Search results for 'Platonism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Øystein Linnebo (2009). Platonism in the Philosophy of Mathematics. In Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Platonism about mathematics (or mathematical platonism) is the metaphysical view that there are abstract mathematical objects whose existence is independent of us and our language, thought, and practices. In this survey article, the view is clarified and distinguished from some related views, and arguments for and against the view are discussed.
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  2.  59
    Robert Knowles (2015). Heavy Duty Platonism. Erkenntnis 80 (6):1255-1270.
    Heavy duty platonism is of great dialectical importance in the philosophy of mathematics. It is the view that physical magnitudes, such as mass and temperature, are cases of physical objects being related to numbers. Many theorists have assumed HDP’s falsity in order to reach their own conclusions, but they are only justified in doing so if there are good arguments against HDP. In this paper, I present all five arguments against HDP alluded to in the literature and show that (...)
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  3. Gilbert B. Côté (2013). Mathematical Platonism and the Nature of Infinity. Open Journal of Philosophy 3 (3):372-375.
    An analysis of the counter-intuitive properties of infinity as understood differently in mathematics, classical physics and quantum physics allows the consideration of various paradoxes under a new light (e.g. Zeno’s dichotomy, Torricelli’s trumpet, and the weirdness of quantum physics). It provides strong support for the reality of abstractness and mathematical Platonism, and a plausible reason why there is something rather than nothing in the concrete universe. The conclusions are far reaching for science and philosophy.
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  4. John Russell Roberts, Innate Ideas Without Abstract Ideas: An Essay on Berkeley's Platonism.
    Draft. Berkeley denied the existence of abstract ideas and any faculty of abstraction. At the same time, however, he embraced innate ideas and a faculty of pure intellect. This paper attempts to reconcile the tension between these commitments by offering an interpretation of Berkeley's Platonism.
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  5. Mark Balaguer (1995). A Platonist Epistemology. Synthese 103 (3):303 - 325.
    A response is given here to Benacerraf's 1973 argument that mathematical platonism is incompatible with a naturalistic epistemology. Unlike almost all previous platonist responses to Benacerraf, the response given here is positive rather than negative; that is, rather than trying to find a problem with Benacerraf's argument, I accept his challenge and meet it head on by constructing an epistemology of abstract (i.e., aspatial and atemporal) mathematical objects. Thus, I show that spatio-temporal creatures like ourselves can attain knowledge about (...)
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  6. Colin Cheyne & Charles R. Pigden (1996). Pythagorean Powers or a Challenge to Platonism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 74 (4):639 – 645.
    The Quine/Putnam indispensability argument is regarded by many as the chief argument for the existence of platonic objects. We argue that this argument cannot establish what its proponents intend. The form of our argument is simple. Suppose indispensability to science is the only good reason for believing in the existence of platonic objects. Either the dispensability of mathematical objects to science can be demonstrated and, hence, there is no good reason for believing in the existence of platonic objects, or their (...)
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  7.  16
    Guido Imaguire (2015). The Platonism Vs. Nominalism Debate From a Meta-Metaphysical Perspective. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 71 (2-3):375-398.
    Resumo Neste artigo o autor apresenta cinco abordagens diferentes ao debate entre o platonismo e o nominalismo: a quantificacional, a reducionista, a dependência da mente / linguagem, a extensional versus intensional, a hierárquica. Cada uma apresenta suas vantagens e desvantagens que devem ser discutidas em detalhe. Palavras-chave : existência, meta-metafísica, nominalismo, platonismoIn this paper I present five different approaches to the debate between Platonism and Nominalism: the quantifier approach, the reductionist approach, the mind / language dependence approach, the extension (...)
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  8.  74
    Chris Daly & Simon Langford (2011). Two Anti-Platonist Strategies. Mind 119 (476):1107-1116.
    This paper considers two strategies for undermining indispensability arguments for mathematical Platonism. We defend one strategy (the Trivial Strategy) against a criticism by Joseph Melia. In particular, we argue that the key example Melia uses against the Trivial Strategy fails. We then criticize Melia’s chosen strategy (the Weaseling Strategy.) The Weaseling Strategy attempts to show that it is not always inconsistent or irrational knowingly to assert p and deny an implication of p . We argue that Melia’s case for (...)
