Search results for 'Plasticity' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Massimo Pigliucci (2005). Evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Are We Going Now? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20 (9):481-486.score: 18.0
    The study of phenotypic plasticity has progressed significantly over the past few decades. We have moved from variation for plasticity being considered as a nuisance in evolutionary studies to it being the primary target of investigations that use an array of methods, including quantitative and molecular genetics, as well as of several approaches that model the evolution of plastic responses. Here, I consider some of the major aspects of research on phenotypic plasticity, assessing where progress has been (...)
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  2. Susan L. Hurley & No (2003). Neural Plasticity and Consciousness. Biology and Philosophy 18 (1):131-168.score: 18.0
    and apply it to various examples of neural plasticity in which input is rerouted intermodally or intramodally to nonstandard cortical targets. In some cases but not others, cortical activity ‘defers’ to the nonstandard sources of input. We ask why, consider some possible explanations, and propose a dynamic sensorimotor hypothesis. We believe that this distinction is important and worthy of further study, both philosophical and empirical, whether or not our hypothesis turns out to be correct. In particular, the question of (...)
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  3. Luc Faucher & Christine Tappolet (2008). Facts and Values in Emotional Plasticity. In Louis Charland & Peter Zachar (eds.), Fact and Value in Emotion; Consciousness and Emotion Book Series. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 101--137.score: 18.0
    How much can we shape the emotions we experience? Or to put it another way, how plastic are our emotions? It is clear that the exercise of identifying the degree of plasticity of emotion is futile without a prior specification of what can be plastic, so we first propose an analysis of the components of emotions. We will then turn to empirical data that might be used to assess the degree of plasticity of emotions.
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  4. Massimo Pigliucci (1998). Developmental Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Internal Programming Meets the External Environment. Current Biology 1:87-91.score: 18.0
    Developmental plasticity as the nexus between genetics and ecology.
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  5. Jerry A. Fodor (1988). A Reply to Churchland's `Perceptual Plasticity and Theoretical Neutrality'. Philosophy of Science 55 (June):188-98.score: 18.0
    Churchland's paper "Perceptual Plasticity and Theoretical Neutrality" offers empirical, semantical and epistemological arguments intended to show that the cognitive impenetrability of perception "does not establish a theory-neutral foundation for knowledge" and that the psychological account of perceptual encapsulation that I set forth in The Modularity of Mind "[is] almost certainly false". The present paper considers these arguments in detail and dismisses them.
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  6. Adam Sennet (2012). Semantic Plasticity and Epistemicism. Philosophical Studies 161 (2):273-285.score: 18.0
    This paper considers the connections between semantic shiftiness (plasticity), epistemic safety and an epistemic theory of vagueness as presented and defended by Williamson (1996a, b, 1997a, b). Williamson explains ignorance of the precise intension of vague words as rooted in insensitivity to semantic shifts: one’s inability to detect small shifts in intension for a vague word results in a lack of knowledge of the word’s intension. Williamson’s explanation, however, falls short of accounting for ignorance of intension.
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  7. Carl Schlichting & Massimo Pigliucci (1993). Control of Phenotypic Plasticity Via Regulatory Genes. American Naturalist 142 (2):366-370.score: 18.0
    A response to Via about the existence (or not) and role of plasticity genes in evolution.
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  8. Hilary Callahan, Massimo Pigliucci & Carl Schlichting (1997). Developmental Phenotypic Plasticity: Where Ecology and Evolution Meet Molecular Biology. BioEssays 19 (6):519-525.score: 18.0
    An exploration of the nexus between ecology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology, via the concept of phenotypic plasticity.
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  9. Sebastian Rand (2011). Organism, Normativity, Plasticity: Canguilhem, Kant, Malabou. Continental Philosophy Review 44 (4):341-357.score: 18.0
    Some of Catherine Malabou’s recent work has developed her conception of plasticity (originally deployed in a reading of Hegelian Aufhebung ) in relation to neuroscience. This development clarifies and advances her attempt to bring contemporary theory into dialogue with the natural sciences, while indirectly indicating her engagement with the French tradition in philosophy of science and philosophy of medicine, especially the work of Georges Canguilhem. I argue that we can see her development of plasticity as an answer to (...)
