Search results for 'Political science Decision making' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Decision Making (2012). S Hared Decision Making is Widely Accepted as an Ethical Imperative1–5 and as an Important Part of Reasoned Clinical Practice. 6 Major Texts in Decision Analysis, 7 Medical Ethics, 8 and Evidence-Based Medicine9 All Encourage Physicians to Include Patients in the Decision-Making Process. [REVIEW] In Stephen Holland (ed.), Arguing About Bioethics. Routledge. 346.score: 525.0
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  2. Measuring Decision Making (2002). Emotion, Decision Making, and the Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex. In Donald T. Stuss & Robert T. Knight (eds.), Principles of Frontal Lobe Function. Oxford University Press.score: 525.0
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  3. René von Schomberg (ed.) (1993). Science, Politics, and Morality: Scientific Uncertainty and Decision Making. Kluwer Academic Publishers.score: 213.0
    Current environmental problems and technological risks are a challenge for a new institutional arrangement of the value spheres of Science, Politics and Morality. Distinguished authors from different European countries and America provide a cross-disciplinary perspective on the problems of political decision making under the conditions of scientific uncertainty. cases from biotechnology and the environmental sciences are discussed. The papers collected for this volume address the following themes: (i) controversies about risks and political decision (...); (ii) concepts of science for policy; (iii) the use of social science in the policy making process; (iv) ethical problems with developments in science and technology; (v) public and state interests in the development and control of technology. (shrink)
     
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  4. K. Guild Nichols (1979). Technology on Trial: Public Participation in Decision-Making Related to Science and Technology. Sold by Oecd Publications and Information Center].score: 142.5
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  5. Thomas May (2002). Bioethics in a Liberal Society: The Political Framework of Bioethics Decision Making. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 141.0
    Issues concerning patients' rights are at the center of bioethics, but the political basis for these rights has rarely been examined. In Bioethics in a Liberal Society: The Political Framework of Bioethics Decision Making , Thomas May offers a compelling analysis of how the political context of liberal constitutional democracy shapes the rights and obligations of both patients and health care professionals. May focuses on how a key feature of liberal society -- namely, an individual's (...)
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  6. Nils-Eric Sahlin, Annika Wallin & Johannes Persson (2010). Decision Science: From Ramsey to Dual Process Theories. Synthese 172 (1):129 - 143.score: 123.0
    The hypothesis that human reasoning and decision-making can be roughly modeled by Expected Utility Theory has been at the core of decision science. Accumulating evidence has led researchers to modify the hypothesis. One of the latest additions to the field is Dual Process theory, which attempts to explain variance between participants and tasks when it comes to deviations from Expected Utility Theory. It is argued that Dual Process theories at this point cannot replace previous theories, since (...)
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  7. Nathaniel Logar (2009). Towards a Culture of Application: Science and Decision Making at the National Institute of Standards & Technology. [REVIEW] Minerva 47 (4):345-366.score: 121.5
    How does the research performed by a government mission agency contribute to useable technologies for its constituents? Is it possible to incorporate science policy mechanisms for increasing benefits to users in the decision process? The United States National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) promises research directed towards industrial application. This paper considers the processes that produce science and technology at NIST. The institute’s policies for science provide robust examples for how effective science policies can (...)
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  8. Felix Thiele (2013). Bio-Policy and the Place of Institutionalised Ethics in Political Decision Making. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 8 (2):29 - 31.score: 121.0
    Questions concerning moral problems caused by the lifesciences and concerning the adequate methods and instruments to solve these are timely and urgent; especially in the face of intense debates on the acceptability of research on human embryonic stem cells and preimplantation diagnostics, to name only two applications developed from research in the life-sciences. Unfortunately, the constant and accusing demand that life-scientists must behave morally does not give us a clue on how ethics may help in establishing guidelines for moral behaviour. (...)
