical dominance of a different discipline-experimental physiology. The first of these two papers deals with the identity of physiology from its revival in the 1530s, and demonstrates that it was a theoretical, not an experimental, discipline, achieved with the mind and the pen, not the hand and the knife. The physiological work of Jean (...)
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  22.  11
    Rodolfo Garau (2016). Springs, Nitre, and Conatus. The Role of the Heart in Hobbes's Physiology and Animal Locomotion. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (2):231-256.
    This paper focuses on an understudied aspect of Hobbes's natural philosophy: his approach to the domain of life. I concentrate on the role assigned by Hobbes to the heart, which occupies a central role in both his account of human physiology and of the origin of animal locomotion. With this, I have three goals in mind. First, I aim to offer a cross-section of Hobbes's effort to provide a mechanistic picture of human life. Second, I aim to contextualize Hobbes's (...)
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  23.  37
    John Sutton (1998). Controlling the Passions: Passion, Memory, and the Moral Physiology of Self in Seventeenth-Century Neurophilosophy. In S. Gaukroger (ed.), The Soft Underbelly of Reason: the passions in the 17th century. Routledge 115-146.
    Some natural philosophers in the 17th century believed that they could control their own innards, specifically the animal spirits coursing incessantly through brain and nerves, in order to discipline or harness passion, cognition and action under rational guidance. This chapter addresses the mechanisms thought necessary after Eden for controlling the physiology of passion. The tragedy of human embedding in the body, with its cognitive and moral limitations, was paired with a sense of our confinement in sequential time. I use (...)
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  24.  2
    Stephen John (2016). The Moral Physiology of Inequality: Response to ‘Fighting Status Inequalities: Non-Domination Vs Non-Interference’. Public Health Ethics 9 (2):164-165.
    In this article, I respond to ‘Fighting Status Inequalities’. I first note a niggle about the paper’s assumption that lowering socio-economic inequalities will lower the social gradient in health. I then suggest two further ways in which neorepublicanism may relate to social epidemiology: in terms of ‘moral physiology’ and through analysing which inequalities are unjust.
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  25.  12
    Henry J. Wirtenberger (1927). Psychology and Physiology (Part 2). Modern Schoolman 4 (2):31-31.
    Up to date Scholasticism is quite proud of its close union with Science. That bond has been strengthened considerable of late by the Physiology course described and recommended in the present article. The Editor.
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  26.  7
    John Protevi (2015). Canguilhem's "Comparative Physiology". Symposium 19 (2):57-71.
    This paper brings Georges Canguilhem and Gilles Deleuze together with the contemporary biologist Mary Jane West-Eberhard. I examine the concepts of adaptation and adaptivity in Canguilhem’s The Normal and the Pathological in light of West-Eberhard’s notion of “developmental plasticity,” which is, I claim, adaptivity in the developmental register. In turn, I interpret Canguilhem’s notion of “comparative physiology” and West- Eberhard’s notion of an “eco-devo-evo” approach to biology in terms of Deleuze’s notion of multiplicity.
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  27.  15
    John Protevi, Political Physiology in High School: Columbine and After.
    In this paper I investigate the mechanics of killing, brining together neuroscience, military history, and the work of the French philosophers Gilles Deleuze & Félix Guattari. Investigating the Columbine killers and the way they negotiate with the intensity of the act of killing allows me to construct a concept of “political physiology,” defined as “interlocking intensive processes that articulate the patterns, thresholds, and triggers of emergent bodies, forming assemblages linking the social and the somatic, with sometimes the subjective as (...)
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  28.  7
    Barnaby R. Hutchins (2015). Descartes, Corpuscles and Reductionism: Mechanism and Systems in Descartes' Physiology. Philosophical Quarterly 65 (261):669-689.
