Search results for 'Practice' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Renke Fahl & Morus Markard (1999). The Project "Analysis of Psychological Practice" Or: An Attempt at Connecting Psychology Critique and Practice Research. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 1 (1):73-98.score: 21.0
    Using interviews and group discussions, researchers and students from the Free University of Berlin and psychological practitioners work together in a project called 'The Analysis of Psychological Practice', theoretically based on 'Critical Psychology'. The aim is to find out whether and how practitioners deal with the contradictions between experimental-statistical orientation of traditional academic psychology and the single-case-orientation of psychological practice. Can practitioners relate to 'scientific' psychology at all? How do they deal with the contradiction that psychological practitioners are (...)
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  2. Lynn Froggett & Stephen Briggs (2012). Practice-Near and Practice-Distant Methods in Human Services Research. Journal of Research Practice 8 (2):Article - M9.score: 21.0
    This article discusses practice-near research in human services, a cluster of methodologies that may include thick description, intensive reflexivity, and the study of emotional and relational processes. Such methods aim to get as near as possible to experiences at the relational interface between institutions and the practice field. Psychoanalytically informed approaches to research are particularly fruitful here. In this article these are discussed in relation to the reflective practice and critical reflection traditions which have been widely discussed (...)
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  3. Ole Dreier (1999). Personal Trajectories of Participation Across Contexts of Social Practice. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 1 (1):5-32.score: 21.0
    In discussion about basic theoretical approaches in a non-Cartesian psychology several candidates for a key concept were proposed, such as action, activity, relation, dialogue and discourse. None of these concepts, however, sufficiently grounds psychological theories of individual psychology in social practice. To accomplish this we need to conceptualize subjects as participants in structures of ongoing social practice. In this paper I argue why and address issues of subjectivity as encountered by persons in their participation in complex structures of (...)
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  4. D. P. Dash (2009). Science as Reflective Practice: A Review of Frederick Grinnell's Book, Everyday Practice of Science. [REVIEW] Journal of Research Practice 5 (1):Article R1.score: 21.0
    Review of "Everyday Practice of Science: Where Intuition and Passion Meet Objectivity and Logic." Book by Frederick Grinnell.
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  5. Werner Ulrich (2006). Rethinking Critically Reflective Research Practice: Beyond Popper's Critical Rationalism. Journal of Research Practice 2 (2):Article P1.score: 21.0
    We all know that ships are safest in the harbor; but alas, that is not what ships are built for. They are destined to leave the harbor and to confront the challenges that are waiting beyond the harbor mole. A similar challenge confronts the practice of research. Research at work cannot play it safe and stay in whatever theoretical and methodological harbors in which it may have found shelter in the past. Still less can it examine and maintain its (...)
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  6. Mark Andrew Evans (2011). Researcher Practice: Embedding Creative Practice Within Doctoral Research in Industrial Design. Journal of Research Practice 6 (2):Article M16.score: 21.0
    This article considers the potential for a researcher to use their own creative practice as a method of data collection. Much of the published material in this field focuses on more theoretical positions, with limited use being made of specific PhDs that illustrate the context in which practice was undertaken by the researcher. It explores strategies for data collection and researcher motivation during what the author identifies as "researcher practice." This is achieved through the use of three (...)
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  7. Nithikul Nimkulrat (2007). The Role of Documentation in Practice-Led Research. Journal of Research Practice 3 (1):Article M6.score: 21.0
    Practice-led research in the field of art and design usually involves a study of the interplay between a researcher-practitioner and her artistic work in process. This article seeks to illustrate that documentation of art practice can be a means to record that interplay and it can be used as relevant material in practice-led research. The article will present an account of documentation in practice-led research highlighting two principal aspects: phases of documentation and the role of documentation (...)
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  8. Klaus N. Nielsen (2008). Learning, Trajectories of Participation and Social Practice. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 10 (1):22-36.score: 19.0
    This article argues that personal meaning should be considered important when addressing issues of learning. It is claimed that meaningful learning is not primarily intra-psychological, as suggested by humanistic psychologists and parts of cognitive psychology, but is an integrated part of the person’s participation in various social practices. Inspired by critical psychology and situated learning, it is suggested that in order to comprehend what people in everyday life experience as meaningful, we have to understand the concerns subjects pursue across different (...)
