Search results for 'Positive and Negative views' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  6
    B. Brockmeier And & G. Ulrich (1993). Asymmetries of Expressive Facial Movements During Experimentally Induced Positive Vs. Negative Mood States: A Video-Analytical Study. Cognition and Emotion 7 (5):393-405.
  2.  12
    Danny Frederick, Freedom: Positive, Negative, Expressive.
    I apply Karl Popper’s conception of critical rationality to the question of personal fulfilment. I show that such fulfilment normally depends upon the person achieving positive freedom, and that positive freedom requires negative freedom, including freedom of expression. If the state has legitimacy, its central duty must be the enforcement of those rules that provide the best prospects for personal fulfilment for the people under its jurisdiction. The state is therefore morally debarred from suppressing freedom of expression. (...)
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  3.  81
    Maximiliano Martínez & Andrés Moya (2011). Natural Selection and Multi-Level Causation. Philosophy and Theory in Biology 3 (20130604).
    In this paper, using a multilevel approach, we defend the positive role of natural selection in the generation of organismal form. Despite the currently widespread opinion that natural selection only plays a negative role in the evolution of form, we argue, in contrast, that the Darwinian factor is a crucial (but not exclusive) factor in morphological organization. Analyzing some classic arguments, we propose incorporating the notion of ‘downward causation’ into the concept of ‘natural selection.’ In our opinion, this (...)
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  4. Peter Fazekas & George Kampis, Turning Negative Causation Back to Positive.
    In contemporary literature, the fact that there is negative causation is the primary motivation for rejecting the physical connection view, and arguing for alternative accounts of causation. In this paper we insist that such a conclusion is too fast. We present two frameworks, which help the proponent of the physical connection view to resist the anti-connectionist conclusion. According to the first framework, there are positive causal claims, which co-refer with at least some negative causal claims. According to (...)
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  5. Mark Jago & Stephen Barker (2012). Being Positive About Negative Facts. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 85 (1):117-138.
    Negative facts get a bad press. One reason for this is that it is not clear what negative facts are. We provide a theory of negative facts on which they are no stranger than positive atomic facts. We show that none of the usual arguments hold water against this account. Negative facts exist in the usual sense of existence and conform to an acceptable Eleatic principle. Furthermore, there are good reasons to want them around, including (...)
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  6.  6
    Gail Ditkoff & Ronald Ley (1974). Effects of Positive and Negative Force-Contingent Reinforcement on the Frustration Effect in Humans. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (5):818.
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  7.  2
    Thomas C. Toppino & Peder J. Johnson (1974). Interaction of Positive and Negative Labels with Category Composition in Attribute Identification Concept Performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1035.
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  8.  2
    L. E. Bourne Jr, Bruce R. Ekstrand & Bonnie Montgomery (1969). Concept Learning as a Function of the Conceptual Rule and the Availability of Positive and Negative Instances. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (3):538.
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  9.  1
    Kathleen Glaus & Harry Kotses (1974). Differential Classical Conditioning of Positive and Negative Skin Potentials. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (1):95.
  10.  1
    Michel Hersen (1967). Experimentally Induced Response Biases as a Function of Positive and Negative Wording. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (4, Pt.1):588-590.
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  11.  2
    Brian A. Knowles, Kenneth R. Hammond, Thomas R. Stewart & David A. Summers (1971). Positive and Negative Redundancy in Multiple Cue Probability Tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (1):157.
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  12.  3
    Lyle E. Bourne Jr & Donald E. Guy (1968). Learning Conceptual Rules: II. The Role of Positive and Negative Instances. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77 (3p1):488.
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  13.  7
    Carl I. Hovland & Walter Weiss (1953). Transmission of Information Concerning Concepts Through Positive and Negative Instances. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (3):175.
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  14.  4
    Wayne H. Bartz, Marion Q. Lewis & Gene Swinton (1972). Serial Position Effects for Repeated Free Recall: Negative Recency or Positive Primacy? Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):10.
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  15.  3
    Michael Davidson (1969). Positive Versus Negative Instances in Concept Identification Problems Matched for Logical Complexity of Solution Procedures. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (2p1):369.
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  16.  3
    Willard N. Runquist (1969). Positive and Negative Transfer Resulting From Formal Similarity of Stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (1p1):129.