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  9. Kjell Andersson (2008). Transparency and Accountability in Science and Politics: The Awareness Principle. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 120.0
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  10. Jordan Bartol & Stefan Linquist (forthcoming). How Do Somatic Markers Feature in Decision Making? Emotion Review.score: 111.0
    Several recent criticisms of the somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) identify multiple ambiguities in the way it has been formulated by its chief proponents. Here we provide evidence that this hypothesis has also been interpreted in various different ways by the scientific community. Our diagnosis of this problem is that SMH lacks an adequate computational-level account of practical decision making. Such an account is necessary for drawing meaningful links between neurological- and psychological-level data. The paper concludes by providing a (...)
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  11. Sabine Maasen & Peter Weingart (eds.) (2005/2008). Democratization of Expertise?: Exploring Novel Forms of Scientific Advice in Political Decision-Making. Springer.score: 109.5
  12. Juha Räikkä (2009). The Ethical and Political Evaluation of Biotechnology Strategies. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (3):273-280.score: 108.5
    In this paper I will briefly discuss the role and function of the ethical advisory committees and other ethics bodies that are supposed to take care of the ethical dimension of the biotechnology strategies. The expert ethical advice has created colourful discussion in many contexts, but here I aim to analyze the role and relevance of ethical expertise in the context of national and regional biotechnology strategies. I will argue that it may be quite unproblematic that the work of the (...)
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  13. Sarah Michaels (1993). Weighing Science and Politics in Local Decision Making About Hazards. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 6 (2):3-22.score: 106.5
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  14. Keith E. Stanovich (2007). The Psychology of Decision Making in a Unified Behavioral Science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):41-42.score: 105.0
    The cognitive psychology of judgment and decision making helps to elaborate Gintis's unified view of the behavioral sciences by highlighting the fact that decisions result from multiple systems in the mind. It also adds to the unified view the idea that the potential to self-critique preference structures is a unique feature of human cognition. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  15. Roger Pielke & Roberta Klein (2009). The Rise and Fall of the Science Advisor to the President of the United States. Minerva 47 (1):7-29.score: 101.5
    The president’s science advisor was formerly established in the days following the Soviet launch of Sputnik at the height of the Cold War, creating an impression of scientists at the center of presidential power. However, since that time the role of the science advisor has been far more prosaic, with a role that might be more aptly described as a coordinator of budgets and programs, and thus more closely related to the functions of the Office of Management and (...)
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  16. Paul Thagard (2009). Why Cognitive Science Needs Philosophy and Vice Versa. Topics in Cognitive Science 1 (2):237-254.score: 99.0
    Contrary to common views that philosophy is extraneous to cognitive science, this paper argues that philosophy has a crucial role to play in cognitive science with respect to generality and normativity. General questions include the nature of theories and explanations, the role of computer simulation in cognitive theorizing, and the relations among the different fields of cognitive science. Normative questions include whether human thinking should be Bayesian, whether decision making should maximize expected utility, and how (...)
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  17. Rafael Cejudo (2014). Decision Making in Compromise Situations: Guidelines Based on J. S. Mill's Doctrine of Political Half‐Measures. Business Ethics: A European Review 23 (3).score: 99.0
    The purpose of this article is to offer guidelines to deal with hard choices, specifically in situations where some compromise among opposing values is inescapable. The guidelines are intended to help ethicists and practitioners to delineate different alternatives and to dismiss some of them as morally unacceptable. This article explores the view that compromises arise from negotiations but from ethical predicaments as well. For this reason, I distinguish between strategic and moral compromises. Both managers and employees are individual moral agents (...)
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  18. Ladislav Tondl (2001). Science, Values and the Human Dimensions. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 32 (2):307-327.score: 97.5
    The presented paper substantiates the principle that values are an immanent component of science and any rational cognitive activity. This principle belongs to the European cultural tradition starting from the book of Genesis of the Old Testament, the values of certainty in the antique Greek philosophy and Francis Bacon's coincidence of knowledge and power. Values in science form complicated structures inconnection with different types of knowledge including “the knowledge that”, empirical evidence, various types of generalizations or rules, methods, (...)