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  9.  6
    SangWon Lee (2016). The Dynamic Association of Being and Non-Being: Heidegger’s Thoughts on Plato’s Sophist Beyond Platonism. Human Studies 39 (3):385-403.
    This article examines Heidegger’s interpretation of Plato’s Sophist, focusing on his attempts to grasp Plato’s original thinking of being and non-being. Some contemporary thinkers and commentators argue that Heidegger’s view of Plato is simply based on his criticism against the traditional metaphysics of Platonism and its language. But a close reading of his lecture on the Sophist reveals that his view of Plato is grounded in Plato’s questioning struggle with the ambiguous nature of human speech or language. For Heidegger, (...)
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  10. Joel I. Friedman (2005). Modal Platonism: An Easy Way to Avoid Ontological Commitment to Abstract Entities. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 34 (3):227 - 273.
    Modal Platonism utilizes "weak" logical possibility, such that it is logically possible there are abstract entities, and logically possible there are none. Modal Platonism also utilizes a non-indexical actuality operator. Modal Platonism is the EASY WAY, neither reductionist nor eliminativist, but embracing the Platonistic language of abstract entities while eliminating ontological commitment to them. Statement of Modal Platonism. Any consistent statement B ontologically committed to abstract entities may be replaced by an empirically equivalent modalization, MOD(B), not (...)
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  11.  26
    Robert Arp (2005). Frege, as-If Platonism, and Pragmatism. Journal of Critical Realism 4 (1):1-27.
    This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first, I attempt to show that the characterization of Frege as a redundancy theorist is not accurate. Using one of Wolfgang Carl's recent works as a foil, I argue that Frege countenances a realm of abstract objects including truth, and that Frege's Platonist commitments inform his epistemology and embolden his antipsychologistic project. In the second section, contrasting Frege's Platonism with pragmatism, I show that even though Frege's metaphysical position concerning (...)
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  12.  3
    Charles Taliaferro (2015). Abstract Objects and Causation: Bringing Causation Back Into Contemporary Platonism. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 71 (4):769-780.
    Resumo O autor defenderá, por um lado, a existência dos objectos abstractos e, por outro, o seu papel causal, numa ontologia platónica, tal como enquadrada por Roderick Chisholm. Se plausível, a natureza e o papel dos abstracta sob a forma de estados de coisas, oferecem-nos razões para acreditar em uma descrição bem-sucedida e explicativa da intencionalidade humana e animal que não está encerrada no mundo físico. Palavras-chave : causalidade, encerramento causal, fisicalismo, objectos abstractos, platonismo, Roderick ChisholmA defense of the existence (...)
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  13.  14
    Edward Slowik (2015). The ‘Space’ at the Intersection of Platonism and Nominalism. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (2):393-408.
    This essay explores the use of platonist and nominalist concepts, derived from the philosophy of mathematics and metaphysics, as a means of elucidating the debate on spacetime ontology and the spatial structures endorsed by scientific realists. Although the disputes associated with platonism and nominalism often mirror the complexities involved with substantivalism and relationism, it will be argued that a more refined three-part distinction among platonist/nominalist categories can nonetheless provide unique insights into the core assumptions that underlie spatial ontologies, but (...)
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  14.  53
    Srećko Kovač (1999). Quine's Platonism and Antiplatonism. Synthesis Philosophica 14 (1999):45-52.
    Quine rejects intensional Platonism and, with it, also rejects attributes (properties) as designations of predicates. He pragmatically accepts extensional Platonism, but conceives of classes as merely auxiliary entities needed to express some laws of set theory. At the elementary logical level, Quine develops an “ontologically innocent” logic of predicates. What in standard quantification theory is the work of variables is in the logic of predicates the work of a few functors that operate on predicates themselves: variables are eliminated. (...)
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  15.  14
    Carlos Lobo, Cleverson Leite Bastos & Carlos Eduardo de Carvalho Vargas (2015). On Essentialism and Existentialism in the Husserlian Platonism: A Reflexion Based on Modal Logic. Axiomathes 25 (3):335-343.