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  10. Timothy Mooney (2011). Plasticity, Motor Intentionality and Concrete Movement in Merleau-Ponty. Continental Philosophy Review 44 (4):359-381.score: 18.0
    Merleau-Ponty’s explication of concrete or practical movement by way of the Schneider case could be read as ending up close to automatism, neglecting its flexibility and plasticity in the face of obstacles. It can be contended that he already goes off course in his explication of Schneider’s condition. Rasmus Jensen has argued that he assimilates a normal person’s motor intentionality to the patient’s, thereby generating a vacuity problem. I argue that Schneider’s difficulties with certain movements point to a means (...)
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  11. Mark Rollins (1994). Deep Plasticity: The Encoding Approach to Perceptual Change. Philosophy of Science 61 (1):39-54.score: 18.0
    The basic problem of perceptual change is how to account for both variation and constancy in perceiving the world. Is order learned? How deep does plasticity go in that respect? I argue that different kinds of perceptual plasticity have been confused in recent debates, notably between J. Fodor and P. M. Churchland. By focusing on changes in the use of concepts, the issues in the Fodor-Churchland debate can be resolved. Beyond that debate, I propose a generalized encoding approach (...)
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  12. Micah Allen & Gary Williams (2011). Consciousness, Plasticity, and Connectomics: The Role of Intersubjectivity in Human Cognition. Frontiers in Psychology 2 (20).score: 18.0
    Consciousness is typically construed as being explainable purely in terms of either private, raw feels or higher-order, reflective representations. In contrast to this false dichotomy, we propose a new view of consciousness as an interactive, plastic phenomenon open to sociocultural influence. We take up our account of consciousness from the observation of radical cortical neuroplasticity in human development. Accordingly, we draw upon recent research on macroscopic neural networks, including the “default mode”, to illustrate cases in which an individual’s particular “connectome” (...)
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  13. Massimo Pigliucci (2001). Phenotypic Plasticity: Beyond Nature and Nurture. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 18.0
    Phenotypic plasticity integrates the insights of ecological genetics, developmental biology, and evolutionary theory. Plasticity research asks foundational questions about how living organisms are capable of variation in their genetic makeup and in their responses to environmental factors. For instance, how do novel adaptive phenotypes originate? How do organisms detect and respond to stressful environments? What is the balance between genetic or natural constraints (such as gravity) and natural selection? The author begins by defining phenotypic plasticity and detailing (...)
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  14. Tom Sparrow (2011). Plasticity and Aesthetic Identity; or, Why We Need a Spinozist Aesthetics. Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 40 (40-41):53-74.score: 18.0
    This essay defends the view that, as embodied, our identities are necessarily dependent on the aesthetic environment. Toward this end, it examines the renewal of the concept of sensation (aisthesis) in phenomenology, but then concludes that the methodology and metaphysics of phenomenology must be abandoned in favor of an ontology that sees corporeal identity as generated by the materiality of aesthetic relations. It is suggested that such an ontology is available in the work of Spinoza, which helps break down the (...)
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  15. Kevin J. S. Zollman & Rory Smead (2010). Plasticity and Language: An Example of the Baldwin Effect? Philosophical Studies 147 (1):7 - 21.score: 18.0
    In recent years, many scholars have suggested that the Baldwin effect may play an important role in the evolution of language. However, the Baldwin effect is a multifaceted and controversial process and the assessment of its connection with language is difficult without a formal model. This paper provides a first step in this direction. We examine a game-theoretic model of the interaction between plasticity (represented by Herrnstein reinforcement learning) and evolution in the context of a simple language (...)
