Search results for 'Play' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Fair Play (2007). Competton and Fair Play. In William J. Morgan (ed.), Ethics in Sport. Human Kinetics, Inc. 103.score: 180.0
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  2. Marc Bekoff (2004). Wild Justice and Fair Play: Cooperation, Forgiveness, and Morality in Animals. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 19 (4):489-520.score: 24.0
    In this paper I argue that we can learn much about wild justice and the evolutionary origins of social morality – behaving fairly – by studying social play behavior in group-living animals, and that interdisciplinary cooperation will help immensely. In our efforts to learn more about the evolution of morality we need to broaden our comparative research to include animals other than non-human primates. If one is a good Darwinian, it is premature to claim that only humans can be (...)
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  3. Richard Dagger (2008). Punishment as Fair Play. Res Publica 14 (4):259-275.score: 24.0
    This article defends the fair-play theory of legal punishment against three objections. The first, the irrelevance objection , is the long-standing complaint that fair play fails to capture what it is about crimes that makes criminals deserving of punishment; the others are the recently raised false-equivalence and lacks-integration objections. In response, I sketch an account of fair-play theory that is grounded in a conception of the political order as a meta- cooperative practice—a conception that falls somewhere between (...)
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  4. Somogy Varga (2010). Explaining Impaired Play in Autism. Journal für Philosophie Und Psychiatrie 3 (1):1-13.score: 24.0
    Autism has recently become the focus of continuous philosophical inquiry, because it affects inter-subjective capacities in a highly selective manner. One of the first behavioural manifestations of autism is impaired play, particularly the lack of pretend play. This article will show that the prevailing 'Theory-Theory of Mind'-approach cannot explain impaired play. I will suggest a richer, phenomenological account of inter-subjectivity. It will be argued that this improves the understanding of impaired play in autism.
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  5. Matt K. Stichter (2010). Rescuing Fair-Play as a Justification for Punishment. Res Publica 16 (1):73-81.score: 24.0
    The debate over whether ‘fair-play’ can serve as a justification for legal punishment has recently resumed with an exchange between Richard Dagger and Antony Duff. According to the fair-play theorist, criminals deserve punishment for breaking the law because in so doing the criminal upsets a fair distribution of benefits and burdens, and punishment rectifies this unfairness. Critics frequently level two charges against this idea. The first is that it often gives the wrong explanation of what makes crime deserving (...)
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  6. Mihai Spariosu (1989). Dionysus Reborn: Play and the Aesthetic Dimension in Modern Philosophical and Scientific Discourse. Cornell University Press.score: 24.0
    Introduction: Play, Power, and the Western Mentality Whereas play has always had an important, if sometimes unthemat- ized, role in Western literary ...
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  7. Zachary Hoskins (2011). ''Fair Play, Political Obligation, and Punishment''. Criminal Law and Philosophy 5 (1):53-71.score: 24.0
    This paper attempts to establish that, and explain why, the practice of punishing offenders is in principle morally permissible. My account is a nonstandard version of the fair play view, according to which punishment's permissibility derives from reciprocal obligations shared by members of a political community, understood as a mutually beneficial, cooperative venture. Most fair play views portray punishment as an appropriate means of removing the unfair advantage an offender gains relative to law-abiding members of the community. Such (...)
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  8. Somogy Varga (2011). Winnicott, Symbolic Play, and Other Minds. Philosophical Psychology 24 (5):625 - 637.score: 24.0
    In this paper, I will attempt to follow Winnicott's thoughts on the intrinsic connection between symbolic play and the way we understand other minds. Phenomenological, conceptual and empirical difficulties in the account will be presented and taken into consideration. Winnicott's account proves to be a fruitful guide into the issue and can help us clarify impaired symbolic play in autism.