    Departing from modal logic, Jean-Yves Girard, as a logician interested in philosophy, presented a distinction between essentialism and existentialism in logic. Carlos Lobo reflected about the Girard’s concept to reinterpret the Husserlian Platonism in regard of the status of logical modalities. We start rescuing the notion of modal logic in the Edmund Husserl’s works, especially Formal and Transcendental Logic and First Philosophy. Developing this reflexion, we propose a new contribution to this discussion, reinterpreting the platonic influence in the Husserlian (...)
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  16.  13
    Vladimir Drekalović (2015). Some Aspects of Understanding Mathematical Reality: Existence, Platonism, Discovery. Axiomathes 25 (3):313-333.
    The sum of all objects of a science, the objects’ features and their mutual relations compose the reality described by that sense. The reality described by mathematics consists of objects such as sets, functions, algebraic structures, etc. Generally speaking, the use of terms reality and existence, in relation to describing various objects’ characteristics, usually implies an employment of physical and perceptible attributes. This is not the case in mathematics. Its reality and the existence of its objects, leaving aside its application, (...)
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  17.  46
    Bill Wringe (2008). Making the Lightness of Being Bearable: Arithmetical Platonism, Fictional Realism and Cognitive Command. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 38 (3):pp. 453-487.
    In this paper I argue against Divers and Miller's 'Lightness of Being' objection to Hale and Wright's neo-Fregean Platonism. According to the 'Lightness of Being' objection, the neo-Fregean Platonist makes existence too cheap: the same principles which allow her to argue that numbers exist also allow her to claim that fictional objects exist. I claim that this is no objection at all" the neo-Fregean Platonist should think that fictional characters exist. However, the pluralist approach to truth developed by WQright (...)
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  18.  15
    Charles Sayward (2002). Is an Unpictorial Mathematical Platonism Possible? Journal of Philosophical Research 27:199-212.
    In his book 'Wittgenstein on the foundations of Mathematics', Crispin Wright notes that remarkably little has been done to provide an unpictorial, substantial account of what mathematical platoninism comes to. Wright proposes to investigate whether there is not some more substantial doctrine than the familiar images underpinning the platonist view. He begins with the suggestion that the essential element in the platonist claim is that mathematical truth is objective. Although he does not demarcate them as such, Wright proposes several different (...)
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  19.  3
    Bernard Wills (2012). Pascal and the Persistence of Platonism in Early Modern Thought. International Journal of the Platonic Tradition 6 (2):186-200.
    The following paper argues that Blaise Pascal, in spite of his famous opposition between the God of the Philosophers and the God of “Abraham, Isaac and Jacob” has significant affinities with the tradition of Renaissance Platonism and is in fact a Platonist in his overall outlook. This is shown in three ways. Firstly, it is argued that Pascal’s skeptical fideism has roots in the notion of faith developed in post-Plotinian neo-Platonism. Secondly, it is argued that Pascal makes considerable (...)
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  20. Chad Carmichael (2016). Deep Platonism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (3):307-328.
    According to the traditional bundle theory, particulars are bundles of compresent universals. I think we should reject the bundle theory for a variety of reasons. But I will argue for the thesis at the core of the bundle theory: that all the facts about particulars are grounded in facts about universals. I begin by showing how to meet the main objection to this thesis (which is also the main objection to the bundle theory): that it is inconsistent with the possibility (...)
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  21. Massimo Pigliucci (2011). Mathematical Platonism. Philosophy Now 84:47-47.
    Are numbers and other mathematical objects "out there" in some philosophically meaningful sense?
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  22. Knut Olav Skarsaune (2015). How To Be a Moral Platonist. Oxford Studies in Metaethics (10).
    Contrary to popular opinion, non-natural realism can explain both why normative properties supervene on descriptive properties, and why this pattern is analytic. The explanation proceeds by positing a subtle polysemy in normative predicates like “good”. Such predicates express slightly different senses when they are applied to particulars (like Florence Nightingale) and to kinds (like altruism). The former sense, “goodPAR”, can be defined in terms of the latter, “goodKIN”, as follows: x is goodPAR iff there is a kind K such that (...)
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  23.  1
    Russell Marcus (2015). Autonomy Platonism and the Indispensability Argument. Lexington Books.
    This book includes detailed critical analysis of a wide variety of versions of the indispensability argument, as well as a novel approach to traditional views about mathematics.
