Search results for 'Population' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jay Odenbaugh (2006). The Strategy of “the Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology”. Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):607-621.
    In this essay, I argue for four related claims. First, Richard Levins’ classic “The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology” was a statement and defense of theoretical population biology growing out of collaborations between Robert MacArthur, Richard Lewontin, E. O. Wilson, and others. Second, I argue that the essay served as a response to the rise of systems ecology especially as pioneered by Kenneth Watt. Third, the arguments offered by Levins against systems ecology and in favor of (...)
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  2.  38
    Colin Hickey, Travis N. Rieder & Jake Earl (forthcoming). Population Engineering and the Fight Against Climate Change. Social Theory and Practice.
    Contrary to political and philosophical consensus, we argue that the threats posed by climate change justify population engineering, the intentional manipulation of the size and structure of human populations. Specifically, we defend three types of policies aimed at reducing fertility rates: (1) choice enhancement, (2) preference adjustment, and (3) incentivization. While few object to the first type of policy, the latter two are generally rejected because of their potential for coercion or morally objectionable manipulation. We argue that forms of (...)
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  3.  13
    Jacob Stegenga (2014). Population Pluralism and Natural Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (1):axu003.
    I defend a radical interpretation of biological populations—what I call population pluralism—which holds that there are many ways that a particular grouping of individuals can be related such that the grouping satisfies the conditions necessary for those individuals to evolve together. More constraining accounts of biological populations face empirical counter-examples and conceptual difficulties. One of the most intuitive and frequently employed conditions, causal connectivity—itself beset with numerous difficulties—is best construed by considering the relevant causal relations as ‘thick’ causal concepts. (...)
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  4. Mark Colyvan & Lev R. Ginzburg (2003). The Galilean Turn in Population Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 18 (3):401-414.
    The standard mathematical models in population ecology assume that a population's growth rate is a function of its environment. In this paper we investigate an alternative proposal according to which the rate of change of the growth rate is a function of the environment and of environmental change. We focus on the philosophical issues involved in such a fundamental shift in theoretical assumptions, as well as on the explanations the two theories offer for some of the key data (...)
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  5.  7
    Gustaf Arrhenius (2016). Population Ethics and Different‐Number‐Based Imprecision. Theoria 82 (2):166-181.
    Recently, in his Rolf Schock Prize Lecture, Derek Parfit has suggested a novel way of avoiding the Repugnant Conclusion by introducing what he calls “imprecision” in value comparisons. He suggests that in a range of important cases, populations of different sizes are only imprecisely comparable. Parfit suggests that this feature of value comparisons opens up a way of avoiding the Repugnant Conclusion without implying other counterintuitive conclusions, and thus solves one of the major challenges in ethics. In this article, I (...)
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  6.  8
    Heather Widdows (2011). Localized Past, Globalized Future: Towards an Effective Bioethical Framework Using Examples From Population Genetics and Medical Tourism. Bioethics 25 (2):83-91.
    This paper suggests that many of the pressing dilemmas of bioethics are global and structural in nature. Accordingly, global ethical frameworks are required which recognize the ethically significant factors of all global actors. To this end, ethical frameworks must recognize the rights and interests of both individuals and groups (and the interrelation of these). The paper suggests that the current dominant bioethical framework is inadequate to this task as it is over-individualist and therefore unable to give significant weight to the (...)
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  7.  18
    Roberta L. Millstein (2014). How the Concept of Population Resolves Concepts of Environment. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):741-755.
    Elsewhere, I defend the “causal interactionist population concept” (CIPC). Here I further defend the CIPC by showing how it clarifies another concept that biologists grapple with, namely, environment. Should we understand selection as ranging only over homogeneous environments or, alternatively, as ranging over any habitat area we choose to study? I argue instead that the boundaries of the population dictate the range of the environment, whether homogeneous or heterogeneous, over which selection operates. Thus, understanding the concept of (...) helps us to understand concepts of selective environment, exemplifying the importance of the CIPC to other concepts and debates. (shrink)
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  8.  7
    Ellen Desjardins, Rod MacRae & Theresa Schumilas (2010). Linking Future Population Food Requirements for Health with Local Production in Waterloo Region, Canada. Agriculture and Human Values 27 (2):129-140.
