Search results for 'Population biology' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jay Odenbaugh (2006). The Strategy of “the Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology”. Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):607-621.score: 246.0
    In this essay, I argue for four related claims. First, Richard Levins’ classic “The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology” was a statement and defense of theoretical population biology growing out of collaborations between Robert MacArthur, Richard Lewontin, E. O. Wilson, and others. Second, I argue that the essay served as a response to the rise of systems ecology especially as pioneered by Kenneth Watt. Third, the arguments offered by Levins against systems ecology and in (...)
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  2. Rob Hengeveld (2002). Methodology Going Astray in Population Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (2).score: 180.0
    This paper analyses the broad methodological structure of population-biological theorising. In it, I show that the distinction between initial exploratory, hypothesis-generating research and the subsequent process-reconstructing, hypothesis-testing type of research is not being made. Rather, the hypotheses generated in population biology are elaborated in such detail that students confound the initial research phase with the subsequent hypotheses-testing phase of research. In this context, I therefore analyse some testing procedures within the exploration phase and show that, as an (...)
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  3. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade‐Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's “Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology” Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.score: 174.0
    Ecologist Richard Levins argues population biologists must trade‐off the generality, realism, and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Steven Orzack and Elliott Sober argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins's thesis that there is a necessary trade‐off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Orzack and Sober's arguments (...)
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  4. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade-Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's "Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology" Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.score: 174.0
    Ecologist Richard Levins (1966, 1968) argues population biologists must trade-off the generality, realism and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Elliott Sober and Steven Orzack (1993) argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins` thesis that there is a necessary trade-off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Sober (...)
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  5. Gregory Cooper (1990). The Explanatory Tools of Theoretical Population Biology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:165 - 178.score: 156.0
    What is the role (or roles) of mathematical theory in ecology and evolutionary biology? How does the construction of such theory advance our understanding? The lack of clear answers to this pair of questions has been a source of controversy both within the sciences themselves, and in the philosophical discussions of these sciences as well. In an attempt to shed some light on these issues, I look at what some biologists have had to say on the matter and at (...)
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  6. Steven Hecht Orzack (2005). Discussion: What, If Anything, Is "The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology?" A Comment on Levins (1966) and Odenbaugh (2003). [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 72 (3):479-485.score: 150.0
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  7. Kent E. Holsinger (1995). Population Biology for Policy Makers. BioScience 45:S10-S20.score: 150.0
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  8. Paulette Bierzychudek (1983). Population Biology of Jack-in-the-Pulpit. BioScience 33 (3):196-198.score: 150.0
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  9. Daniel L. Hartl (1979). Four-Volume Treatise on Population Biology Evolution and the Genetics of Populations Sewall Wright. BioScience 29 (3):179-180.score: 150.0
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  10. James C. Hickman (1981). An Introduction to Population Biology Introduction to Population Biology and Evolution Otto T. Solbrig Dorothy J. Solbrig. BioScience 31 (2):174-175.score: 150.0
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  11. Patrick Colgan (1986). Animal Population Biology. BioScience 36 (10):682-683.score: 150.0
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  12. James Runkle (1983). More for Mathematicians Mathematical Methods of Population Biology Frank C. Hoppensteadt. BioScience 33 (6):394-394.score: 150.0
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  13. Norman Arnheim, Tom White & William E. Rainey (1990). Application of PCR: Organismal and Population Biology. BioScience 40 (3):174-182.score: 150.0
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  14. Norman Arnheim, Tom White & William E. Rainey (1990). Application of PCR: Organismal and Population Biology Polymerase Chain Reaction Can Produce Large Quantities of Specific DNA From Small, Degraded, and Impure Samples. BioScience 40 (3):174-182.score: 150.0
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  15. L. W. Barnthouse, J. Boreman, S. W. Christensen, C. P. Goodyear, W. van Winkle & D. S. Vaughan (1984). Population Biology in the Courtroom: The Hudson River Controversy. BioScience 34 (1):14-19.score: 150.0