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  24. Anne Newstead & James Franklin (2012). Indispensability Without Platonism. In Alexander Bird, Brian Ellis & Howard Sankey (eds.), Properties, Powers and Structures. Routledge
    According to Quine’s indispensability argument, we ought to believe in just those mathematical entities that we quantify over in our best scientific theories. Quine’s criterion of ontological commitment is part of the standard indispensability argument. However, we suggest that a new indispensability argument can be run using Armstrong’s criterion of ontological commitment rather than Quine’s. According to Armstrong’s criterion, ‘to be is to be a truthmaker (or part of one)’. We supplement this criterion with our own brand of metaphysics, 'Aristotelian (...)
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  25. Michael S. Gazzaniga & Shaun Gallagher (1998). The Neuronal Platonist. Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (5-6):706-717.
    Psychology is dead. The self is a fiction invented by the brain. Brain plasticity isn?t all it?s cracked up to be. Our conscious learning is an observation post factum, a recollection of something already accomplished by the brain. We don?t learn to speak; speech is generated when the brain is ready to say something. False memories are more prevalent than one might think, and they aren?t all that bad. We think we?re in charge of our lives, but actually we are (...)
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  26.  40
    Steven M. Duncan, Platonism by the Numbers.
    In this paper, I defend traditional Platonic mathematical realism from its contemporary detractors, arguing that numbers, understood as abstract, non-physical objects of rational intuition, are indispensable for the act of counting.
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  27.  23
    Mark Mcevoy (2005). Mathematical Apriorism and Warrant: A Reliabilist-Platonist Account. Philosophical Forum 36 (4):399–417.
    Mathematical apriorism holds that mathematical truths must be established using a priori processes. Against this, it has been argued that apparently a priori mathematical processes can, under certain circumstances, fail to warrant the beliefs they produce; this shows that these warrants depend on contingent features of the contexts in which they are used. They thus cannot be a priori. -/- In this paper I develop a position that combines a reliabilist version of mathematical apriorism with a platonistic view of mathematical (...)
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  28.  52
    Stephen L. Brock (2006). On Whether Aquinas's Ipsum Esse is “Platonism”. Review of Metaphysics 60 (2):269-303.
    Enrico Berti and others hold that Aquinas’s notion of God as ipsum esse subsistens conflicts with Aristotle’s view that positing an Idea of being treats being as a genus and nullifies all differences. The paper first shows how one of Aquinas’s ways of distinguishing esse from essence supposes an intimate tie between a thing’s esse and its differentia. Then it argues that for Aquinas the (one) divine essence differs from the (manifold) “essence of esse.” God is his very esse. This (...)
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  29.  39
    Bob Hale (1984). Frege's Platonism. Philosophical Quarterly 34 (136):225-241.
  30.  12
    Sarah Byers (2007). Augustine on the 'Divided Self': Platonist or Stoic? Augustinian Studies 38 (1):105-118.
  31.  26
    Edward Moore, Middle Platonism. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  32.  17
    Yitzhak Y. Melamed (2009). Review of Michael Ayers (Ed.), Rationalism, Platonism and God. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (2).
  33. Edward P. Butler (2015). Sea of Dissimilitude: Poseidon and Platonism. In Rebecca Buchanan (ed.), From the Roaring Deep: A Devotional in Honor of Poseidon and the Spirits of the Sea. Bibliotheca Alexandrina 213-235.
  34. Mark Balaguer (1998). Platonism and Anti-Platonism in Mathematics. Oxford University Press.
    In this book, Balaguer demonstrates that there are no good arguments for or against mathematical platonism. He does this by establishing that both platonism and anti-platonism are defensible views. Introducing a form of platonism ("full-blooded platonism") that solves all problems traditionally associated with the view, he proceeds to defend anti-platonism (in particular, mathematical fictionalism) against various attacks, most notably the Quine-Putnam indispensability attack. He concludes by arguing that it is not simply that we do (...)
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  35. Mark Colyvan & Edward N. Zalta (1999). Mathematics: Truth and Fiction? Review of Mark Balaguer's Platonism and Anti-Platonism in Mathematics. Philosophia Mathematica 7 (3):336-349.