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  17.  3
    Austin Jones (1961). The Relative Effectiveness of Positive and Negative Verbal Reinforcers. Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (4):368.
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  18.  2
    H. N. Peters (1938). Experimental Studies of the Judgmental Theory of Feeling: I. Learning of Positive and Negative Reactions as a Determinant of Affective Judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology 23 (1):1.
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  19.  2
    M. S. Mayzner (1962). Verbal Concept Attainment: A Function of the Number of Positive and Negative Instances Presented. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (3):314.
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  20.  2
    John Lee Wipf (1964). Positive and Negative Gradients of Response Strength in a Temporal Conflict Situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (3):234.
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  21.  2
    John Davis & John Lamberth (1974). Affective Arousal and Energization Properties of Positive and Negative Stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (2):196.
  22.  14
    Subrata Chakrabarty & A. Erin Bass (2013). Institutionalizing Ethics in Institutional Voids: Building Positive Ethical Strength to Serve Women Microfinance Borrowers in Negative Contexts. Journal of Business Ethics 119 (4):1-14.
    This study examines whether microfinance institutions (MFIs) that serve women borrowers at the base of the economic pyramid are likely to adopt a written code of positive organizational ethics (POE). Using econometric analysis of operational and economic data of a sample of MFIs from across the world, we find that two contextual factors—poverty level and lack of women’s empowerment—moderate the influence of an MFI’s percentage of women borrowers on the probability of the MFI having a POE code. MFIs that (...)
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  23. Gunnar Björnsson, If You Believe in Positive Facts, You Should Believe in Negative Facts. Hommage À Wlodek. Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Wlodek Rabinowicz.
    Substantial metaphysical theory has long struggled with the question of negative facts, facts capable of making it true that Valerie isn’t vigorous. This paper argues that there is an elegant solution to these problems available to anyone who thinks that there are positive facts. Bradley’s regress and considerations of ontological parsimony show that an object’s having a property is an affair internal to the object and the property, just as numerical identity and distinctness are internal to the entities (...)
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  24. Colin Cheyne & Charles Pigden (2006). Negative Truths From Positive Facts. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (2):249 – 265.
    According to the truthmaker theory that we favour, all contingent truths are made true by existing facts or states of affairs. But if that is so, then it appears that we must accept the existence of the negative facts that are required to make negative truths (such as 'There is no hippopotamus in the room.') true. We deny the existence of negative facts, show how negative truths are made true by positive facts, point out where (...)
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  25.  13
    Saurabh Mishra & Sachin B. Modi (2013). Positive and Negative Corporate Social Responsibility, Financial Leverage, and Idiosyncratic Risk. Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):431-448.
    Existing research on the financial implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR) for firms has predominantly focused on positive aspects of CSR, overlooking that firms also undertake actions and initiatives that qualify as negative CSR. Moreover, studies in this area have not investigated how both positive and negative CSR affect the financial risk of firms. As such, in this research, the authors provide a framework linking both positive and negative CSR to idiosyncratic risk of firms. (...)
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  26.  16
    Jonas Waechter (forthcoming). Positive Truthmakers for Negative Truths: A Solution to Molnar’s Problem. Philosophical Studies:1-14.
    The present paper addresses Molnar’s problem :72–86, 2000): that of finding positive truthmakers for negative truths. The proposed solution, called, is to hold truth and falsity to be primitive and positive features of propositions and to take every literal negative truth to be made true by the falsity of the atomic proposition that it embeds. The solution is shown to be compatible with Maximalism, Necessitarianism and with the Entailment Thesis, as well as with most if not (...)
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  27.  11
    Adam S. Goodie (2004). Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing and the Balance Between Positive and Negative Approaches. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (3):338-339.
    Several of Krueger & Funder's (K&F's) suggestions may promote more balanced social cognition research, but reconsidered null hypothesis statistical testing (NHST) is not one of them. Although NHST has primarily supported negative conclusions, this is simply because most conclusions have been negative. NHST can support positive, negative, and even balanced conclusions. Better NHST practices would benefit psychology, but would not alter the balance between positive and negative approaches.
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  28. Pablo Gilabert (2005). The Duty to Eradicate Global Poverty: Positive or Negative? Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (5):537-550.