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  9. Marco C. Rozendaal, Bram A. L. Braat & Stephan A. G. Wensveen (2010). Exploring Sociality and Engagement in Play Through Game-Control Distribution. AI and Society 25 (2):193-201.score: 24.0
    This study explores how distributing the controls of a video game among multiple players affects the sociality and engagement experienced in game play. A video game was developed in which the distribution of game controls among the players could be varied, thereby affecting the abilities of the individual players to control the game. An experiment was set up in which eight groups of three players were asked to play the video game while the distribution of the game controls (...)
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  10. James S. Hans (1981). The Play of the World. University of Massachusetts Press.score: 24.0
    Play The concept of play has received considerable attention in the past, yet one can generally conclude from modern work on the subject that its stature ...
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  11. Colin Allen & Marc Bekoff (1994). Intentionality, Social Play, and Definition. Biology and Philosophy 9 (1):63-74.score: 24.0
    Social play is naturally characterized in intentional terms. An evolutionary account of social play could help scientists to understand the evolution of cognition and intentionality. Alexander Rosenberg (1990) has argued that if play is characterized intentionally or functionally, it is not a behavioral phenotype suitable for evolutionary explanation. If he is right, his arguments would threaten many projects in cognitive ethology. We argue that Rosenberg's arguments are unsound and that intentionally and functionally characterized phenotypes are a proper (...)
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  12. Antony Duff (2008). The Incompleteness of 'Punishment as Fair Play': A Response to Dagger. Res Publica 14 (4):277-281.score: 24.0
    Richard Dagger (in this issue) provides perhaps the most persuasive version of a ‘fair play’ theory of criminal punishment, grounded in an attractive liberal republican political theory. But, I argue, his version of the theory still faces serious objections: that its explanation of why some central mala in se are properly criminalised is still distorting, despite his appeal to the burdens of ‘general compliance’; and that it cannot adequately explain (as it should explain) the differential seriousness and wrongfulness of (...)
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  13. Bjarke Liboriussen (2013). Craft, Creativity, Computer Games: The Fusion of Play and Material Consciousness. Philosophy and Technology 26 (3):273-282.score: 24.0
    In a historical perspective, what is novel about computer games is that they are not pure games but cultural objects which allow the playful desires identified by Caillois to be fused with craftsmanship, the desire to do a job well for its own sake (Sennett). Play is often defined in opposition to work, for example by Huizinga and Caillois, but craftsmanship has two qualities which can be found in both. Firstly, craftsmanship entails creative attention to the material at hand (...)
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  14. Thorsten Botz-Bornstein (2013). Speech, Writing, and Play in Gadamer and Derrida. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (1):249-264.score: 24.0
    I revisit the Derrida-Gadamer debate in order to analyze more closely the problem of the foundation of reason and of interpretation. I explore the theme of play as a metaphor of non-foundation in both philosophers and analyze how both extract this quality from their readings of Plato’s Phaedrus . Does Derrida not essentialize the game by declaring that the playful experience of a Gadamerian dialogue must produce a metaphysical presence in the form of a hermeneutic intention? I find that (...)
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  15. Yvette Pearson & Jason Borenstein (2013). The Intervention of Robot Caregivers and the Cultivation of Children's Capability to Play. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (1):123-137.score: 24.0
    In this article, the authors examine whether and how robot caregivers can contribute to the welfare of children with various cognitive and physical impairments by expanding recreational opportunities for these children. The capabilities approach is used as a basis for informing the relevant discussion. Though important in its own right, having the opportunity to play is essential to the development of other capabilities central to human flourishing. Drawing from empirical studies, the authors show that the use of various types (...)
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  16. Tyson E. Lewis (2014). Education as Free Use: Giorgio Agamben on Studious Play, Toys, and the Inoperative Schoolhouse. [REVIEW] Studies in Philosophy and Education 33 (2):201-214.score: 24.0
    In this essay, I argue that the work of Giorgio Agamben provides us with a theory of studious play which cuts across many of the categories that polarize educational thought. Rather than either ritualized testing or constructivist playfulness, Agamben provides a model of what he refers to as studious play—a practice which suspends the logic of both ritual and play. In order to explore this notion of studious play, I first articulate Agamben’s fleeting remarks on the (...)