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  16. Patrick Colgan (1986). Animal Population Biology Behavioural Ecology: Ecological Consequences of Adaptive Behaviour R. M. Sibly R. M. Smith. BioScience 36 (10):682-683.score: 150.0
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  17. P. R. Ehrlich (1987). AIBS News: Population Biology, Conservation Biology, and the Future of Humanity. BioScience 37 (10):757-763.score: 150.0
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  18. T. C. Foin & S. K. Jain (1977). Ecosystems Analysis and Population Biology: Lessons for the Development of Community Ecology. BioScience 27 (8):532-538.score: 150.0
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  19. Robert L. Jefferies (1980). Plant Population Biology Topics in Plant Population Biology Otto T. Solbrig Subodh Jain George B. Johnson Peter H. Raven. [REVIEW] BioScience 30 (8):548-548.score: 150.0
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  20. Sarah Lenington (1988). Population Biology. BioScience 38 (10):715-716.score: 150.0
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  21. Sarah Lenington (1988). Population Biology Mammalian Dispersal Patterns: The Effects of Social Structure on Population Genetics B. D. Chepko-Sade Z. T. Halpin. [REVIEW] BioScience 38 (10):715-716.score: 150.0
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  22. M. Levandowsky (1987). Wrangling Schools of Thought Modeling Nature: Episodes in the History of Population Biology Sharon Kingsland. BioScience 37 (6):431-432.score: 150.0
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  23. Ralph A. Otto (1979). Reflections: Poor Richard's Population Biology. BioScience 29 (4):242-243.score: 150.0
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  24. J. A. Sandoval, Fernandez Jr, P. A. Chandia, E. Zamorano-Ponce & J. C. Ortiz (1995). Some Aspects of the Population Biology of Arbothrix Longipilis Present in a Plantation of Pinus Radiata (Province of Nuble-Eighth Region). Theoria 4.score: 150.0
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  25. Daniel J. Schoen & Anthony H. D. Brown (2001). The Conservation of Wild Plant Species in Seed Banks Attention to Both Taxonomic Coverage and Population Biology Will Improve the Role of Seed Banks as Conservation Tools. BioScience 51 (11):960-966.score: 150.0
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  26. G. Ledyard Stebbins (1985). Advanced Population Biology Population Biology and Evolution K. Wohrmann V. Loeschke. BioScience 35 (7):456-456.score: 150.0
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  27. G. Ledyard Stebbins (1985). Advanced Population Biology. BioScience 35 (7):456-456.score: 150.0
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  28. Frederick W. Stehr (2005). On the Wings of Checkerspots: A Model System for Population Biology. BioScience 55 (5):451.score: 150.0
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  29. R. J. Van Aarde, S. Ferreira, T. Jackson, B. Page, Y. De Beer, K. Gough, R. Guldemond, J. Junker, P. Olivier & T. Ott (2008). Elephant Population Biology and Ecology. In R. J. Scholes & K. G. Mennell (eds.), Elephant Management: A Scientific Assessment for South Africa. Wits University Press.score: 150.0
     
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  30. Roberta L. Millstein (2010). The Concepts of Population and Metapopulation in Evolutionary Biology and Ecology. In M. A. Bell, D. J. Futuyma, W. F. Eanes & J. S. Levinton (eds.), Evolution Since Darwin: The First 150 Years. Sinauer.score: 144.0
    This paper aims to illustrate one of the primary goals of the philosophy of biology⎯namely, the examination of central concepts in biological theory and practice⎯through an analysis of the concepts of population and metapopulation in evolutionary biology and ecology. I will first provide a brief background for my analysis, followed by a characterization of my proposed concepts: the causal interactionist concepts of population and metapopulation. I will then illustrate how the concepts apply to six cases that (...)
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  31. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2006). Comparativist Philosophy of Science and Population Viability Assessment in Biology: Helping Resolve Scientific Controversy. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):817-828.score: 126.0
    Comparing alternative scientific theories obviously is relevant to theory assessment, but are comparativists (like Laudan) correct when they also make it necessary? This paper argues that they are not. Defining rationality solely in terms of theories' comparative problem-solving strengths, comparativist philosophers of science like Laudan subscribe to what I call the irrelevance claim (IC) and the necessity claim (NC). According to IC, a scientific theory's being well or poorly confirmed is "irrelevant" to its acceptance; NC is the claim that "all (...)
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  32. Alessandra Parodi, David Neasham & Paolo Vineis (2006). Environment, Population, and Biology: A Short History of Modern Epidemiology. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 49 (3):357-368.score: 126.0
  33. Roberta L. Millstein (2013). Exploring the Status of Population Genetics: The Role of Ecology. Biological Theory 7 (4):346-357.score: 122.0
    The status of population genetics has become hotly debated among biologists and philosophers of biology. Many seem to view population genetics as relatively unchanged since the Modern Synthesis and have argued that subjects such as development were left out of the Synthesis. Some have called for an extended evolutionary synthesis or for recognizing the insignificance of population genetics. Yet others such as Michael Lynch have defended population genetics, declaring "nothing in evolution makes sense except in (...)