    Regional planning for improved agricultural capacity to supply produce, legumes, and whole grains has the potential to improve population health as well as the local food economy. This case study of Waterloo Region (WR), Canada, had two objectives. First, we estimate the quantity of locally grown vegetables, fruits, legumes, and whole grains needed to help meet the Region of Waterloo population’s optimal nutritional requirements currently and in 2026. Secondly, we estimate how much of these healthy food requirements for (...)
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  9.  4
    Kalle Grill (forthcoming). Asymmetric Population Axiology: Deliberative Neutrality Delivered. Philosophical Studies:1-18.
    Two related asymmetries have been discussed in relation to the ethics of creating new lives: First, we seem to have strong moral reason to avoid creating lives that are not worth living, but no moral reason to create lives that are worth living. Second, we seem to have strong moral reason to improve the wellbeing of existing lives, but, again, no moral reason to create lives that are worth living. Both asymmetries have proven very difficult to account for in any (...)
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  10.  66
    A. Bhargava (2013). Physician Emigration, Population Health and Public Policies. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (10):616-618.
    This brief commentary reappraises the issue of emigration of physicians from developing countries to developed countries. A methodological framework is developed for assessing the impact of physician emigration on population health outcomes. The evidence from macro and micro studies suggest that developing countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa would benefit from regulating physician emigration because the loss of physicians can lower quality of healthcare services and lead to worse health outcomes. Further discussion is contained in an e-letter: http://jme.bmj.com/content/early/2013/05/30/medethics-2013-101409/reply.
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  11.  53
    Bence Nanay (2010). Population Thinking as Trope Nominalism. Synthese 177 (1):91 - 109.
    The concept of population thinking was introduced by Ernst Mayr as the right way of thinking about the biological domain, but it is difficult to find an interpretation of this notion that is both unproblematic and does the theoretical work it was intended to do. I argue that, properly conceived, Mayr’s population thinking is a version of trope nominalism: the view that biological property-types do not exist or at least they play no explanatory role. Further, although population (...)
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  12.  68
    Jacob Stegenga (2010). Population is Not a Natural Kind of Kinds. Biological Theory 5 (2):154-160.
    Millstein (2009) argues against conceptual pluralism with respect to the definition of “population,” and proposes her own definition of the term. I challenge both Millstein's negative arguments against conceptual pluralism and her positive proposal for a singular definition of population. The concept of population, I argue, does not refer to a natural kind; populations are constructs of biologists variably defined by contexts of inquiry.
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  13.  44
    Roberta L. Millstein (2013). Exploring the Status of Population Genetics: The Role of Ecology. Biological Theory 7 (4):346-357.
    The status of population genetics has become hotly debated among biologists and philosophers of biology. Many seem to view population genetics as relatively unchanged since the Modern Synthesis and have argued that subjects such as development were left out of the Synthesis. Some have called for an extended evolutionary synthesis or for recognizing the insignificance of population genetics. Yet others such as Michael Lynch have defended population genetics, declaring "nothing in evolution makes sense except in the (...)
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  14.  39
    Jacob Stegenga (2010). "Population" Is Not a Natural Kind of Kinds. Biological Theory 5 (2):154–160.
    Millstein argues against conceptual pluralism with respect to the definition of “population,” and proposes her own definition of the term. I challenge both Millstein’s negative arguments against conceptual pluralism and her positive proposal for a singular definition of population. The concept of population, I argue, does not refer to a natural kind; populations are constructs of biologists variably defined by contexts of inquiry.
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  15. Peter G. N. West-Oram & Heather Widdows, Global Population and Global Justice: Equitable Distribution of Resources Among Countries. The Electronic Library of Science.
    Analysing the demands of global justice for the distribution of resources is a complex task and requires consideration of a broad range of issues. Of particular relevance is the effect that different distributions will have on global population growth and individual welfare. Since changes in the consumption and distribution of resources can have major effects on the welfare of the global population, and the rate at which it increases, it is important to establish meaningful principles to ensure a (...)
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  16.  7
    Robert J. O'Hara (1997). Population Thinking and Tree Thinking in Systematics. Zoologica Scripta 26 (4): 323–329.
    Two new modes of thinking have spread through systematics in the twentieth century. Both have deep historical roots, but they have been widely accepted only during this century. Population thinking overtook the field in the early part of the century, culminating in the full development of population systematics in the 1930s and 1940s, and the subsequent growth of the entire field of population biology. Population thinking rejects the idea that each species has a natural type (as (...)
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  17.  29
    Peter Gildenhuys (2011). Righteous Modeling: The Competence of Classical Population Genetics. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 26 (6):813-835.