    I argue that Descartes explains physiology in terms of whole systems, and not in terms of the size, shape and motion of tiny corpuscles (corpuscular mechanics). It is a standard, entrenched view that Descartes’ proper means of explanation in the natural world is through strict reduction to corpuscular mechanics. This view is bolstered by a handful of corpuscular–mechanical explanations in Descartes’ physics, which have been taken to be representative of his treatment of all natural phenomena. However, Descartes’ explanations of (...)
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  29. Stella V. F. Butler (1988). Centers and Peripheries: The Development of British Physiology, 1870-1914. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 21 (3):473 - 500.
    By 1910 the Cambridge University physiology department had become the kernel of British physiology. Between 1909 and 1914 an astonishing number of young and talented scientists passed through the laboratory. The University College department was also a stimulating place of study under the dynamic leadership of Ernest Starling.I have argued that the reasons for this metropolitan axis within British physiology lie with the social structure of late-Victorian and Edwardian higher education. Cambridge, Oxford, and University College London were (...)
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  30.  25
    Mark Germine (1997). The Physiology of Collective Consciousness. World Futures 48 (1):57-104.
    (1997). The physiology of collective consciousness. World Futures: Vol. 48, The Concept of Collective Consiousness: Research Perspectives, pp. 57-104.
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  31.  27
    Lukas Soderstrom (2009). Nietzsche as a Reader of Wilhelm Roux, or the Physiology of History. Symposium: The Canadian Journal of Continental Philosophy 13 (2):55-67.
    This paper explores one of the main sources of Nietzsche’s knowledge of physiology and considers its relevance for the philosophical study of history. Beginning in 1881, Nietzsche read Der Kampf der Theile im Organismus by Wilhelm Roux, which exposed him to a dysteleological account of organic development emphasising the excitative, assimilative and auto-regulative processes of the body. These processes mediate the effects of natural selection. His reading contributed to a physiological understanding of history that borrowed Roux’s description of physiological (...)
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  32.  7
    A. Cunningham (2003). The Pen and the Sword: Recovering the Disciplinary Identity of Physiology and Anatomy Before 1800 - II: Old Anatomy-the Sword. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 34 (1):51-76.
    Following the exploration of the disciplinary identity of physiology before 1800 in the previous paper of this pair, the present paper seeks to recover the complementary identity of the discipline of anatomy before 1800. The manual, artisanal character of anatomy is explored via some of its practitioners, with special attention being given to William Harvey and Albrecht von Haller. Attention is particularly drawn to the important role of experiment in anatomical research and practice-which has been misread by historians as (...)
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  33.  5
    Stewart Richards (1986). Drawing the Life-Blood of Physiology: Vivisection and the Physiologists' Dilemma, 1870–1900. Annals of Science 43 (1):27-56.
    Within thirty years from 1870, English physiology was transformed from a subsidiary branch of anatomy to an experimental school of international reputation. An inevitable consequence of this metamorphosis was disclosure of the intrinsic nature of the new discipline, in particular by Burdon Sanderson's Handbook for the Physiological Laboratory . By transmitting Continental methods to England, the Handbook gave direction to its awakening science, and at the same time represented a provocative target for attacks by the antivivisectionists. In uncertain defence (...)
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  34.  4
    Mathieu Arminjon (forthcoming). Birth of the Allostatic Model: From Cannon’s Biocracy to Critical Physiology. Journal of the History of Biology.
    Physiologists and historians are still debating what conceptually differentiates each of the three major modern theories of regulation: the constancy of the milieu inte´rieur, homeostasis and allostasis. Here I propose that these models incarnate two distinct regimes of politization of the life sciences.This perspective leads me to suggest that the historicization of physiological norms is intrinsic to the allostatic model, which thus divides it fundamentally from the two others. I analyze the allostatic model in the light of the Canguilhemian theory, (...)
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  35.  23
    Tom Sparrow (2010). A Physiology of Encounters: Spinoza, Nietzsche, and Strange Alliances. Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 15 (1):165-186.