    In World Poverty and Human Rights, Thomas Pogge argues that the global rich have a duty to eradicate severe poverty in the world. The novelty of Pogges approach is to present this demand as stemming from basic commands which are negative rather than positive in nature: the global rich have an obligation to eradicate the radical poverty of the global poor not because of a norm of beneficence asking them to help those in need when they can at (...)
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  29.  1
    Igor Marchetti, Ernst Hw Koster & Rudi De Raedt (2012). Mindwandering Heightens the Accessibility of Negative Relative to Positive Thought. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1517-1525.
    Mindwandering is associated with both positive and negative outcomes. Among the latter, negative mood and negative cognitions have been reported. However, the underlying mechanisms linking mindwandering to negative mood and cognition are still unclear. We hypothesized that MW could either directly enhance negative thinking or indirectly heighten the accessibility of negative thoughts. In an undergraduate sample we measured emotional thoughts during the Sustained Attention on Response Task which induces MW, and accessibility of (...) cognitions by means of the Scrambled Sentences Task after the task. We also measured depressive symptoms and rumination. Results show that in individuals with elevated levels of depressive symptoms MW during SART predicts higher accessibility of negative thoughts after the task, rather than negative thinking during the task. These findings contribute to our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of MW and provide insight into the relationship between task-involvement and affect. (shrink)
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  30. Anna Szabolcsi (2004). Positive Polarity - Negative Polarity. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 22 (2):409-452..
    Positive polarity items (PPIs) are generally thought to have the boring property that they cannot scope below negation. The starting point of the paper is the observation that their distribution is significantly more complex; specifically, someone/something-type PPIs share properties with negative polarity items (NPIs). First, these PPIs are disallowed in the same environments that license yet type NPIs; second, adding any NPI-licenser rescues the illegitimate constellation. This leads to the conclusion that these PPIs have the combined properties of (...)
     
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  31.  5
    Susanne Schwager & Klaus Rothermund (2013). Counter-Regulation Triggered by Emotions: Positive/Negative Affective States Elicit Opposite Valence Biases in Affective Processing. Cognition and Emotion 27 (5):839-855.
  32.  64
    Boris Leaf (1996). Positive- and Negative-Frequency Parts of D'Alembert's Equation with Applications in Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 26 (3):337-368.
    It is shown that in every gauge the potential of the electromagnetic field in the presence of sources is resolved by an extension of the Helmholtz theorem into a solenoidal component and an irrotational component irrelevant for description of the field. Only irrotational components are affected by gauge transformations; in Coulomb gauge the irrotational component vanishes: the potential is solenoidal. The method of solution of the wave equation by use of positive- and negative-frequency parts is extended to solutions (...)
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  33.  5
    Darryl Macer (2012). Ethical Consequences of the Positive Views of Enhancement in Asia. Health Care Analysis 20 (4):385-397.
    There are positive views towards use of science and technology in all Asian countries, and positive views towards use of enhancement in China, India and Thailand. After considering of the widespread use of cosmetic surgery and other body enhancements in Asian countries, and the generally positive views towards letting individuals make choices about improvement of themselves, the paper concludes that we can expect other enhancements to also be adopted rapidly in Asia. There will be (...)
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  34. Maria Dimova-Cookson (2003). A New Scheme of Positive and Negative Freedom: Reconstructing T. H. Green on Freedom. Political Theory 31 (4):508-532.
    This article offers a new scheme of the relation between positive and negative freedom that is based on a retrieval of T. H. Green's theory of freedom and on further reconstructions of his theory. Some of the distinctions in the literature have proven difficult to sustain, and this has resulted in a weakening of the dichotomy in principle, and of the concepts of positive and negative freedom independently of each other. The main distinction between negative (...)
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  35.  15
    Joel David Hamkins & Andrew Lewis (2002). Post's Problem for Supertasks has Both Positive and Negative Solutions. Archive for Mathematical Logic 41 (6):507-523.
    The infinite time Turing machine analogue of Post's problem, the question whether there are semi-decidable supertask degrees between 0 and the supertask jump 0∇, has in a sense both positive and negative solutions. Namely, in the context of the reals there are no degrees between 0 and 0∇, but in the context of sets of reals, there are; indeed, there are incomparable semi-decidable supertask degrees. Both arguments employ a kind of transfinite-injury construction which generalizes canonically to oracles.
