Search results for 'Population biology' (try it on Scholar)

1000+ found
Order:
  1. Jay Odenbaugh (2006). The Strategy of “the Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology”. Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):607-621.
    In this essay, I argue for four related claims. First, Richard Levins’ classic “The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology” was a statement and defense of theoretical population biology growing out of collaborations between Robert MacArthur, Richard Lewontin, E. O. Wilson, and others. Second, I argue that the essay served as a response to the rise of systems ecology especially as pioneered by Kenneth Watt. Third, the arguments offered by Levins against systems ecology and in (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  2.  9
    Rob Hengeveld (2002). Methodology Going Astray in Population Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (2):77-93.
    This paper analyses the broad methodological structure of population-biological theorising. In it, I show that the distinction between initial exploratory, hypothesis-generating research and the subsequent process-reconstructing, hypothesis-testing type of research is not being made. Rather, the hypotheses generated in population biology are elaborated in such detail that students confound the initial research phase with the subsequent hypotheses-testing phase of research. In this context, I therefore analyse some testing procedures within the exploration phase and show that, as an (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade‐Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's “Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology” Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
    Ecologist Richard Levins argues population biologists must trade‐off the generality, realism, and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Steven Orzack and Elliott Sober argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins's thesis that there is a necessary trade‐off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Orzack and Sober's arguments (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   10 citations  
  4. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade-Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's "Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology" Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
    Ecologist Richard Levins (1966, 1968) argues population biologists must trade-off the generality, realism and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Elliott Sober and Steven Orzack (1993) argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins` thesis that there is a necessary trade-off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Sober (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   12 citations  
  5.  10
    Gregory Cooper (1990). The Explanatory Tools of Theoretical Population Biology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:165 - 178.
    What is the role (or roles) of mathematical theory in ecology and evolutionary biology? How does the construction of such theory advance our understanding? The lack of clear answers to this pair of questions has been a source of controversy both within the sciences themselves, and in the philosophical discussions of these sciences as well. In an attempt to shed some light on these issues, I look at what some biologists have had to say on the matter and at (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  6.  10
    Steven Hecht Orzack (2005). Discussion: What, If Anything, Is "The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology?" A Comment on Levins (1966) and Odenbaugh (2003). [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 72 (3):479-485.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   7 citations  
  7.  2
    J. A. Sandoval, Fernandez Jr, P. A. Chandia, E. Zamorano-Ponce & J. C. Ortiz (1995). Some Aspects of the Population Biology of Arbothrix Longipilis Present in a Plantation of Pinus Radiata (Province of Nuble-Eighth Region). Theoria 4.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  8. R. J. Van Aarde, S. Ferreira, T. Jackson, B. Page, Y. De Beer, K. Gough, R. Guldemond, J. Junker, P. Olivier & T. Ott (2008). Elephant Population Biology and Ecology. In R. J. Scholes & K. G. Mennell (eds.), Elephant Management: A Scientific Assessment for South Africa. Wits University Press
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9.  49
    Roberta L. Millstein (2010). The Concepts of Population and Metapopulation in Evolutionary Biology and Ecology. In M. A. Bell, D. J. Futuyma, W. F. Eanes & J. S. Levinton (eds.), Evolution Since Darwin: The First 150 Years. Sinauer
    This paper aims to illustrate one of the primary goals of the philosophy of biology⎯namely, the examination of central concepts in biological theory and practice⎯through an analysis of the concepts of population and metapopulation in evolutionary biology and ecology. I will first provide a brief background for my analysis, followed by a characterization of my proposed concepts: the causal interactionist concepts of population and metapopulation. I will then illustrate how the concepts apply to six cases that (...)
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   5 citations  
  10.  10
    L. H. M. Jonckers (1973). The Concept of Population in Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 22 (2):78-108.
    In view of the confusion about the use of the term ‘population’ in biology, an analysis has been made of the use of the concept of population in biology. Origin and development, logic and epistemology of the population-concept have been investigated for that purpose. It appears that several concepts of population coexist in biology. The term ‘population’ is used for all these concepts, so it is not amazing that confusion has arisen. This (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  11.  6
    Alessandra Parodi, David Neasham & Paolo Vineis (2006). Environment, Population, and Biology: A Short History of Modern Epidemiology. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (3):357-368.
  12.  14
    Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2006). Comparativist Philosophy of Science and Population Viability Assessment in Biology: Helping Resolve Scientific Controversy. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):817-828.