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  16. Stephen Jarosek (2013). Pragmatism, Neural Plasticity and Mind-Body Unity. Biosemiotics 6 (2):205-230.score: 18.0
    Recent developments in cognitive science provide compelling leads that need to be interpreted and synthesized within the context of semiotic and biosemiotic principles. To this end, we examine the impact of the mind-body unity on the sorts of choices that an organism is predisposed to making from its Umwelt. In multicellular organisms with brains, the relationship that an organism has with its Umwelt impacts on neural plasticity, the functional specialisations that develop within the brain, and its behaviour. Clinical observations, (...)
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  17. Axel Cleeremans (2011). The Radical Plasticity Thesis: How the Brain Learns to Be Conscious. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I explore the idea that consciousness is something that the brain learns to do rather than an intrinsic property of certain neural states and not others. Starting from the idea that neural activity is inherently unconscious, the question thus becomes: How does the brain learn to be conscious? I suggest that consciousness arises as a result of the brain's continuous attempts at predicting not only the consequences of its actions on the world and on other agents, but (...)
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  18. A. Demertzi, C. Schnakers, A. Soddu, M. A. Bruno, O. Gosseries, A. Vanhaudenhuyse & S. Laureys (2009). Neural Plasticity Lessons From Disorders of Consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology 1:245-245.score: 18.0
    Communication and intentional behavior are supported by the brain’s integrity at a structural and a functional level. When widespread loss of cerebral connectivity is brought about as a result of a severe brain injury, in many cases patients are not capable of conscious interactive behavior and are said to suffer from disorders of consciousness (e.g., coma, vegetative state /unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious states). This lesion paradigm has offered not only clinical insights, as how to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, (...)
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  19. Rayna H. Friendly, Drew Rendall & Laurel J. Trainor (2013). Plasticity After Perceptual Narrowing for Voice Perception: Reinstating the Ability to Discriminate Monkeys by Their Voices at 12 Months of Age. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 18.0
    Differentiating individuals by their voice is an important social skill for infants to acquire. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the ability to discriminate individuals by voice follows a pattern of perceptual narrowing (Friendly, et al., in press). Specifically, we found that the ability to discriminate between two foreign-species (rhesus monkey) voices decreased significantly between 6 and 12 months of age. Also during this period, there was a trend for the ability to discriminate human voices to increase. Here we (...)
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  20. Torsten Schubert Julia Karbach (2013). Training-Induced Cognitive and Neural Plasticity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Training-induced cognitive and neural plasticity.
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  21. Chris D. Frith (2011). What Brain Plasticity Reveals About the Nature of Consciousness: Commentary. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    What Brain Plasticity Reveals About the Nature of Consciousness: Commentary.
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  22. Lora T. Likova (2012). Drawing Enhances Cross-Modal Memory Plasticity in the Human Brain: A Case Study in a Totally Blind Adult. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    With functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) of a memory-guided drawing task under both visual and blindfolded conditions, we have recently demonstrated that the primary visual cortex (V1) may play a role in implementing the visuo-spatial buffer or the sketchpad idea for working memory. We further proposed that it might however operate in a modality-independent, or amodal form, not restricted to the visual modality. In the present study, to further explore the role of V1 in non-visual memory, we eliminated not only (...)
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  23. M. S. Oechslin, A. Imfeld, T. Loenneker, M. Meyer & L. Jäncke (2008). The Plasticity of the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus as a Function of Musical Expertise: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3:76-76.score: 18.0
    Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that musical expertise leads to functional alterations in language processing. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter plasticity in musicians with absolute pitch (AP), relative pitch (RP) and non-musicians (NM). Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we analyzed the fractional anisotropy of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), which is considered the most primary pathway for processing and production of speech and music. In association with different levels of musical expertise, we found that (...)
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  24. Micah Allen and Gary Williams (2011). Consciousness, Plasticity, and Connectomics: The Role of Intersubjectivity in Human Cognition. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    Consciousness is typically construed as being explainable purely in terms of either private, raw feels or higher-order, reflective representations. In contrast to this false dichotomy, we propose a new view of consciousness as an interactive, plastic phenomenon open to sociocultural influence. We take up our account of consciousness from the observation of radical cortical neuroplasticity in human development. Accordingly, we draw upon recent research on macroscopic neural networks, including the “default mode”, to illustrate cases in which an individual’s particular “connectome” (...)