    Mark Balaguer’s project in this book is extremely ambitious; he sets out to defend both platonism and fictionalism about mathematical entities. Moreover, Balaguer argues that at the end of the day, platonism and fictionalism are on an equal footing. Not content to leave the matter there, however, he advances the anti-metaphysical conclusion that there is no fact of the matter about the existence of mathematical objects.1 Despite the ambitious nature of this project, for the most part Balaguer does (...)
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  36. Otavio Bueno, Interpreting Music: Beyond Platonism.
    Central to the philosophical understanding of music is the status of musical works. According to the Platonist, musical works are abstract objects; that is, they are not located in space or time, and we have no causal access to them. Moreover, only a particular physical occurrence of these musical works is instantiated when a performance ofthe latter takes place. But even if no performance ever took place, the Platonist insists, the musical work would still exist, since its existence is not (...)
     
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  37. David Liggins (2006). Is There a Good Epistemological Argument Against Platonism? Analysis 66 (290):135–141.
    Platonism in the philosophy of mathematics is the doctrine that there are mathematical objects such as numbers. John Burgess and Gideon Rosen have argued that that there is no good epistemological argument against platonism. They propose a dilemma, claiming that epistemological arguments against platonism either rely on a dubious epistemology, or resemble a dubious sceptical argument concerning perceptual knowledge. Against Burgess and Rosen, I show that an epistemological anti- platonist argument proposed by Hartry Field avoids both horns (...)
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  38. Øystein Linnebo (2006). Epistemological Challenges to Mathematical Platonism. Philosophical Studies 129 (3):545-574.
    Since Benacerraf’s “Mathematical Truth” a number of epistemological challenges have been launched against mathematical platonism. I first argue that these challenges fail because they unduely assimilate mathematics to empirical science. Then I develop an improved challenge which is immune to this criticism. Very roughly, what I demand is an account of how people’s mathematical beliefs are responsive to the truth of these beliefs. Finally I argue that if we employ a semantic truth-predicate rather than just a deflationary one, there (...)
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  39.  7
    Carlo Rovelli (forthcoming). Michelangelo’s Stone: An Argument Against Platonism in Mathematics. European Journal for Philosophy of Science:1-13.
    If there is a ‘platonic world’ \ of mathematical facts, what does \ contain precisely? I observe that if \ is too large, it is uninteresting, because the value is in the selection, not in the totality; if it is smaller and interesting, it is not independent of us. Both alternatives challenge mathematical platonism. I suggest that the universality of our mathematics may be a prejudice and illustrate contingent aspects of classical geometry, arithmetic and linear algebra, making the case (...)
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  40. Øystein Linnebo (forthcoming). Platonism in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Platonism about mathematics (or mathematical platonism) isthe metaphysical view that there are abstract mathematical objectswhose existence is independent of us and our language, thought, andpractices. Just as electrons and planets exist independently of us, sodo numbers and sets. And just as statements about electrons and planetsare made true or false by the objects with which they are concerned andthese objects' perfectly objective properties, so are statements aboutnumbers and sets. Mathematical truths are therefore discovered, notinvented., Existence. There are mathematical (...)
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  41. Michael Bergmann & Jeffrey E. Brower (2006). A Theistic Argument Against Platonism (and in Support of Truthmakers and Divine Simplicity). Oxford Studies in Metaphysics 2:357-386.
    Predication is an indisputable part of our linguistic behavior. By contrast, the metaphysics of predication has been a matter of dispute ever since antiquity. According to Plato—or at least Platonism, the view that goes by Plato’s name in contemporary philosophy—the truths expressed by predications such as “Socrates is wise” are true because there is a subject of predication (e.g., Socrates), there is an abstract property or universal (e.g., wisdom), and the subject exemplifies the property.1 This view is supposed to (...)
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  42.  78
    James Franklin (2015). Uninstantiated Properties and Semi-Platonist Aristotelianism. Review of Metaphysics 69 (1):25-45.
    Once the reality of properties is admitted, there are two fundamentally different realist theories of properties. Platonist or transcendent realism holds that properties are abstract objects in the classical sense, of being nonmental, nonspatial, and causally inefficacious. By contrast, Aristotelian or moderate realism takes properties to be literally instantiated in things. An apple’s color and shape are as real and physical as the apple itself. The most direct reason for taking an Aristotelian realist view of properties is that we perceive (...)