    Comparing alternative scientific theories obviously is relevant to theory assessment, but are comparativists (like Laudan) correct when they also make it necessary? This paper argues that they are not. Defining rationality solely in terms of theories' comparative problem-solving strengths, comparativist philosophers of science like Laudan subscribe to what I call the irrelevance claim (IC) and the necessity claim (NC). According to IC, a scientific theory's being well or poorly confirmed is "irrelevant" to its acceptance; NC is the claim that "all (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  13.  47
    Roberta L. Millstein (2013). Exploring the Status of Population Genetics: The Role of Ecology. Biological Theory 7 (4):346-357.
    The status of population genetics has become hotly debated among biologists and philosophers of biology. Many seem to view population genetics as relatively unchanged since the Modern Synthesis and have argued that subjects such as development were left out of the Synthesis. Some have called for an extended evolutionary synthesis or for recognizing the insignificance of population genetics. Yet others such as Michael Lynch have defended population genetics, declaring "nothing in evolution makes sense except in (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  14.  34
    C. O. Carter (1957). Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. Volume XX. Population Genetics: The Nature and Causes of Genetic Variability in Populations. [REVIEW] The Eugenics Review 49 (2):90.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  15.  4
    Kristin Shrader‐Frechette (2006). Comparativist Philosophy of Science and Population Viability Assessment in Biology: Helping Resolve Scientific Controversy. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):817-828.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  16.  7
    A. H. Halsey (1967). Sociology, Biology and Population Control. The Eugenics Review 59 (3):155.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  17.  6
    G. U. Yule (1926). The Biology of Population Growth. The Eugenics Review 18 (1):42.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18. Inga I. Becker & Ralph Kirby (1988). A Study of Hake Population Diversity Using Restriction Endonuclease Analysis of Mitochondrial Dna: A Practical Application of Molecular Biology to a South African Taxonomic Problem. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 46 (4):313-315.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2006). Can Philosophy Offer Help in Resolving Contemporary Biological Controversies? Comparativist Philosophy of Science and Population Viability Assessment in Biology: Helping Resolve Scientific Controversy. In Borchert (ed.), Philosophy of Science. Macmillan 73--5.
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  20.  44
    Fabio Sterpetti (2016). Scientific Realism, the Semantic View and Evolutionary Biology. In Emiliano Ippoliti, Fabio Sterpetti & Thomas Nickles (eds.), Models and Inferences in Science. Springer 55-76.
    The semantic view of theories is normally considered to be an ac-count of theories congenial to Scientific Realism. Recently, it has been argued that Ontic Structural Realism could be fruitfully applied, in combination with the semantic view, to some of the philosophical issues peculiarly related to bi-ology. Given the central role that models have in the semantic view, and the relevance that mathematics has in the definition of the concept of model, the fo-cus will be on population genetics, which (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21.  18
    Jacob Stegenga (2016). Population Pluralism and Natural Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 67 (1):1-29.
    I defend a radical interpretation of biological populations—what I call population pluralism—which holds that there are many ways that a particular grouping of individuals can be related such that the grouping satisfies the conditions necessary for those individuals to evolve together. More constraining accounts of biological populations face empirical counter-examples and conceptual difficulties. One of the most intuitive and frequently employed conditions, causal connectivity—itself beset with numerous difficulties—is best construed by considering the relevant causal relations as ‘thick’ causal concepts. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  22. Michael Weisberg (2006). Forty Years of 'the Strategy': Levins on Model Building and Idealization. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):623-645.
    This paper is an interpretation and defense of Richard Levins’ “The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology,” which has been extremely influential among biologists since its publication 40 years ago. In this article, Levins confronted some of the deepest philosophical issues surrounding modeling and theory construction. By way of interpretation, I discuss each of Levins’ major philosophical themes: the problem of complexity, the brute-force approach, the existence and consequence of tradeoffs, and robustness analysis. I argue that Levins’ (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   24 citations  
  23.  2
    Angela Potochnik (2013). Defusing Ideological Defenses in Biology. BioScience 63 (2):118-123.
    Ideological language is widespread in theoretical biology. Evolutionary game theory has been defended as a worldview and a leap of faith, and sexual selection theory has been criticized for what it posits as basic to biological nature. Views such as these encourage the impression of ideological rifts in the field. I advocate an alternative interpretation, whereby many disagreements between different camps of biologists merely reflect methodological differences. This interpretation provides a more accurate and more optimistic account of the state (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  24.  35
    Mark B. Adams (2000). Last Judgment: The Visionary Biology of J. B. S. Haldane. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):457 - 491.