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  17. Peter Hutchinson (1983). Games Authors Play. Methuen.score: 24.0
    INTRODUCTION It was Eric Berne's Games People Play () which first alerted the world to the large number of 'games' which are played by individuals in ...
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  18. Hervé Varenne & Mary E. Cotter (2006). Dr. Mom? Conversational Play and the Submergence of Professional Status in Childbirth. Human Studies 29 (1):77 - 105.score: 24.0
    Through a close analysis of various moments within two hours of video-taped interaction, we investigate properties of the setting that the participants cannot ignore even as they transform them in various ways. These properties are not under local control. What is under control is revealed in the participants' “play” with the properties, including dangerous, “deep” play. In this process, some properties of the participants are rarely mentioned (e.g., that the laboring woman is an MD), others are repeatedly emphasized (...)
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  19. A. D. Pellegrini & David F. Bjorklund (2004). The Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Children's Object and Fantasy Play. Human Nature 15 (1):23-43.score: 24.0
    We examine the ontogeny and phylogeny of object and fantasy play from a functional perspective. Each form of play is described from an evolutionary perspective in terms of its place in the total time and energy budgets of human and nonhuman juveniles. As part of discussion of functions of play, we examine sex differences, particularly as they relate to life in the environment of evolutionary adaptedness and economic activities of human and nonhuman primates. Object play may (...)
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  20. Bradley J. Brummel, C. K. Gunsalus, Kerri L. Anderson & Michael C. Loui (2010). Development of Role-Play Scenarios for Teaching Responsible Conduct of Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 16 (3):573-589.score: 24.0
    We describe the development, testing, and formative evaluation of nine role-play scenarios for teaching central topics in the responsible conduct of research to graduate students in science and engineering. In response to formative evaluation surveys, students reported that the role-plays were more engaging and promoted deeper understanding than a lecture or case study covering the same topic. In the future, summative evaluations will test whether students display this deeper understanding and retain the lessons of the role-play experience.
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  21. Karmen Franinovic (2011). Architecting Play. AI and Society 26 (2):129-136.score: 24.0
    From the grotesque pavilions hidden in sixteenth century Italian gardens to the temporary structures in public space in the 70s and recent digitally augmented environments, architectures of play have long been designed to engage explorative experiences. The uncertainty of play allows us to probe new behaviors, to poke into the boundaries of subjectivity and to interact with people, things and systems in unexpected and unfamiliar ways. In this essay, we explore how an interactive system, situated in public space, (...)
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  22. L. Syd M. Johnson (forthcoming). Sport-Related Neurotrauma and Neuroprotection: Are Return-to-Play Protocols Justified by Paternalism? Neuroethics:1-12.score: 24.0
    Sport-related neurotrauma annually affects millions of athletes worldwide. The return-to-play protocol (RTP) is the dominant strategy adopted by sports leagues and organizations to manage one type of sport-related neurotrauma: concussions. RTPs establish guidelines for when athletes with concussions are to be removed from competition or practice, and when they can return. RTPs are intended to be neuroprotective, and to protect athletes from some of the harms of sport-related concussions, but there is athlete resistance to and noncompliance with RTPs. This (...)
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  23. John Bock & Sara E. Johnson (2004). Subsistence Ecology and Play Among the Okavango Delta Peoples of Botswana. Human Nature 15 (1):63-81.score: 24.0
    Children’s play is widely believed by educators and social scientists to have a training function that contributes to psychosocial development as well as the acquisition of skills related to adult competency in task performance. In this paper we examine these assumptions from the perspective of life-history theory using behavioral observation and household economic data collected among children in a community in the Okavango Delta of Botswana where people engage in mixed subsistence regimes of dry farming, foraging, and herding.We hypothesize (...)