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  36. Anastasia Giannakidou, Negative and Positive Polarity Items: Variation, Licensing, and Compositionality.
    In this chapter, we discuss the distribution and lexical properties of common varieties of negative polarity items (NPIs) and positive polarity items (PPIs). We establish first that NPIs can be licensed in negative, downward entailing, and nonveridical environments. Then we examine if the scalarity approach (originating in Kadmon and Landman 1993) can handle the attested NPI distribution and empirical variation. By positing a unitary lexical source for NPIs—widening, plus EVEN— scalarity fails to capture the fact that a (...)
     
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  37.  89
    R. Booth & J. B. Paris (1998). A Note on the Rational Closure of Knowledge Bases with Both Positive and Negative Knowledge. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 7 (2):165-190.
    The notion of the rational closure of a positive knowledge base K of conditional assertions | (standing for if then normally ) was first introduced by Lehmann (1989) and developed by Lehmann and Magidor (1992). Following those authors we would also argue that the rational closure is, in a strong sense, the minimal information, or simplest, rational consequence relation satisfying K. In practice, however, one might expect a knowledge base to consist not just of positive conditional assertions, | (...)
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  38.  21
    Fernando Rodríguez & Francisco Torres (2012). Correlación Del Sentimiento Negativo y Positivo de Comentarios Publicados En Twitter (Negative and Positive Sentiment Correlation on Comments Published on Twitter). Daena 7 (1):68-77.
    Resumen. En la presente investigación se describe el análisis de sentimiento realizado en comentarios publicados en la red social de Twitter. Los datos se obtuvieron al monitorear durante 36 días la evaluación del sentimiento de los comentarios que resultaron de hacer búsquedas de catorce diferentes sistemas operativos para celular; utilizando para dicha evaluación la herramienta Twitter-Sentiment. Se encontró que los comentarios positivos y negati¬vos presentan una correlación positiva para la mayoría de los sistemas operativos utilizados en la investigación.. The present (...)
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  39.  19
    Rupert Brown, Jesse Allpress, Roger Giner Sorolla, Julien Deonna & Fabrice Teroni (2014). Two Faces of Shame: Moral Shame and Image Shame Differently Predict Positive and Negative Responses to Ingroup Wrongdoing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 40 (10):1270-1284.
    This article proposes distinctions between guilt and two forms of shame: Guilt arises from a violated norm and is characterized by a focus on specific behavior; shame can be characterized by a threatened social image (Image Shame) or a threatened moral essence (Moral Shame). Applying this analysis to group-based emotions, three correlational studies are reported, set in the context of atrocities committed by (British) ingroup members during the Iraq war (Ns = 147, 256, 399). Results showed that the two forms (...)
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  40.  2
    Niko Kohls, Harald Walach & George Lewith (2009). The Impact of Positive and Negative Spiritual Experiences on Distress and the Moderating Role of Mindfulness. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 31 (3):357-374.
    Both spiritual experiences and mindfulness as a psychological variable have been identified as components of wellbeing and health. As there is uncertainty about their relationship, we have investigated the impact of spiritual experiences and mindfulness as well as their interaction on distress in chronically ill patients. The unidimensional Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale , the multidimensional Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire , the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory , and the Brief Symptom Inventory were administered to 109 chronically ill patients. Fifty-eight patients reported regular and (...)
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  41.  3
    Niko Kohls, Harald Walach & George Lewith (2009). The Impact of Positive and Negative Spiritual Experiences on Distress and the Moderating Role of Mindfulness. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 31 (3):357-374.
    Both spiritual experiences and mindfulness as a psychological variable have been identified as components of wellbeing and health. As there is uncertainty about their relationship, we have investigated the impact of spiritual experiences and mindfulness as well as their interaction on distress in chronically ill patients. The unidimensional Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale , the multidimensional Exceptional Experiences Questionnaire , the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory , and the Brief Symptom Inventory were administered to 109 chronically ill patients. Fifty-eight patients reported regular and (...)
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  42.  51
    Wayne Martin, Positive and Negative Logic.
    Acts of criticism characteristically display a negative and a positive dimension. I undertake a qualified defense of the thesis that both dimensions are essential, at least in the case of logical criticism – criticism that relies either implicitly or explicitly on the resources of logic. Such criticism presupposes at least a minimal grasp on what is involved in ‘getting it right’ in the domain that is subjected to critique. In making the case I distinguish between positive and (...)