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  25. Mauro Ursino Cristiano Cuppini, Elisa Magosso (2011). Organization, Maturation, and Plasticity of Multisensory Integration: Insights From Computational Modeling Studies. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 18.0
    In this paper, we present two neural network models - devoted to two specific and widely investigated aspects of multisensory integration - in order to evidence the potentialities of computational models to gain insight into the neural mechanisms underlying organization, development and plasticity of multisensory integration in the brain. The first model considers visual-auditory interaction in a midbrain structure named Superior Colliculus (SC). The model is able to reproduce and explain the main physiological features of multisensory integration in SC (...)
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  26. Sibylle C. Herholz Emily B. J. Coffey (2013). Task Decomposition: A Framework for Comparing Diverse Training Models in Human Brain Plasticity Studies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 18.0
    Training studies, in which the structural or functional neurophysiology is compared before and after expertise is acquired, are increasingly being used as models for understanding the human brain’s potential for reorganization. It is proving difficult to use these results to answer basic and important questions like how task training leads to both specific and general changes in behaviour and how these changes correspond with modifications in the brain. The main culprit is the diversity of paradigms used as complex task models. (...)
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  27. B. Kolb, G. C. Teskey & R. Gibb (2009). Factors Influencing Cerebral Plasticity in the Normal and Injured Brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4:204-204.score: 18.0
    An important development in behavioural neuroscience in the past 20 years has been the demonstration that it is possible to stimulate functional recovery after cerebral injury in laboratory animals. Rodent models of cerebral injury provide an important tool for developing such rehabilitation programs. The models include analysis at different levels including detailed behavioural paradigms, electrophysiology, neuronal morphology, protein chemistry, and epigenetics. A significant challenge for the next 20 years will be the translation of this work to improve the outcome from (...)
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  28. Miia Seppänen, Jarmo Hämäläinen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen & Mari Tervaniemi (2012). Music Training Enhances Rapid Neural Plasticity of N1 and P2 Source Activation for Unattended Sounds. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    Neurocognitive studies demonstrate that long-term musical training enhances the processing of unattended sounds. It is not clear, however, whether musical training modulates also rapid (within tens of minutes) neural plasticity for sound encoding. To study this, we examined whether adult musicians display enhanced rapid neural plasticity when compared to nonmusicians. More specifically, we examined the modulation of P1, N1, and P2 responses to regular standard sounds in an oddball paradigm between unattended passive blocks which were separated by an (...)
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  29. Ulf Ziemann Ming-Kuei Lu, Chon-Haw Tsai (2012). Cerebellum to Motor Cortex Paired Associative Stimulation Induces Bidirectional STDP-Like Plasticity in Human Motor Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 18.0
    The cerebellum is crucially important for motor control and motor adaptation. Recent non-invasive brain stimulation studies have indicated the possibility to alter the excitability of the cerebellum and its projections to the contralateral motor cortex, with behavioral consequences on motor control and motor adaptation. Here we sought to induce bidirectional spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP)-like modifications of motor cortex (M1) excitability by application of paired associative stimulation (PAS) in healthy subjects. Conditioning stimulation over the right lateral cerebellum (CB) preceded focal (...)
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  30. Isabel Trujillo-Pozo, Isabel Martín-Monzón & Rafael Rodríguez-Romero (2013). Brain Lateralization and Neural Plasticity for Musical and Cognitive Abilities in an Epileptic Musician. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:829.score: 18.0
    The use of intracarotid propofol procedure (IPP) when assessing musical lateralization has not been reported in literature up to now. This procedure (similar to Wada Test) has provided the opportunity to investigate not only lateralization of language and memory functions on epileptic patients but also offers a functional mapping approach with superior spatial and temporal resolution to analyze the lateralization of musical abilities. Findings in literature suggest that musical training modifies functional and structural brain organization. We studied hemispheric lateralization in (...)