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  24. Gabor Csepregi (2014). On Musical Performance as Play. Nordic Journal of Aesthetics 23 (46).score: 24.0
    The purpose of this article is to complete, and build on, the theories of a certain number of scholars, chiefly philosophers of previous generations, and a few eminent performers of classical music who all bring to the fore the essential link between music and play. Because of their impulse value and appealing character, tones and other elements of the performance could generate a playful attitude in the musicians. Play is understood as a reciprocal interaction with something that plays (...)
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  25. Donncha Kavanagh, Kieran Keohane & Carmen Kuhling (eds.) (2011). Organization in Play. Peter Lang.score: 24.0
    Introduction : playing with play -- Child's play : childhood and "the lack" in organizational discourse -- Playful representations of work -- Dance as play and work : images of organization in Irish dance -- Talk and silence : playing with silence as an organizational resource -- Playing the fool : the university as fool -- Play and madness in the market -- Playing business : gambling and "casino capitalism".
     
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  26. Anna Pauliina Rainio (2009). Horses, Girls, and Agency: Gender in Play Pedagogy. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 11 (1):27-44.score: 24.0
    This is a study of the development of student agency from a gender perspective in a Finnish classroom. The data originates from an ethnographic research project in an elementary school classroom engaging in a play pedagogy project called a “playworld.” The article has two purposes. The first is to examine the potential of imagination and improvised fantasy play in the development of agency. The second is to investigate the role of gender as a social category in shaping the (...)
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  27. William Sturman Sax (ed.) (1995). The Gods at Play: Līlā in South Asia. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    God is playful. Like a child building sand castles on the beach, God creates the world and destroys it again. God plays with his (or her) devotees, sometimes like a lover, sometimes like a mother with her children, sometimes like an actor in a play. The idea of God's playfulness has been elaborated in Hinduism more, perhaps, than any other religion, providing one of the most distinctive and charming aspects of Indian religious life. Lila or "divine play" can (...)
     
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  28. Geoffrey Ashton (2014). Role Ethics or Ethics of Role-Play? A Comparative Critical Analysis of the Ethics of Confucianism and the Bhagavad Gītā. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 13 (1):1-21.score: 22.0
    Both Confucianism and the Bhagavad Gītā emphasize the moral authority of social roles. But how deep does the likeness between these ethical philosophies run? In this essay I focus upon two significant points of comparison between the role-based ethics of Confucianism and the Gītā: (1) the interrelation between formalized social roles and family feeling, and (2) the religious dimension of moral action. How is it that Confucians ground their social roles in family feeling, while the Gītā emphasizes rupture between role (...)
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  29. Jerome L. Singer & Dorothy G. Singer (2006). Preschoolers' Imaginative Play as Precursor of Narrative Consciousness. Imagination, Cognition and Personality 25 (2):97-117.score: 21.0
  30. Bob Bermond (1997). Consciousness or the Art of Foul Play. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10 (3):227-247.score: 21.0
    The psychological literature about consciousness has been analyzed. It is argued that: 1) Only the higher symbolic cognitive powers like the ability to keep secrets, knowledge of self or self-consciousness, a long-term view on the future, the ability to determine long-term goals, and to freely plan future behavior, add positive fitness-value to consciousness. Without these higher intellectual abilities consciousness will have only negative fitness value and no positive one. The intellectual powers mentioned may therefore be considered as prerequisites for consciousness. (...)
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  31. Vitaly Pruzhansky (2013). Maximin Play in Completely Mixed Strategic Games. Theory and Decision 75 (4):543-561.score: 21.0
    Since the seminal paper of Nash (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 36:48–49, 1950) game theoretic literature has focused mostly on equilibrium and not on maximin (minimax) strategies. In a recent paper of Pruzhansky (Int J Game Theory 40:351–365, 2011) it was shown that under fairy general conditions maximin strategies in completely mixed games can guarantee the same expected payoff as completely mixed Nash equilibrium strategies. Based on this finding, the current paper argues that maximin strategies have important properties. For instance, (...)