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  19. Jeffrey Nesteruk & David T. Risser (1993). Conceptions of the Corporation and Ethical Decision Making in Business. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 12 (1):73-89.score: 97.5
  20. D. Paul Schafer (2005). Invited Essay: A New System of Politics: Government, Governance, and Political Decision Making in the Twenty-First Century. World Futures 61 (7):481 – 510.score: 97.5
    The present system of politics is based on the centrality of economics. This system is not capable of coming to grips with the problems confronting humanity. A culture-based system of politics is required to do this and prevent ecological disaster. This system would make it possible to reduce the demands human beings are making on the natural environment and situate human welfare, environmental well-being, and the public interest at the core of the political process. The risks of such (...)
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  21. Kristine Bærøe (2010). Patient Autonomy, Assessment of Competence and Surrogate Decision-Making: A Call for Reasonableness in Deciding for Others. Bioethics 24 (2):87-95.score: 96.0
    In this paper, I address some of the shortcomings of established clinical ethics centring on personal autonomy and consent and what I label the Doctrine of Respecting Personal Autonomy in Healthcare. I discuss two implications of this doctrine: 1) the practice for treating patients who are considered to have borderline decision-making competence and 2) the practice of surrogate decision-making in general. I argue that none of these practices are currently aligned with respectful treatment of vulnerable individuals. (...)
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  22. Peter C. Gøtzsche (2007). Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making. J. Wiley.score: 96.0
    Now in its fourth edition, Rational Diagnosis and Treatment: Evidence-Based Clinical Decision-Making is a unique book to look at evidence-based medicine and the difficulty of applying evidence from group studies to individual patients._ The book analyses the successive stages of the decision process and deals with topics such as the examination of the patient,_the reliability of clinical data, the logic of diagnosis, the fallacies of uncontrolled therapeutic experience and the need for randomised clinical trials and meta-analyses. It (...)
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  23. Heidi Albisser Schleger, Nicole R. Oehninger & Stella Reiter-Theil (2011). Avoiding Bias in Medical Ethical Decision-Making. Lessons to Be Learnt From Psychology Research. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):155-162.score: 96.0
    When ethical decisions have to be taken in critical, complex medical situations, they often involve decisions that set the course for or against life-sustaining treatments. Therefore the decisions have far-reaching consequences for the patients, their relatives, and often for the clinical staff. Although the rich psychology literature provides evidence that reasoning may be affected by undesired influences that may undermine the quality of the decision outcome, not much attention has been given to this phenomenon in health care or ethics (...)
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  24. Tobias Brosch & David Sander (2013). Neurocognitive Mechanisms Underlying Value-Based Decision-Making: From Core Values to Economic Value. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 96.0
    Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex (...)
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  25. David W. Glasspool John Fox, Richard P. Cooper (2013). A Canonical Theory of Dynamic Decision-Making. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 96.0
    Decision-making behaviour is studied in many very different fields, from medicine and economics to psychology and neuroscience, with major contributions from mathematics and statistics, computer science, AI and other technical disciplines. However the conceptualisation of what decision-making is and methods for studying it vary greatly and this has resulted in fragmentation of the field. A theory that can accommodate various perspectives may facilitate interdisciplinary working. We present such a theory in which decision-making is (...)
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  26. Alan Schwartz (2008). Medical Decision Making: A Physician's Guide. Cambridge University Press.score: 96.0
    Decision making is a key activity, perhaps the most important activity, in the practice of healthcare. Although physicians acquire a great deal of knowledge and specialised skills during their training and through their practice, it is in the exercise of clinical judgement and its application to individual patients that the outstanding physician is distinguished. This has become even more relevant as patients become increasingly welcomed as partners in a shared decision making process. This book translates the (...)
     
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  27. Lucinda Vandervort (1985). Empirical Uncertainty and Legal Decision-Making. In Eugenio Bulygin, Jean Louis Gardies & Ilkka Nilniluoto (eds.), LAW AND MODERN FORMS OF LIFE, with an introduction by Michael D. Bayles, volume 1, Law and Philosophy Library, pp. 251-261. D. Reidel Publishing.score: 96.0
    In this paper I argue that the rationality of law and legal decision making would be enhanced by a systematic attempt to recognize and respond to the implications of empirical uncertainty for policy making and decision making. Admission of uncertainty about the accuracy of facts and the validity of assumptions relied on to make inferences of fact is commonly avoided in law because it raises the spectre of paralysis of the capacity to decide issues authoritatively. (...)