    In a recent article, “Wayward Modeling: Population Genetics and Natural Selection,” Bruce Glymour claims that population genetics is burdened by serious predictive and explanatory inadequacies and that the theory itself is to blame. Because Glymour overlooks a variety of formal modeling techniques in population genetics, his arguments do not quite undermine a major scientific theory. However, his arguments are extremely valuable as they provide definitive proof that those who would deploy classical population genetics over natural systems (...)
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  18.  21
    Ernesto Schwartz-Marín & Irma Silva-Zolezzi (2010). “The Map of the Mexican’s Genome”: Overlapping National Identity, and Population Genomics. [REVIEW] Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):489-514.
    This paper explores the intersections between national identity and the production of medical/population genomics in Mexico. The ongoing efforts to construct a Haplotype Map of Mexican genetic diversity offers a unique opportunity to illustrate and analyze the exchange between the historic-political narratives of nationalism, and the material culture of genomic science. Haplotypes are central actants in the search for medically significant SNP’s, as well as powerful entities involved in the delimitation of ancestry, temporality and variability. By following the circulation (...)
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  19.  3
    Joeri Witteveen (2015). “A Temporary Oversimplification”: Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the Origins of the Typology/Population Dichotomy (Part 1 of 2). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54.
    The dichotomy between ‘typological thinking’ and ‘population thinking’ features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated (...)
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  20.  14
    Bruce Glymour (1999). Population Level Causation and a Unified Theory of Natural Selection. Biology and Philosophy 14 (4):521-536.
    Sober (1984) presents an account of selection motivated by the view that one property can causally explain the occurrence of another only if the first plays a unique role in the causal production of the second. Sober holds that a causal property will play such a unique role if it is a population level cause of its effect, and on this basis argues that there is selection for a trait T only if T is a population level cause (...)
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  21.  19
    Barış Çiftçi, Peter Borm & Herbert Hamers (2010). Population Monotonic Path Schemes for Simple Games. Theory and Decision 69 (2):205-218.
    A path scheme for a game is composed of a path, i.e., a sequence of coalitions that is formed during the coalition formation process and a scheme, i.e., a payoff vector for each coalition in the path. A path scheme is called population monotonic if a player’s payoff does not decrease as the path coalition grows. In this study, we focus on Shapley path schemes of simple games in which for every path coalition the Shapley value of the associated (...)
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  22.  24
    Nils Holtug (2012). Prioritarianism and Population Ethics. Iride 25 (1):45-56.
    According to prioritarianism, roughly, it is better to benefit a person, the worse off she is. This seems a plausible principle as long as it is applied only to fixed populations. However, once this restriction is lifted, prioritarianism seems to imply that it is better cause a person to exist at a welfare level of l than to confer l units on a person who already exists and is at a positive welfare level. Thus, prioritarianism seems to assign too much (...)
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  23.  5
    Christopher Wareham (2015). Slowed Ageing, Welfare, and Population Problems. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (5):321-340.
    Biological studies have demonstrated that it is possible to slow the ageing process and extend lifespan in a wide variety of organisms, perhaps including humans. Making use of the findings of these studies, this article examines two problems concerning the effect of life extension on population size and welfare. The first—the problem of overpopulation—is that as a result of life extension too many people will co-exist at the same time, resulting in decreases in average welfare. The second—the problem of (...)
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  24.  24
    Nicole Hassoun & S. Subramanian (2012). Variable Population Poverty Comparisons. Journal of Development Economics 98 (2):238-241.
    This paper demonstrates that the property of Replication Invariance, generally considered to be an innocuous requirement for the extension of fixed-population poverty comparisons to variable-population contexts, is incompatible with other plausible variable- and fixed-population axioms. This fact raises questions about what constitutes an appropriate headcount assessment of poverty, in terms of whether one should focus on the proportion, or the absolute numbers, of the population in poverty. This observation, in turn, has important implications for tracking poverty (...)
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  25.  2
    Joeri Witteveen (forthcoming). “A Temporary Oversimplification”: Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the Origins of the Typology/Population Dichotomy (Part 2 of 2). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 55:20-33.
    The dichotomy between ‘typological thinking’ and ‘population thinking’ features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay, I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably more complicated (...)
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  26.  15
    Gustaf Arrhenius (2012). Population Ethics and Metaethics. Iride 25 (1):35-44.