    This paper seeks to reinterpret the life and work of J. B. S. Haldane by focusing on an illuminating but largely ignored essay he published in 1927, "The Last Judgment" -- the sequel to his better known work, "Daedalus" (1924). This astonishing essay expresses a vision of the human future over the next 40,000,000 years, one that revises and updates Wellsian futurism with the long range implications of the "new biology" for human destiny. That vision served as a kind (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  25.  50
    John Matthewson (2011). Trade-Offs in Model-Building: A More Target-Oriented Approach. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (2):324-333.
    In his 1966 paper "The Strategy of model-building in Population Biology", Richard Levins argues that no single model in population biology can be maximally realistic, precise and general at the same time. This is because these desirable model properties trade-off against one another. Recently, philosophers have developed Levins' claims, arguing that trade-offs between these desiderata are generated by practical limitations on scientists, or due to formal aspects of models and how they represent the world. However this (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  26. Bertram G. Murray (2011). What Were They Thinking?: Is Population Ecology a Science?: Papers, Critiques, Rebuttals and Philosophy. Infinity Publishing.
  27.  33
    Daniel Steel (2008). Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science. Oxford University Press.
    Inferences like these are known as extrapolations.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   31 citations  
  28. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther (forthcoming). Race and Biology. In Linda Alcoff, Luvell Anderson & Paul Taylor (eds.), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Race. Routledge
    The ontology of race is replete with moral, political, and scientific implications. This book chapter surveys proposals about the reality of race, distinguishing among three levels of analysis: biogenomic, biological, and social. The relatively homogeneous structure of human genetic variation casts doubt upon the practice of postulating distinct biogenomic races that might be mapped onto socially recognized race categories.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29.  35
    James Tabery (2008). R. A. Fisher, Lancelot Hogben, and the Origin(s) of Genotype-Environment Interaction. Journal of the History of Biology 41 (4):717 - 761.
    This essay examines the origin(s) of genotype-environment interaction, or G×E. "Origin(s)" and not "the origin" because the thesis is that there were actually two distinct concepts of G×E at this beginning: a biometric concept, or \[G \times E_B\] , and a developmental concept, or \[G \times E_D \] . R. A. Fisher, one of the founders of population genetics and the creator of the statistical analysis of variance, introduced the biometric concept as he attempted to resolve one of the (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   8 citations  
  30.  57
    Alfonso Arroyo-Santos, Mark E. Olson & Francisco Vergara-Silva (2013). The Phylogeography Debate and the Epistemology of Model-Based Evolutionary Biology. Biology and Philosophy 29 (6):833-850.
    Phylogeography, a relatively new subdicipline of evolutionary biology that attempts to unify the fields of phylogenetics and population biology in an explicit geographical context, has hosted in recent years a highly polarized debate related to the purported benefits and limitations that qualitative versus quantitative methods might contribute or impose on inferential processes in evolutionary biology. Here we present a friendly, non-technical introduction to the conflicting methods underlying the controversy, and exemplify it with a balanced selection of (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  31.  11
    Veena Rao & Vidyanand Nanjundiah (2011). J. B. S. Haldane, Ernst Mayr and the Beanbag Genetics Dispute. Journal of the History of Biology 44 (2):233 - 281.
    Starting from the early decades of the twentieth century, evolutionary biology began to acquire mathematical overtones. This took place via the development of a set of models in which the Darwinian picture of evolution was shown to be consistent with the laws of heredity discovered by Mendel. The models, which came to be elaborated over the years, define a field of study known as population genetics. Population genetics is generally looked upon as an essential component of modern (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32. Mark E. Olson & Alfonso Arroyo-Santos (2015). How to Study Adaptation (and Why to Do It That Way). Quarterly Review of Biology 90 (2):167-191.
    Some adaptationist explanations are regarded as maximally solid and others fanciful just-so stories. Just-so stories are explanations based on very little evidence. Lack of evidence leads to circular-sounding reasoning: “this trait was shaped by selection in unseen ancestral populations and this selection must have occurred because the trait is present.” Well-supported adaptationist explanations include evidence that is not only abundant but selected from comparative, populational, and optimality perspectives, the three adaptationist subdisciplines. Each subdiscipline obtains its broad relevance in evolutionary (...) via assumptions that can only be tested with the methods of the other subdisciplines. However, even in the best-supported explanations, assumptions regarding variation, heritability, and fitness in unseen ancestral populations are always present. These assumptions are accepted given how well they would explain the data if they were true. This means that some degree of “circularity” is present in all evolutionary explanations. Evolutionary explanation corresponds not to a deductive structure, as biologists usually assert, but instead to ones such as abduction or induction. With these structures in mind, we show the way to a healthier view of “circularity” in evolutionary biology, and why integration across the comparative, populational, and optimality approaches is necessary. (shrink)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  33. Rasmus Grønfeldt Winther, Ryan Giordano, Michael D. Edge & Rasmus Nielsen (2015). The Mind, the Lab, and the Field: Three Kinds of Populations in Scientific Practice. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 52:12-21.