    The body is central to the philosophies of Spinoza and Nietzsche. Both thinkers are concerned with the composition of the body, its potential relations with other bodies, and the modifications which a body can undergo. Gilles Deleuze has contributed significantly to the relatively sparse literature which draws out the affinities between Spinoza and Nietzsche. Deleuze’s reconceptualization of the field of ethology enables us to bring Spinoza and Nietzsche together as ethologists of the body and to elaborate their common, physiological perspective (...)
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  36.  4
    Stephen John (2016). The Moral Physiology of Inequality: Response to ‘Fighting Status Inequalities: Non-Domination Vs Non-Interference’. Public Health Ethics 9 (2):164-165.
    In this article, I respond to ‘Fighting Status Inequalities’. I first note a niggle about the paper’s assumption that lowering socio-economic inequalities will lower the social gradient in health. I then suggest two further ways in which neorepublicanism may relate to social epidemiology: in terms of ‘moral physiology’ and through analysing which inequalities are unjust.
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  37.  25
    Wim J. M. Dekkers (1995). F.J.J. Buytendijk's Concept of an Anthropological Physiology. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 16 (1).
    In his concept of an anthropological physiology, F.J.J. Buytendijk has tried to lay down the theoretical and scientific foundations for an anthropologically-oriented medicine. The aim of anthropological physiology is to demonstrate, empirically, what being specifically human is in the most elementary physiological functions. This article contains a sketch of Buytendijk''s life and work, an overview of his philosophical-anthropological presuppositions, an outline of his idea of an anthropological physiology and medicine, and a discussion of some episternological and methodological (...)
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  38.  4
    S. J. Wirtenberger (1927). Psychology and Physiology. Modern Schoolman 4 (2):25-25.
    Up to date Scholasticism is quite proud of its close union with Science. That bond has been strengthened considerable of late by the Physiology course described and recommended in the present article. The Editor.
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  39.  3
    Tamas Demeter (2015). Abstraction, Dissociation, and Mental Labor: Paul Szende’s Social Epistemology Between Physiology and Social Theory. Studies in East European Thought 67 (1 - 2):13-30.
    In this paper I focus on the Hungarian intellectual and politician Paul Szende’s sociologically oriented epistemology. I trace the influences of physiology, psychology, economy, evolutionary theory of his day on his sociological theory of abstractive knowledge, and discuss the close connection between physiological, social, and economic aspects in the early sociology of knowledge. My discussion continues with an examination of Szende’s differentiation between two economic effects within social epistemology: on the one hand the ‘economy of thought’ in the tradition (...)
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  40.  14
    Barbara E. Jones (2000). The Interpretation of Physiology. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):955-956.
    Not at all self-evident, the so-called isomorphisms between the phenomenology and physiology of dreams have been interpreted by Hobson et al. in an arbitrary manner to state that dreams are stimulated by chaotic brainstem stimulation (an assumption also adopted by Vertes & Eastman). I argue that this stimulation is not chaotic at all; nor does it occur in the absence of control from the cerebral cortex, which contributes complexity to brainstem activity as well as meaningful information worth consolidating in (...)
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  41.  3
    Edgar Landgraf (2014). Circling the Archimedean Viewpoint: Observations of Physiology in Nietzsche and Luhmann. Substance 43 (3):88-106.
    The question of how our conception of the world could differ so widely from the disclosed nature of the world will with perfect equanimity be relinquished to the physiology and history of the evolution of organisms and concepts.In an interview conducted by the Italian literary journal Alfabeta in April of 1987,1 Niklas Luhmann was asked if sociology, in particular its systems-theoretical variant, could replace the privileged position that art, religion, philosophy, and politics had lost, and provide an Archimedean point (...)
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  42.  1
    Andi Johnson (2015). “They Sweat for Science”: The Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and Self-Experimentation in American Exercise Physiology. Journal of the History of Biology 48 (3):425-454.