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  31. Steven R. Vincent (1996). Nitric Oxide and Synaptic Plasticity: NO News From the Cerebellum. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19 (3):362-367.score: 18.0
    Interest in the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the nervous system began with the demonstration that glutamate receptor activation in cerebellar slices causes the formation of a diffusible messenger with properties similar to those of the endothelium-derived relaxing factor. It is now clear that this is due to the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent activation of the enzyme NO synthase, which forms NO and citrulline from the amino acid L-arginine. The cerebellum has very high levels of NO synthase, and although it has low (...)
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  32. Paul M. Churchland (1988). Perceptual Plasticity and Theoretical Neutrality: A Reply to Jerry Fodor. Philosophy of Science 55 (June):167-87.score: 16.0
    The doctrine that the character of our perceptual knowledge is plastic, and can vary substantially with the theories embraced by the perceiver, has been criticized in a recent paper by Fodor. His arguments are based on certain experimental facts and theoretical approaches in cognitive psychology. My aim in this paper is threefold: (1) to show that Fodor's views on the impenetrability of perceptual processing do not secure a theory-neutral foundation for knowledge; (2) to show that his views on impenetrability are (...)
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  33. Susan L. Hurley & Alva Noe (2003). Neural Plasticity and Consciousness: Reply to Block. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (1):342.score: 15.0
    Susan Hurley Susan Hurley Susan Hurley Susan Hurley1111 andAlva Noë andAlva Noë andAlva Noë andAlva Noë2222.
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  34. Massimo Pigliucci (2001). Phenotypic Plasticity. In C. W. Fox D. A. Roff (ed.), Evolutionary Ecology: Concepts and Case Studies.score: 15.0
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  35. Ariel S. Cecchi (2014). Cognitive Penetration, Perceptual Learning and Neural Plasticity. Dialectica 68 (1):63-95.score: 15.0
    Cognitive penetration of perception, broadly understood, is the influence that the cognitive system has on a perceptual system (e.g., visual, auditory, haptic). The paper shows a form of cognitive penetration in the visual system (defined as early vision) which I call ‘architectural’. Architectural cognitive penetration is the process whereby the behaviour or the structure of the perceptual system is influenced by the cognitive system, which consequently may have an impact on the content of the perceptual experience. I scrutinize a study (...)
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  36. Gerald Ostdiek (2011). Cast in Plastic: Semiotic Plasticity and the Pragmatic Reading of Darwin. Biosemiotics 4 (1):69-82.score: 15.0
  37. Branka Hrvoj-Mihic, Thibault Bienvenu, Lisa Stefanacci, Alysson R. Muotri & Katerina Semendeferi (2013). Evolution, Development, and Plasticity of the Human Brain: From Molecules to Bones. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 15.0
  38. Marcel Weber (1996). Evolutionary Plasticity in Prokaryotes: A Panglossian View. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 11 (1):67-88.score: 15.0
    Enzyme directed genetic mechanisms causing random DNA sequence alterations are ubiquitous in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. A number of molecular geneticist have invoked adaptation through natural selection to account for this fact, however, alternative explanations have also flourished. The population geneticist G.C. Williams has dismissed the possibility of selection for mutator activity on a priori grounds. In this paper, I attempt a refutation of Williams' argument. In addition, I discuss some conceptual problems related to recent claims made by microbiologists on (...)
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  39. Doug Davidson & Peter Indefrey (2011). Error-Related Activity and Correlates of Grammatical Plasticity. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 15.0
    Cognitive control involves not only the ability to manage competing task demands, but also the ability to adapt task performance during learning. This study investigated how violation-, response-, and feedback-related electrophysiological (EEG) activity changes over time during language learning. Twenty-two Dutch learners of German classified short prepositional phrases presented serially as text. The phrases were initially presented without feedback during a pre-test phase, and then with feedback in a training phase spanning two days spaced one week apart. The stimuli included (...)