    Scientists use models to understand the natural world, and it is important not to conflate model and nature. As an illustration, we distinguish three different kinds of populations in studies of ecology and evolution: theoretical, laboratory, and natural populations, exemplified by the work of R.A. Fisher, Thomas Park, and David Lack, respectively. Biologists are rightly concerned with all three types of populations. We examine the interplay between these different kinds of populations, and their pertinent models, in three examples: the notion (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  34.  62
    John Matthewson & Brett Calcott (2011). Mechanistic Models of Population-Level Phenomena. Biology and Philosophy 26 (5):737-756.
    This paper is about mechanisms and models, and how they interact. In part, it is a response to recent discussion in philosophy of biology regarding whether natural selection is a mechanism. We suggest that this debate is indicative of a more general problem that occurs when scientists produce mechanistic models of populations and their behaviour. We can make sense of claims that there are mechanisms that drive population-level phenomena such as macroeconomics, natural selection, ecology, and epidemiology. But talk (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  35.  8
    Robert J. O'Hara (1997). Population Thinking and Tree Thinking in Systematics. Zoologica Scripta 26 (4): 323–329.
    Two new modes of thinking have spread through systematics in the twentieth century. Both have deep historical roots, but they have been widely accepted only during this century. Population thinking overtook the field in the early part of the century, culminating in the full development of population systematics in the 1930s and 1940s, and the subsequent growth of the entire field of population biology. Population thinking rejects the idea that each species has a natural type (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  36.  43
    Lindell Bromham (2009). Does Nothing in Evolution Make Sense Except in the Light of Population Genetics? Biology and Philosophy 24 (3):387-403.
    “ The Origins of Genome Architecture ” by Michael Lynch (2007) may not immediately sound like a book that someone interested in the philosophy of biology would grab off the shelf. But there are three important reasons why you should read this book. Firstly, if you want to understand biological evolution, you should have at least a passing familiarity with evolutionary change at the level of the genome. This is not to say that everyone interested in evolution should be (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  37.  34
    David L. Hull (1994). Ernst Mayr's Influence on the History and Philosophy of Biology: A Personal Memoir. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 9 (3):375-386.
    Mayr has made both conceptual and professional contributions to the establishment of the history and philosophy of biology. His conceptual contributions include, among many others, the notion of population thinking. He has also played an important role in the establishment of history and philosophy of biology as viable professional disciplines.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   6 citations  
  38.  74
    Yew-Kwang Ng (1995). Towards Welfare Biology: Evolutionary Economics of Animal Consciousness and Suffering. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 10 (3):255-285.
    Welfare biology is the study of living things and their environment with respect to their welfare. Despite difficulties of ascertaining and measuring welfare and relevancy to normative issues, welfare biology is a positive science. Evolutionary economics and population dynamics are used to help answer basic questions in welfare biology : Which species are affective sentients capable of welfare? Do they enjoy positive or negative welfare? Can their welfare be dramatically increased? Under plausible axioms, all conscious species (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  39.  5
    Joeri Witteveen (2015). “A Temporary Oversimplification”: Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the Origins of the Typology/Population Dichotomy (Part 1 of 2). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 54.
    The dichotomy between ‘typological thinking’ and ‘population thinking’ features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  40.  4
    Marek Jędrasik (2008). Natura człowieka z podwójnej perspektywy Nietzschego, czyli o związkach języka z kulturą i biologią. Humanistyka I Przyrodoznawstwo 14.
    The abstract Everyone who gets to know deeper with the Nietzsche philosophy is forced to think about a mutual relationship of a culture and a biology. The main problem to correct show of above relationships is the understanding of the meaning of a language with reference to the culture and the biology. Considerations which are represented here are inspired by the Nietzsche philosophy. They are split by three parts. In the first part there is shown the meaning of (...)
    No categories
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41.  2
    Joeri Witteveen (forthcoming). “A Temporary Oversimplification”: Mayr, Simpson, Dobzhansky, and the Origins of the Typology/Population Dichotomy (Part 2 of 2). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 55:20-33.