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  43.  41
    A. Bradley (2010). Positive Rights, Negative Rights and Health Care. Journal of Medical Ethics 36 (12):838-841.
    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts ‘negative’ rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the (...)
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  44.  14
    Isabella C. Burger & Johannes Heidema (1994). Comparing Theories by Their Positive and Negative Contents. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (2):605-630.
    relative to the actual world) of a propositional theory are defined. A theory is ‘closer to the truth’ the logically stronger its positive content and the logically weaker its negative content. This proposal delivers the same verisimilar preordering of theories that has been defined by Brink and Heidema as a ‘power ordering’. The preordering may be collapsed to a partial ordering and then embedded into a complete distributive lattice. The preordering may also be refined to a partial ordering (...)
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  45.  4
    Robert A. Wilson, Eugenics: Positive Vs Negative. Eugenics Archives.
    The distinction between positive and negative eugenics is perhaps the best-known distinction that has been made between forms that eugenics takes. Roughly, positive eugenics refers to efforts aimed at increasing desirable traits, while negative eugenics refers to efforts aimed at decreasing undesirable traits. Still, it is easy to fall into confusion in drawing and deploying the distinction in particular contexts. Clarity here is important not only historically, but also for appeals to the distinction in contemporary discussions (...)
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  46.  19
    James Davies (2011). Positive and Negative Models of Suffering: An Anthropology of Our Shifting Cultural Consciousness of Emotional Discontent. Anthropology of Consciousness 22 (2):188-208.
    I explore how many within modern industrial societies currently understand, manage, and respond to their emotional suffering. I argue that this understanding and management of suffering has radically altered in the last 30 years, creating a new model of suffering, “the negative model” (suffering is purposeless), which has largely replaced the “positive model” (suffering is purposeful) that prevailed in the 18th and 19th centuries. This shift has been hastened by what I call the “rationalization of suffering”—namely, the process (...)
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  47.  8
    Femke Janssen, Sarah Bänziger, Jessie Dezutter & Dirk Hutsebaut (2005). Religion and Mental Health: Aspects of the Relation Between Religious Measures and Positive and Negative Mental Health. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 27 (1):19-44.
    Studies concerning the relationship between religion and mental health have provided substantial evidence for the existence of a positive relationship. Nevertheless, it remains largely unclear which aspects of both religion and mental health take part in this relationship. The present study uses multiple measures of religion and of mental health to obtain a more refined view of this relationship. The results show the importance of distinguishing between if a person believes and how a person believes . Religious persons who (...)
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  48.  7
    Femke Janssen, Dirk Hutsebaut, Jessie Dezutter & Sarah Bänziger (2005). Religion and Mental Health: Aspects of the Relation Between Religious Measures and Positive and Negative Mental Health. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 27 (1):19-44.
    Studies concerning the relationship between religion and mental health have provided substantial evidence for the existence of a positive relationship. Nevertheless, it remains largely unclear which aspects of both religion and mental health take part in this relationship. The present study uses multiple measures of religion and of mental health to obtain a more refined view of this relationship. The results show the importance of distinguishing between if a person believes and how a person believes . Religious persons who (...)
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  49.  20
    Duccio Luchi & Franco Montagna (1999). An Operational Logic of Proofs with Positive and Negative Information. Studia Logica 63 (1):7-25.
    The logic of proofs was introduced by Artemov in order to analize the formalization of the concept of proof rather than the concept of provability. In this context, some operations on proofs play a very important role. In this paper, we investigate some very natural operations, paying attention not only to positive information, but also to negative information (i.e. information saying that something cannot be a proof). We give a formalization for a fragment of such a logic of (...)
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  50.  5
    Valeria Strelets (2003). Cortical Connectivity in High-Frequency Beta-Rhythm in Schizophrenics with Positive and Negative Symptoms. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (1):105-106.
    In chronic schizophrenic patients with both positive and negative symptoms (see Table 1), interhemispheric connections at the high frequency beta2-rhythm are absent during cognitive tasks, in contrast to normal controls, who have many interhemispheric connections at this frequency in the same situation. Connectivity is a fundamental brain feature, evidently greatly promoted by the NMDA system. It is a more reliable measure of brain function than the spectral power of this rhythm.
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