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  40. Antoine Lutz Heleen A. Slagter, Richard J. Davidson (2011). Mental Training as a Tool in the Neuroscientific Study of Brain and Cognitive Plasticity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 15.0
    Although the adult brain was once seen as a rather static organ, it is now clear that the organization of brain circuitry is constantly changing as a function of experience or learning. Yet, research also shows that learning is often specific to the trained stimuli and task, and does not improve performance on novel tasks, even very similar ones. This perspective examines the idea that systematic mental training, as cultivated by meditation, can induce learning that is not stimulus or task (...)
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  41. Mads Jensen & Morten Overgaard (2011). Neural Plasticity and Consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology 2:191-191.score: 15.0
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  42. Juha Silvanto & Geraint Rees (2011). What Does Neural Plasticity Tell Us About Role of Primary Visual Cortex (V1) in Visual Awareness? Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 15.0
    The complete loss of visual awareness resulting from a lesion to the primary visual cortex (V1) suggests that this region is indispensable for conscious visual perception. There are however a number cases of conscious perception in the absence of V1 which appear to challenge this conclusion. These include reports of patients with bilateral V1 lesions sustained at an early age whose conscious vision has spontaneously recovered, as well as stroke patients who have recovered some conscious vision with the help of (...)
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  43. Ann S. Choe, Visar Belegu, Shoko Yoshida, Suresh Joel, Cristina L. Sadowsky, Seth A. Smith, Peter C. M. van Zijl, James J. Pekar & John W. McDonald (2013). Extensive Neurological Recovery From a Complete Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report and Hypothesis on the Role of Cortical Plasticity. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 15.0
  44. Daniel Collerton (2013). Psychotherapy and Brain Plasticity. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 15.0
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  45. Matthew G. Gold (2012). A Frontier in the Understanding of Synaptic Plasticity: Solving the Structure of the Postsynaptic Density. Bioessays 34 (7):599-608.score: 15.0
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  46. Antonine Nicoglou (2011). Defining the Boundaries of Development with Plasticity. Biological Theory 6 (1):36-47.score: 15.0
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  47. Lucas Spierer, Camille F. Chavan & Aurelie L. Manuel (2013). Training-Induced Behavioral and Brain Plasticity in Inhibitory Control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 15.0
  48. Jennifer Grau-Sánchez, Julià L. Amengual, Nuria Rojo, Misericòrdia Veciana de las Heras, Jordi Montero, Francisco Rubio, Eckart Altenmüller, Thomas F. Münte & Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells (2013). Plasticity in the Sensorimotor Cortex Induced by Music-Supported Therapy in Stroke Patients: A TMS Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 15.0
    Playing a musical instrument demands the engagement of different neural systems. Recent studies about the musician’s brain and musical training highlight that this activity requires the close interaction between motor and somatosensory systems. Moreover, neuroplastic changes have been reported in motor-related areas after short and long-term musical training. Because of its capacity to promote neuroplastic changes, music has been used in the context of stroke neurorehabilitation. The majority of patients suffering from a stroke have motor impairments, preventing them to live (...)
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  49. Matthias Kliegel Katharina Zinke, Manuela Einert, Lydia Pfennig (2012). Plasticity of Executive Control Through Task Switching Training in Adolescents. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 15.0
    Research has shown that cognitive training can enhance performance in executive control tasks. Current study was designed to explore whether executive control can also be trained in adolescents, what particular aspects of executive control may underlie training and transfer effects, and whether acute bouts of exercise directly prior to cognitive training enhance training effects. For that purpose, a task switching training was employed that has been shown to be effective in other age groups. A group of adolescents (10-14 years, n (...)
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  50. Neil M. Mclachlan, David J. T. Marco & Sarah J. Wilson (2013). The Musical Environment and Auditory Plasticity: Hearing the Pitch of Percussion. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 15.0
    Although musical skills clearly improve with training, pitch processing has generally been believed to be biologically determined by the behavior of brain stem neural mechanisms. Two main classes of pitch models have emerged over the last 50 years. Harmonic template models have been used to explain cross-channel integration of frequency information, and waveform periodicity models have been used to explain pitch discrimination that is much finer than the resolution of the auditory nerve. It has been proposed that harmonic templates are (...)
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