     
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  28. Leslie A. Duram (2000). Agents' Perceptions of Structure: How Illinois Organic Farmers View Political, Economic, Social, and Ecological Factors. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 17 (1):35-48.score: 94.5
    Various structural factors influenceorganic farmer decision-making. Analyses that combinestructure and agency provide an opportunity forunderstanding farmers' perceptions of the political,economic, and social ``world'' in which they operate.Rich conversational interviews, conducted with twentycertified organic farmers in Illinois and analyzedwith multiple qualitative methods, show how farmersmediate structural concerns. In addition to political,economic, and social structures, a fourth structure isneeded. Indeed these organic farmers emphasize theimportance of ecological factors in theirdecision-making. Within the perceived economic,political, social, and ecological (...)
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  29. Roger M. Cooke (1991). Experts in Uncertainty: Opinion and Subjective Probability in Science. Oxford University Press.score: 93.0
    This book is an extensive survey and critical examination of the literature on the use of expert opinion in scientific inquiry and policy making. The elicitation, representation, and use of expert opinion is increasingly important for two reasons: advancing technology leads to more and more complex decision problems, and technologists are turning in greater numbers to "expert systems" and other similar artifacts of artificial intelligence. Cooke here considers how expert opinion is being used today, how an expert's uncertainty (...)
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  30. Wendell Wallach, Stan Franklin & Colin Allen (2010). A Conceptual and Computational Model of Moral Decision Making in Human and Artificial Agents. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (3):454-485.score: 89.0
    Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in general, comprehensive models of human cognition. Such models aim to explain higher-order cognitive faculties, such as deliberation and planning. Given a computational representation, the validity of these models can be tested in computer simulations such as software agents or embodied robots. The push to implement computational models of this kind has created the field of artificial general intelligence (AGI). Moral decision making is arguably one of the most challenging tasks (...)
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  31. Philip J. Langlais (2012). Ethical Decision Making in the Conduct of Research: Role of Individual, Contextual and Organizational Factors. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):551-555.score: 89.0
    Despite the importance of scientific integrity to the well-being of society, recent findings suggest that training and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research are not very reliable or effective inhibitors of research misbehavior. Understanding how and why individual scientists decide to behave in ways that conform to or violate norms and standards of research is essential to the development of more effective training programs and the creation of more supportive environments. Scholars in business management, psychology, and other disciplines have (...)
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  32. Kieran Mathieson (2007). Towards a Design Science of Ethical Decision Support. Journal of Business Ethics 76 (3):269 - 292.score: 88.5
    Ethical decision making involves complex emotional, cognitive, social, and philosophical challenges. Even if someone wants to be ethical, he or she may not have clearly articulated what that means, or know how to go about making a decision consistent with his or her values. Information technology may be able to help. A decision support system could offer individuals and groups some guidance, assisting them in making a decision that reflects their underlying values. The (...)
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  33. John M. Kline (2010). Ethics for International Business: Decision Making in a Global Political Economy. Routledge.score: 88.5
    The value foundation for a global society -- Ethics and international business -- Human rights concepts and principles -- Political involvements by business -- The foreign production process -- Product and export controls -- Marketing motives and methods -- Culture and the human environment -- Nature and the physical environment -- Business guidance and control mechanisms -- Deciding ethical dilemmas.
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  34. C. West Churchman (1956). Science and Decision Making. Philosophy of Science 23 (3):247-249.score: 88.5
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  35. Claudia Landwehr (2010). Discourse and Coordination: Modes of Interaction and Their Roles in Political Decision-Making. Journal of Political Philosophy 18 (1):101-122.score: 88.5
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  36. Colin F. Gauld (2005). Habits of Mind, Scholarship and Decision Making in Science and Religion. Science and Education 14 (3-5):291-308.score: 88.5
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  37. Randy L. Bell & Norman G. Lederman (2003). Understandings of the Nature of Science and Decision Making on Science and Technology Based Issues. Science Education 87 (3):352-377.score: 88.5
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  38. Laszlo Sekelj (1987). Conflict and Cohesion in Socialist Yugoslavia: Political Decision Making Since 1966. Telos 1987 (71):200-207.score: 88.5
    Yugoslavia is unique among East European countries. It is a highly decentralized, multi-national federation with six republics and two autonomous provinces. It is a one party state. At the same time, it has a very sophisticated system of direct political and economic democracy. In theory, it is supposed to be the realization of the society envisioned by libertarian socialists such as Proudhon, Bakunin and Marx. But high inflation, unemployment, national tensions, mass frustration, social immobility and an unrepresentative political (...)