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  32. Peter K. Smith (1982). Does Play Matter? Functional and Evolutionary Aspects of Animal and Human Play. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (1):139.score: 21.0
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  33. Avi Shoshana (2013). Role‐Play and “As If” Self in Everyday Life. Ethos 41 (2):150-173.score: 21.0
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  34. Bernard Freydberg (1997). The Play of the Platonic Dialogues. Peter Lang Pub..score: 21.0
  35. Igor Kusyszyn (ed.) (1976). Gambling, Risk-Taking, Play, and Personality: A Bibliography. S.N.].score: 21.0
     
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  36. Chinho Lin & Chun‐Mei Lin (2008). Using Quality Report Cards for Reshaping Dentist Practice Patterns: A Pre‐Play Communication Approach. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (3):368-377.score: 21.0
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  37. Emily Ryall (ed.) (2013). The Philosophy of Play. Routledge.score: 21.0
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  38. Brian Boyd (2004). Laughter and Literature: A Play Theory of Humor. Philosophy and Literature 28 (1):1-22.score: 18.0
    : Humor seems uniquely human, but it has deep biological roots. Laughter, the best evidence suggests, derives from the ritualized breathing and open-mouth display common in animal play. Play evolved as training for the unexpected, in creatures putting themselves at risk of losing balance or dominance so that they learn to recover. Humor in turn involves play with the expectations we share-whether innate or acquired-in order to catch one another off guard in ways that simulate risk and (...)
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  39. Jason L. Megill (2003). What Role Do the Emotions Play in Cognition? Towards a New Alternative to Cognitive Theories of Emotion. Consciousness and Emotion 4 (1):81-100.score: 18.0
    This paper has two aims: (1) to point the way towards a novel alternative to cognitive theories of emotion, and (2) to delineate a number of different functions that the emotions play in cognition, functions that become visible from outside the framework of cognitive theories. First, I hold that the Higher Order Representational (HOR) theories of consciousness ? as generally formulated ? are inadequate insofar as they fail to account for selective attention. After posing this dilemma, I resolve it (...)
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  40. Colin Allen & Marc Bekoff (2005). Animal Play and the Evolution of Morality: An Ethological Approach. Topoi 24 (2):125-135.score: 18.0
    In this paper we argue that there is much to learn about “wild justice” and the evolutionary origins of morality – behaving fairly – by studying social play behavior in group-living mammals. Because of its relatively wide distribution among the mammals, ethological investigation of play, informed by interdisciplinary cooperation, can provide a comparative perspective on the evolution of ethical behavior that is broader than is provided by the usual focus on primate sociality. Careful analysis of social play (...)
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  41. Jason Megill (2003). What Role Do the Emotions Play in Cognition?: Towards a New Alternative to Cognitive Theories of Emotion. Consciousness and Emotion 4 (1):81-100.score: 18.0
    This paper has two aims: (1) to point the way towards a novel alternative to cognitive theories of emotion, and (2) to delineate a number of different functions that the emotions play in cognition, functions that become visible from outside the framework of cognitive theories. First, I hold that the Higher Order Representational (HOR) theories of consciousness — as generally formulated — are inadequate insofar as they fail to account for selective attention. After posing this dilemma, I resolve it (...)
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  42. Chris Jarrold, Peter Carruthers, Jill Boucher & Peter K. Smith (1994). Pretend Play. Mind and Language 9 (4):445-468.score: 18.0
    Children’s ability to pretend, and the apparent lack of pretence in children with autism, have become important issues in current research on ‘theory of mind’, on the assumption that pretend play may be an early indicator of metarepresentational abilities.
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  43. Maxine Sheets-Johnstone (2003). Child's Play: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Human Studies 26 (4):409-430.score: 18.0
    Competition obscures the realities and significance of play, in particular, the bodily play originating in infancy and typical of young children. A multidisciplinary perspective on child's play elucidates the nature of child's play and validates the distinction between competition and play. The article begins with a consideration of ethological research on play in young human and nonhuman animals, proceeds to a consideration of psychological research on laughter as a primary kinetic marker of play, (...)