    This paper focuses on the relations between population ethics and metaethics. Population ethics gives rise to well-known paradoxes, such as the paradox of mere addition. After presenting a version of this paradox, it is argued that a different way to dismantle it might be by considering it as a way to change our standard view of justification in moral theory. Two possible views are considered: a non-cognitivist approach to justification and to the explanation of inconsistency in morals; Parfit's (...)
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  27.  26
    Peter Gildenhuys (2013). Classical Population Genetics and the Semantic Approach to Scientific Theories. Synthese 190 (2):273-291.
    In what follows, I argue that the semantic approach to scientific theories fails as a means to present the Wright—Fisher formalism (WFF) of population genetics. I offer an account of what population geneticist understand insofar as they understand the WFF, a variation on Lloyd's view that population genetics can be understood as a family of models of mid-level generality.
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  28.  4
    Pablo Lorenzano (2014). What is the Status of the Hardy-Weinberg Law Within Population Genetics? Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 17:159-172.
    The aim of this paper is to further develop van Fraassen’s diagnosis, expanding a previous analysis of the fundamental law of classical genetics and the status of the so-called ‘Mendel’s laws’.6 According to this diagnosis the Hardy-Weinberg law: 1) cannot be considered as axiom (or fundamental law) for classical population genetics, since it is a law that describes an equilibrium that 2) holds only under certain special conditions, and 3) only determines a subclass of models, 4) whose generalized form (...)
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  29.  9
    Rada Drezgic (2008). From Family Planning to Population Policy: A Paradigm Shift in Serbian Demography at the End of the 20th Century. Filozofija I Društvo 19 (3):181-215.
    This paper traces changes in the dominant paradigm of Serbian demography that took palace in the context of major socio-political changes during the late twentieth century. The changes are traced both in the realm of research and social policy. It is argued that demographic transition theory remained the main explanatory model but that its modified version which gives precedence to ideational vs. structural variables gained the dominant status. In the realm of social policy the ideology of family planning was replaced (...)
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  30.  9
    Gianfranco Pellegrino (2012). Introductory Note. Population Ethics: The Unavoidability of the Quality of Life and the Ensuing Paradoxes. Iride 25 (1):27-34.
    Population ethics is defined and presented, and some of the paradoxes it encapsulates are spelled out. It is argued that the concept of the quality of a life or of a life worth living can- not be avoided if inquiry on many relevant ethical and political topics is to be pursued in a theoretically fitting mode. In particular, the article deals with the asymmetry between rea- sons for not creating unhappy lives and reasons for creating happy lives, the well-known (...)
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  31.  5
    Jeffrey H. Barker (2003). Common-Pool Resources and Population Genomics in Iceland, Estonia, and Tonga. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 6 (2):133-144.
    This paper addresses the application of the ethical concept of trust and the legal and political concept of public trust to population genomics projects in Iceland, Estonia, and Tonga. Focusing on trust and public trust, the paper explores analogies between the genomics projects and the treatment of other common-pool resources, making use of the notion of trust as an ethical demand, derived from the works of Emmanuel Levinas and Knud Eljer Lgstrup. The paper discusses the degree to which the (...)
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  32.  7
    Louis Houde, Marc Tremblay & Hélène Vézina (2008). Intergenerational and Genealogical Approaches for the Study of Longevity in the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean Population. Human Nature 19 (1):70-86.
    The mechanisms of longevity have been the subject of investigations for a number of years. Although the role of genetic factors is generally acknowledged, important questions persist regarding the relative impact of environmental exposures, lifestyle characteristics, and genes. The BALSAC population register offers a unique opportunity to study longevity from an intergenerational and genealogical point of view. Individuals from the Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean population who died at age 90 or older between 1950 and 1974 were selected from this database (n (...)
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  33.  4
    Lisa Gannett (2013). Projectibility and Group Concepts in Population Genetics and Genomics. Biological Theory 7 (2):130-143.
    Although the category “race” fails as a postulated natural kind, racial, ethnic, national, linguistic, religious, and other group designations might nonetheless be considered projectible insofar as they support inductive inferences in biomedicine. This article investigates what it might mean for group concepts in population genetics and genomics to be projectible and whether the projectibility of such predicates licenses the representation of their corresponding classes as natural kinds according to currently prevailing projectibility-based accounts of natural kinds. The article draws on (...)
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  34.  2
    Onyebuchi A. Arah (2009). On the Relationship Between Individual and Population Health. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (3):235-244.