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  39. Felix Thiele (2004). Its Foundation and Application in Political Decision Making. In Peter K. Machamer & Gereon Wolters (eds.), Science, Values, and Objectivity. University of Pittsburgh Press. 25--256.score: 88.5
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  40. Paul Healy (2008). Phronetic Social Science: Prospects and Possibilities? Sandford Schram and Brian Caterino, Eds, Making Political Science Matter: Debating Knowledge, Research, and Method. New York: New York University Press, 2006. History of the Human Sciences 21 (1):135-145.score: 86.5
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  41. Jaro Kotalik, Cathy Covino, Nadine Doucette, Steve Henderson, Michelle Langlois, Karen McDaid & Louisa M. Pedri (2014). Framework for Ethical Decision-Making Based on Mission, Vision and Values of the Institution. HEC Forum 26 (2):125-133.score: 86.0
    The authors led the development of a framework for ethical decision-making for an Academic Health Sciences Centre. They understood the existing mission, vision, and values statement (MVVs) of the centre as a foundational assertion that embodies an ethical commitment of the institution. Reflecting the Patient and Family Centred Model of Care the institution is living, the MVVs is a suitable base on which to construct an ethics framework. The resultant framework consists of a set of questions for each (...)
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  42. J. D. Trout (2013). Democracy and Scientific Expertise: Illusions of Political and Epistemic Inclusion. Synthese 190 (7):1267-1291.score: 85.5
    Realizing the ideal of democracy requires political inclusion for citizens. A legitimate democracy must give citizens the opportunity to express their attitudes about the relative attractions of different policies, and access to political mechanisms through which they can be counted and heard. Actual governance often aims not at accurate belief, but at nonepistemic factors like achieving and maintaining institutional stability, creating the feeling of government legitimacy among citizens, or managing access to influence on policy decision-making. I (...)
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  43. James W. Boettcher (2005). Strong Inclusionist Accounts of the Role of Religion in Political Decision-Making. Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (4):497–516.score: 85.5
  44. Stephen Nathanson (1991). Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis: On the Role of Moral Reasons in Explaining and Evaluating Political Decision-Making. Journal of Social Philosophy 22 (2):94-108.score: 85.5
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  45. J. W. McAllister, Emotion, Rationality, and Decision Making in Science.score: 85.5
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  46. Simon Hornblower (1985). Hugo Montgomery: The Way to Chaeronea: Foreign Policy. Decision Making and Political Influence in Demosthenes' Speeches. Pp. 120. Bergen, Oslo, Stavanger, Tromso: Universitetsforlaget, 1984. Paper, £15.65. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 35 (02):409-.score: 85.5
  47. James Stacey Taylor (2005). A Review Of: “Thomas May. 2002.Bioethics in a Liberal Society: The Political Framework of Bioethics Decision Making”. [REVIEW] American Journal of Bioethics 5 (1):92-93.score: 85.5
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  48. D. M. Lewis (1976). Roger Alain de Laix: Probouleusis at Athens: A Study of Political Decision-Making. Pp. 237. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973. Paper, $6. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 26 (02):287-.score: 85.5
  49. Michael D. Lord (2000). Corporate Political Strategy and Legislative Decision Making The Impact of Corporate Legislative Influence Activities. Business and Society 39 (1):76-93.score: 85.5
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  50. A. Brennan & J. Malpas (2010). Who Legislates the Truth? Science, Organizational Governance, and Democratic Decision Making. Public Affairs Quarterly 24 (1):79-97.score: 85.5
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