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  44. Robert L. Simon (2010). Fair Play: The Ethics of Sport. Westview Press.score: 18.0
    Addressing both collegiate and professional sports, the updated edition of Fair Play explores the ethical presuppositions of competitive athletics and their ...
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  45. Artin Göncü & Anthony Perone (2005). Pretend Play as a Life-Span Activity. Topoi 24 (2):137-147.score: 18.0
    Arguing against the dominant developmental theories (e.g., Piaget, 1945; Vygotsky, 1978) stating that pretend play is limited to early childhood, we illustrate that pretend play is an adaptive human activity of adulthood as well as childhood. We advance this argument on three levels. First, we offer an analysis of why the discipline of developmental psychology in the Western world considered play only as an activity of childhood by neglecting to explore whether or how pretend play exists (...)
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  46. Makoto Usami (2011). Intergenerational Justice: The Rights of Future People or the Duty of Fair Play. Tokyo Institute of Technology Department of Social Engineering Discussion Paper (2011-05):1-19.score: 18.0
    Among various views on intergenerational justice, the most widely accepted theory invokes the rights of future generations. However, the rights theory seems to suffer from the non-identity problem addressed by Derek Parfit. Some rights theorists attempt to circumvent the problem by examining causal links between actions taken by preceding generations and their effects on succeeding ones. Others try to do so by replacing future individual rights with such collective rights. This paper argues that both individualist and collectivist versions of the (...)
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  47. Richard Smith (2011). The Play of Socratic Dialogue. Journal of Philosophy of Education 45 (2):221-233.score: 18.0
    Proponents of philosophy for children generally see themselves as heirs to the ‘Socratic’ tradition. They often claim too that children's aptitude for play leads them naturally to play with abstract, philosophical ideas. However in Plato's dialogues we find in the mouth of ‘Socrates’ many warnings against philosophising with the young. Those dialogues also question whether philosophy should be playful in any straightforward way, casting the distinction between play and seriousness as unstable. It seems we cannot think of (...)
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  48. Roberto Farné (2005). Pedagogy of Play. Topoi 24 (2):169-181.score: 18.0
    “Pedagogy of play” focuses on the educational value of this field of experience, by claiming that play characterizes the two fundamental guidelines which are at the basis of education; the spontaneous and natural direction on the one side, and the intentional one on the other side. It is commonly assumed that pedagogy of play concerns only the latter of the two above-mentioned aspects of education, that is to say the design and management of playing experiences and materials (...)
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  49. Kenneth H. Tucker (1993). Aesthetics, Play, and Cultural Memory: Giddens and Habermas on the Postmodern Challenge. Sociological Theory 11 (2):194-211.score: 18.0
    This essay examines the response of Habermas and Giddens to postmodern criticisms of modernity. Although Giddens and Habermas recognize that the "totalizing critique" of poststructuralism lacks a convincing analysis of social interaction, neither of their perspectives adequately addresses the postmodern themes of aesthetics, play, and cultural memory. Giddens and Habermas believe that these dimensions of social life are important; yet they remain underdeveloped in their approaches. This essay explores the theoretical consequences of aesthetics, play, and cultural traditions for (...)
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  50. Alexander Rueger (2008). The Free Play of the Faculties and the Status of Natural Beauty in Kant's Theory of Taste. Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 90 (3):298-322.score: 18.0
    I argue that the free play of the faculties in Kant's theory of beauty should be interpreted as an activity that involves, over and above cognition, the aesthetic presentation of rational ideas. Two consequences of this proposal are then discussed: (1) Beauty in nature is not systematically prior to, or more basic than, artificial beauty; (2) genius and taste are connected more closely in the notion of the free play than Kant admits in the final version of his (...)
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