    The dichotomy between ‘typological thinking’ and ‘population thinking’ features in a range of debates in contemporary and historical biology. The origins of this dichotomy are often traced to Ernst Mayr, who is said to have coined it in the 1950s as a rhetorical device that could be used to shield the Modern Synthesis from attacks by the opponents of population biology. In this two-part essay, I argue that the origins of the typology/population dichotomy are considerably (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42.  24
    Xavier Donato Rodríguez & Alfonso Arroyo Santos (2012). The Structure of Idealization in Biological Theories: The Case of the Wright-Fisher Model. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 43 (1):11-27.
    In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals that can exhibit different “degrees of contingency”. We use this idea to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, this structure explains why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful in scientific practice. For (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43.  10
    Xavier de Donato Rodríguez & Alfonso Arroyo Santos (2012). The Structure of Idealization in Biological Theories: The Case of the Wright-Fisher Model. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 43 (1):11 - 27.
    In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals that can exhibit different "degrees of contingency". We use this idea to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, this structure explains why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful in scientific practice. For (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44.  25
    Stefan Linquist (2008). But is It Progress? On the Alleged Advances of Conservation Biology Over Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 23 (4):529-544.
    As conservation biology has developed as a distinct discipline from ecology, conservation guidelines based on ecological theory have been largely cast aside in favor of theory-independent decision procedures for designing conservation reserves. I argue that this transition has failed to advance the field toward its aim of preserving biodiversity. The abandonment of island biogeography theory in favor of complementarity-based algorithms is a case in point. In what follows, I consider the four central objections raised against island biogeographic conservation guidelines, (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  45.  19
    Jacob Stegenga (2014). Population Pluralism and Natural Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science (1):axu003.
    I defend a radical interpretation of biological populations—what I call population pluralism—which holds that there are many ways that a particular grouping of individuals can be related such that the grouping satisfies the conditions necessary for those individuals to evolve together. More constraining accounts of biological populations face empirical counter-examples and conceptual difficulties. One of the most intuitive and frequently employed conditions, causal connectivity—itself beset with numerous difficulties—is best construed by considering the relevant causal relations as ‘thick’ causal concepts. (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  46.  6
    Steven Hecht Orzack (2014). A Commentary on “The Formal Darwinism Project”: There is No Grandeur in This View of Life. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):259-270.
    The Formal Darwinism Project is an attempt to use mathematical theory to prove the claim that fitness maximization is the outcome of evolution in nature. Grafen’s (2014, p. 12) conclusion from this project is that “….there is a very general expectation of something close to fitness maximisation, which will convert into fitness-maximisation unless there are particular kinds of circumstances—and further, that fitness is the same quantity for all genetic architectures.” Grafen’s claim appears to mean to him that natural populations are (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  47.  51
    Emanuele Serrelli & Francesca Micol Rossi, A Conceptual Taxonomy of Adaptation in Evolutionary Biology.
    The concept of adaptation is employed in many fields such as biology, psychology, cognitive sciences, robotics, social sciences, even literacy and art,1 and its meaning varies quite evidently according to the particular research context in which it is applied. We expect to find a particularly rich catalogue of meanings within evolutionary biology, where adaptation has held a particularly central role since Darwin’s The Origin of Species (1859) throughout important epistemological shifts and scientific findings that enriched and diversified the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  48.  5
    Frank N. Egerton (1970). Humboldt, Darwin, and Population. Journal of the History of Biology 3 (2):325 - 360.
    I have attempted to clarify some of the pathways in the development of Darwin's thinking. The foregoing examples of influence by no means include all that can be found by comparing Darwin's writings with Humboldt's. However, the above examples seem adequate to show the nature and extent of this influence. It now seems clear that Humboldt not only, as had been previously known, inspired Darwin to make a voyage of exploration, but also provided him with his basic orientation concerning how (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  49.  2
    Alasdair I. Houston & John M. McNamara (1988). A Framework for the Functional Analysis of Behaviour. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (1):117.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   147 citations  
  50. Carl T. Bergstrom & Peter Godfrey-Smith (1998). On the Evolution of Behavioral Complexity in Individuals and Populations. Biology and Philosophy 13 (2):205-31.
    A wide range of ecological and evolutionary models predict variety in phenotype or behavior when a population is at equilibrium. This heterogeneity can be realized in different ways. For example, it can be realized through a complex population of individuals exhibiting different simple behaviors, or through a simple population of individuals exhibiting complex, varying behaviors. In some theoretical frameworks these different realizations are treated as equivalent, but natural selection distinguishes between these two alternatives in subtle ways. By (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
1 — 50 / 1000