    In many scientific fields, the practice of self-experimentation waned over the course of the twentieth century. For exercise physiologists working today, however, the practice of self-experimentation is alive and well. This paper considers the role of the Harvard Fatigue Laboratory and its scientific director, D. Bruce Dill, in legitimizing the practice of self-experimentation in exercise physiology. Descriptions of self-experimentation are drawn from papers published by members of the Harvard Fatigue Lab. Attention is paid to the ethical and practical justifications (...)
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  43.  6
    H. M. Hubey (1997). Logic, Physics, Physiology, and Topology of Color. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):191-194.
    This commentary starts with a simplified Cartesian vector space of the tristimulus theory of color. This vector space is then further simplified so that bitstrings are used to represent the vector space. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) diagram is shown to follow directly and simply from this vector space. The Berlin & Kay results are shown to agree quite well with the vector space and the two-dimensional version of it, especially if the dimensions are normalized to take into account (...)
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  44.  2
    E. Thomson (2001). Physiology, Hygiene and the Entry of Women to the Medical Profession in Edinburgh C. 1869-C. 1900. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 32 (1):105-126.
    Academic physiology, as it was taught by John Hughes Bennett during the 1870s, involved an understanding of the functions of the human body and the physical laws which governed those functions. This knowledge was perceived to be directly relevant and applicable to clinical practice in terms of maintaining bodily hygiene and human health. The first generation of medical women received their physiological education at Edinburgh University under Bennett, who emphasised the importance of physiology for women due to its (...)
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  45. Wayne Klein (1993). Between Physiology and Semiology: Language and Materiality in the Writings of Nietzsche. Dissertation, New School for Social Research
    This dissertation examines the questions of interpretation raised by the naturalist vocabulary employed by Nietzsche in the writings of his last creative years, 1885-88. In particular, the concepts of life, physiology and nature which are central to these texts are elucidated in relation to the theory of language and rhetoric that Nietzsche developed in the early 1870's. The first chapter details the problems posed by this naturalistic vocabulary: in particular whether it justifies the interpretation of Nietzsche as a contradictory (...)
     
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  46. Christopher Macann & Christopher McCann (eds.) (2008). The Physiology and Phenomenology of Action. OUP Oxford.
    In a rare collaboration, a world famous brain scientist and an eminent philosopher have joined forces in an effort to understand how our brain interacts with the world. This is a highly original volume showing how those within phenomenology and physiology can interact to further our understanding of the brain and the mind.
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  47. Lester D. Stephens (2006). Joseph LeConte and the Development of the Physiology and Psychology of Vision in the United States. Annals of Science 37 (3):303-321.
    (1980). Joseph LeConte and the development of the physiology and psychology of vision in the United States. Annals of Science: Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 303-321.
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  48. Shannon Sullivan (2015). The Physiology of Sexist and Racist Oppression. Oxford University Press Usa.
    While gender and race often are considered socially constructed, this book argues that they are physiologically constituted through the biopsychosocial effects of sexism and racism. This means that to be fully successful, critical philosophy of race and feminist philosophy need to examine not only the financial, legal, political and other forms of racist and sexism oppression, but also their physiological operations. Examining a complex tangle of affects, emotions, knowledge, and privilege, The Physiology of Sexist and Racist Oppression develops an (...)
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  49. Shannon Sullivan (2015). The Physiology of Sexist and Racist Oppression. Oxford University Press Usa.
    While gender and race often are considered socially constructed, this book argues that they are physiologically constituted through the biopsychosocial effects of sexism and racism. This means that to be fully successful, critical philosophy of race and feminist philosophy need to examine not only the financial, legal, political and other forms of racist and sexism oppression, but also their physiological operations. Examining a complex tangle of affects, emotions, knowledge, and privilege, The Physiology of Sexist and Racist Oppression develops an (...)
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  50. Nima Bassiri (2013). The Brain and the Unconscious Soul in Eighteenth-Century Nervous Physiology: Robert Whytt's Sensorium Commune. Journal of the History of Ideas 74 (3):425-448.
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