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  34. Kristin Shrader‐Frechette (2006). Comparativist Philosophy of Science and Population Viability Assessment in Biology: Helping Resolve Scientific Controversy. Philosophy of Science 73 (5):817-828.score: 120.0
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  35. L. H. M. Jonckers (1973). The Concept of Population in Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 22 (2).score: 120.0
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  36. A. H. Halsey (1967). Sociology, Biology and Population Control. The Eugenics Review 59 (3):155.score: 120.0
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  37. C. O. Carter (1957). Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. Volume XX. Population Genetics: The Nature and Causes of Genetic Variability in Populations. [REVIEW] The Eugenics Review 49 (2):90.score: 120.0
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  38. James F. Metress (1971). Population Genetics Problems in Human Biology: A Study of Brazilian Populations F. M. Salzano N. Freire-Maria. BioScience 21 (1):42-42.score: 120.0
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  39. G. U. Yule (1926). The Biology of Population Growth. The Eugenics Review 18 (1):42.score: 120.0
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  40. Kristin Shrader-Frechette (2006). Can Philosophy Offer Help in Resolving Contemporary Biological Controversies? Comparativist Philosophy of Science and Population Viability Assessment in Biology: Helping Resolve Scientific Controversy. In Borchert (ed.), Philosophy of Science. Macmillan. 73--5.score: 120.0
     
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  41. Michael Weisberg (2006). Forty Years of 'the Strategy': Levins on Model Building and Idealization. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):623-645.score: 96.0
    This paper is an interpretation and defense of Richard Levins’ “The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology,” which has been extremely influential among biologists since its publication 40 years ago. In this article, Levins confronted some of the deepest philosophical issues surrounding modeling and theory construction. By way of interpretation, I discuss each of Levins’ major philosophical themes: the problem of complexity, the brute-force approach, the existence and consequence of tradeoffs, and robustness analysis. I argue that Levins’ (...)
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  42. John Matthewson (2011). Trade-Offs in Model-Building: A More Target-Oriented Approach. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (2):324-333.score: 90.0
    In his 1966 paper "The Strategy of model-building in Population Biology", Richard Levins argues that no single model in population biology can be maximally realistic, precise and general at the same time. This is because these desirable model properties trade-off against one another. Recently, philosophers have developed Levins' claims, arguing that trade-offs between these desiderata are generated by practical limitations on scientists, or due to formal aspects of models and how they represent the world. However this (...)
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  43. Mark B. Adams (2000). Last Judgment: The Visionary Biology of J. B. S. Haldane. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 33 (3):457 - 491.score: 90.0
    This paper seeks to reinterpret the life and work of J. B. S. Haldane by focusing on an illuminating but largely ignored essay he published in 1927, "The Last Judgment" -- the sequel to his better known work, "Daedalus" (1924). This astonishing essay expresses a vision of the human future over the next 40,000,000 years, one that revises and updates Wellsian futurism with the long range implications of the "new biology" for human destiny. That vision served as a kind (...)
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  44. Bertram G. Murray (2011). What Were They Thinking?: Is Population Ecology a Science?: Papers, Critiques, Rebuttals and Philosophy. Infinity Publishing.score: 90.0
  45. Xavier Donato Rodríguez & Alfonso Arroyo Santos (2012). The Structure of Idealization in Biological Theories: The Case of the Wright-Fisher Model. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 43 (1):11-27.score: 82.0
    In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals that can exhibit different “degrees of contingency”. We use this idea to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, this structure explains why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful in scientific practice. For (...)
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  46. Xavier de Donato Rodríguez & Alfonso Arroyo Santos (2012). The Structure of Idealization in Biological Theories: The Case of the Wright-Fisher Model. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 43 (1):11 - 27.score: 82.0
    In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals that can exhibit different "degrees of contingency". We use this idea to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, this structure explains why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful in scientific practice. For (...)
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  47. Jacob Stegenga (2014). Population Pluralism and Natural Selection. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axu003.score: 82.0
    I defend a radical interpretation of biological populations—what I call population pluralism—which holds that there are many ways that a particular grouping of individuals can be related such that the grouping satisfies the conditions necessary for those individuals to evolve together. More constraining accounts of biological populations face empirical counter-examples and conceptual difficulties. One of the most intuitive and frequently employed conditions, causal connectivity—itself beset with numerous difficulties—is best construed by considering the relevant causal relations as ‘thick’ causal concepts. (...)
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  48. Daniel Steel (2008). Across the Boundaries: Extrapolation in Biology and Social Science. Oxford University Press.score: 78.0
    Inferences like these are known as extrapolations.
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  49. James Tabery (2008). R. A. Fisher, Lancelot Hogben, and the Origin(s) of Genotype-Environment Interaction. Journal of the History of Biology 41 (4):717 - 761.score: 78.0
    This essay examines the origin(s) of genotype-environment interaction, or G×E. "Origin(s)" and not "the origin" because the thesis is that there were actually two distinct concepts of G×E at this beginning: a biometric concept, or \[G \times E_B\] , and a developmental concept, or \[G \times E_D \] . R. A. Fisher, one of the founders of population genetics and the creator of the statistical analysis of variance, introduced the biometric concept as he attempted to resolve one of the (...)
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  50. Alfonso Arroyo-Santos, Mark E. Olson & Francisco Vergara-Silva (2013). The Phylogeography Debate and the Epistemology of Model-Based Evolutionary Biology. Biology and Philosophy:1-18.score: 78.0
    Phylogeography, a relatively new subdicipline of evolutionary biology that attempts to unify the fields of phylogenetics and population biology in an explicit geographical context, has hosted in recent years a highly polarized debate related to the purported benefits and limitations that qualitative versus quantitative methods might contribute or impose on inferential processes in evolutionary biology. Here we present a friendly, non-technical introduction to the conflicting methods underlying the controversy, and exemplify it with a balanced selection of (...)
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