    The relationship between individual and population health is partially built on the broad dichotomization of medicine into clinical medicine and public health. Potential drawbacks of current views include seeing both individual and population health as absolute and independent concepts. I will argue that the relationship between individual and population health is largely relative and dynamic. Their interrelated dynamism derives from a causally defined life course perspective on health determination starting from an individual’s conception through growth, development and (...)
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  35.  3
    Derek Hodgson (2013). Cognitive Evolution, Population, Transmission, and Material Culture. Biological Theory 7 (3):237-246.
    There has been much debate regarding when modern human cognition arose. It was previously thought that the technocomplexes and artifacts associated with a particular timeframe during the Upper Paleolithic could provide a proxy for identifying the signature of modern cognition. It now appears that this approach has underestimated the complexity of human behavior on a number of different levels. As the artifacts, once thought to be confined to Europe 40,000 years ago onwards, can now be found in other parts of (...)
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  36.  1
    Mats Johansson & Linus Broström (2012). Does Peer Benefit Justify Research on Incompetent Individuals? The Same-Population Condition in Codes of Research Ethics. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (3):287-294.
    Research on incompetent humans raises ethical challenges, especially when there is no direct benefit to these research subjects. Contemporary codes of research ethics typically require that such research must specifically serve to benefit the population to which the research subjects belong. The article critically examines this “same-population condition”, raising issues of both interpretation and moral justification. Of particular concern is the risk that the way in which the condition is articulated and rationalized in effect disguises or downplays the (...)
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  37.  5
    Charles Plessy, Linda Desbois, Teruo Fujii & Piero Carninci (2013). Population Transcriptomics with Single‐Cell Resolution: A New Field Made Possible by Microfluidics. Bioessays 35 (2):131-140.
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  38.  4
    Martin Hoffmann (2013). Two Basic Ethical Problems of Incidental Findings in Population‐Based, Non‐Intervening Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Research. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (3):427-432.
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  39.  10
    Felix J. H. Hol, Xin Wang & Juan E. Keymer (2012). Population Structure Increases the Evolvability of Genetic Algorithms. Complexity 17 (5):58-64.
  40.  6
    Stephen Buetow, Linn Getz & Peter Adams (2008). Individualized Population Care: Linking Personal Care to Population Care in General Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 14 (5):761-766.
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  41. Jesper Ryberg & Torbjèorn Tèannsjèo (2004). The Repugnant Conclusion Essays on Population Ethics. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  42.  6
    Chu C. Chen, Li C. Wu, Chung Y. Li, Chih K. Liu, Lin C. Woung & Ming C. Ko (2011). Non‐Adherence to Antibiotic Prescription Guidelines in Treating Urinary Tract Infection of Children: A Population‐Based Study in Taiwan. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (6):1030-1035.
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  43.  8
    Stephen Buetow & Barbara Docherty (2005). The Seduction of General Practice and Illegitimate Birth of an Expanded Role in Population Health Care. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (4):397-404.
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  44.  4
    Hector Sabelli & Lazar Kovacevic (2008). Biotic Complexity of Population Dynamics. Complexity 13 (4):47-55.
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  45.  9
    Michael Cavanaugh (1997). Global Population Equilibrium: A Model for the Twenty-First Century. Zygon 32 (2):163-174.
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  46. Michael D. Bayles (1976). Ethics and Population.
     
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  47.  6
    Gayl D. Ness (1999). Technology and Ethical Debates in Modern Population Planning. Science and Engineering Ethics 5 (3):403-408.
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  48.  25
    Michal Engelman & Summer Johnson (2007). Population Aging and International Development: Addressing Competing Claims of Distributive Justice. Developing World Bioethics 7 (1):8–18.
  49.  5
    Marcello Di Paola & Gianfranco Pellegrino (2012). Temporary Reproductive Suspension: Population Ethics and Climate Change. Iride 25 (1):57-78.
    This paper focuses on a specific proposal connected with the issue of mitigating climate change by reducing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere. The idea of campaigning in favour of a temporary reproductive suspension, to be addressed to a range of citizens of developed countries , is explored. Some details of the proposal are specified, and the proposal itself is defended against four objec- tions: 1. that it encroaches reproductive freedom; 2. that it subtracts from the overall value the value of (...)
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  50.  2
    S. E. Proctor, E. Mitford & R. Paxton (2004). First Episode Psychosis: A Novel Methodology Reveals Higher Than Expected Incidence; a Reality‐Based Population Profile in Northumberland, UK. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 10 (4):539-547.
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