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  43.  92
    Mark Balaguer, Platonism in Metaphysics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Platonism is the view that there exist such things as abstract objects — where an abstract object is an object that does not exist in space or time and which is therefore entirely non-physical and nonmental. Platonism in this sense is a contemporary view. It is obviously related to the views of Plato in important ways, but it is not entirely clear that Plato endorsed this view, as it is defined here. In order to remain neutral on this (...)
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  44.  21
    Nora Hämäläinen (2014). What is a Wittgensteinian Neo-Platonist?–Iris Murdoch, Metaphysics and Metaphor. Philosophical Papers 43 (2):191-225.
    The aim of this paper is to present a perspective on Iris Murdoch conception of metaphysics, starting from her puzzling contention that she could describe herself as a ?Wittgensteinian Neo-Platonist?. I argue that this statement is a central clue to the nature both of her philosophical method which is strongly reminiscent of Wittgenstein's, and of her Platonism, which in its emphasis on the everyday and metaphorical aspects of his work differs starkly from received modern interpretations. Placing Murdoch between Plato (...)
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  45.  51
    Mark Balaguer (1994). Against (Maddian) Naturalized Platonism. Philosophia Mathematica 2 (2):97-108.
    It is argued here that mathematical objects cannot be simultaneously abstract and perceptible. Thus, naturalized versions of mathematical platonism, such as the one advocated by Penelope Maddy, are unintelligble. Thus, platonists cannot respond to Benacerrafian epistemological arguments against their view vias Maddy-style naturalization. Finally, it is also argued that naturalized platonists cannot respond to this situation by abandoning abstractness (that is, platonism); they must abandon perceptibility (that is, naturalism).
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  46. Daniel W. Smith (2005). The Concept of the Simulacrum: Deleuze and the Overturning of Platonism. [REVIEW] Continental Philosophy Review 38 (1-2):89-123.
    This article examines Gilles Deleuze’s concept of the simulacrum, which Deleuze formulated in the context of his reading of Nietzsche’s project of “overturning Platonism.” The essential Platonic distinction, Deleuze argues, is more profound than the speculative distinction between model and copy, original and image. The deeper, practical distinction moves between two kinds of images or eidolon, for which the Platonic Idea is meant to provide a concrete criterion of selection “Copies” or icons (eikones) are well-grounded claimants to the transcendent (...)
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  47. Mark Balaguer (1998). Platonism and Anti-Platonism in Mathematics. Oxford University Press Usa.
    In this book, Balaguer demonstrates that there are no good arguments for or against mathematical platonism. He establishes that both platonism and anti-platonism are defensible views and introduces a form of platonism that solves all problems traditionally associated with the view, proceeding to defend anti-platonism against various attacks--most notably the Quine-Putnam indispensability attack.
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  48. Christia Mercer (2008). The Platonism at the Core of Leibniz's Metaphysics: God and Knowledge. In S. Hutton (ed.), Platonism and the Origins of Modernity: The Platonic Tradition and the Rise of Modern Philosophy. Ashgate Press
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  49.  20
    Daniele De Santis (2015). Wesen, Eidos, Idea Remarks on the “Platonism” of Jean Héring and Roman Ingarden. Studia Phaenomenologica 15:155-180.
    In this paper we will be discussing the “Platonism” of two former Göttingen students of Husserl, notably Jean Héring and Roman Ingarden. By “Platonism” we mean not simply an account of the diff erence between individuals and Forms. We mean a peculiar insight into what Ingarden explicitly designates as “the content of Ideas”. Our primary concern is to emphasize a major shift in Plato’s treatment of Forms: we will see Plato switching the focus of his investigation from the (...)
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  50. Peter C. Blum (2000). Overcoming Relativism? Levinas's Return to Platonism. Journal of Religious Ethics 28 (1):91 - 117.
    Emmanuel Levinas's concept of "the face of the Other" involves an ethical mandate that is presumably transcultural or, in his terms, "precultural." His essay "Meaning and Sense" provides his most explicit defense of the idea that the face has a meaning that is not culturally relative, though it is always encountered within some particular culture. Levinas identifies his position there as a "return to Platonism." Through a careful reading of that essay, exploring Levinas's use of religious terminology and the (...)
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