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  9. Dima Jamali & Ramez Mirshak (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): Theory and Practice in a Developing Country Context. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 72 (3):243 - 262.score: 18.0
    After providing an overview of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) research in different contexts, and noting the varied methodologies adopted, two robust CSR conceptualizations – one by Carroll (1979, ‘A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance’, The Academy of Management Review 4(4), 497–505) and the other by Wood (1991, ‘Corporate Social Performance Revisited’, The Academy of Management Review 16(4), 691–717) – have been adopted for this research and their integration explored. Using this newly synthesized framework, the research critically examines the CSR (...)
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  10. Moti Mizrahi (2013). What is Scientific Progress? Lessons From Scientific Practice. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 44 (2):375-390.score: 18.0
    Alexander Bird argues for an epistemic account of scientific progress, whereas Darrell Rowbottom argues for a semantic account. Both appeal to intuitions about hypothetical cases in support of their accounts. Since the methodological significance of such appeals to intuition is unclear, I think that a new approach might be fruitful at this stage in the debate. So I propose to abandon appeals to intuition and look at scientific practice instead. I discuss two cases that illustrate the way in which (...)
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  11. Mark W. Risjord (2010). Nursing Knowledge: Science, Practice, and Philosophy. Wiley-Blackwell Pub..score: 18.0
    The final chapter of the book 'redraws the map', to create a new picture of nursing science based on the following principles: Problems of practice should guide ...
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  12. Theodore R. Schatzki, K. Knorr-Cetina & Eike von Savigny (eds.) (2001). The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory. Routledge.score: 18.0
    The Practice Turn in Contemporary Theory is the first book to provide an exciting and diverse philosophical exploration of the role of practice and practices in human activity. It also shows how practice theory stands in opposition to numerous prevalent ways of thinking, such as structuralism, system theory, semiotics, and many strains of humanism.
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  13. Elizabeth Anne Kinsella (2010). Professional Knowledge and the Epistemology of Reflective Practice. Nursing Philosophy 11 (1):3-14.score: 18.0
    Reflective practice is one of the most popular theories of professional knowledge in the last 20 years and has been widely adopted by nursing, health, and social care professions. The term was coined by Donald Schön in his influential books The Reflective Practitioner , and Educating the Reflective Practitioner , and has garnered the unprecedented attention of theorists and practitioners of professional education and practice. Reflective practice has been integrated into professional preparatory programmes, continuing education programmes, and (...)
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  14. Jason Springs (2009). 'Dismantling the Master's House': Freedom as Ethical Practice in Robert Brandom and Michel Foucault. Journal of Religious Ethics 37 (3):419-448.score: 18.0
    This article makes a case for the capacity of "social practice" accounts of agency and freedom to criticize, resist, and transform systemic forms of power and domination from within the context of religious and political practices and institutions. I first examine criticisms that Michel Foucault's analysis of systemic power results in normative aimlessness, and then I contrast that account with the description of agency and innovative practice that pragmatist philosopher Robert Brandom identifies as "expressive freedom." I argue that (...)
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  15. Mary K. McCurry, Susan M. Hunter Revell & Sr Callista Roy (2010). Knowledge for the Good of the Individual and Society: Linking Philosophy, Disciplinary Goals, Theory, and Practice. Nursing Philosophy 11 (1):42-52.score: 18.0
    Nursing as a profession has a social mandate to contribute to the good of society through knowledge-based practice. Knowledge is built upon theories, and theories, together with their philosophical bases and disciplinary goals, are the guiding frameworks for practice. This article explores a philosophical perspective of nursing's social mandate, the disciplinary goals for the good of the individual and society, and one approach for translating knowledge into practice through the use of a middle-range theory. It is anticipated (...)
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  16. Keqian Xu (2006). 論儒家哲學之“道”的實踐屬性與歷史屬性On the Practice and History Attributes of the “Dao” in the Confucian Philosophy. 學術論壇 Academic Forum, 2006 (11):32-34.score: 18.0
    The important feature of Dao as a philosophic category in early Confucian philosophy is its prominent practical and historical properties, which make it different from those western metaphysic categories. Confucianism emphasizes that the Dao can not be separated with the practice and the history of human being, thus the Tao should be explored in peoples’ social activities and history. They believe that the Tao only lives in the historical tradition and can only be demonstrated by the narrative of history. (...)
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  17. Immanuel Kant (1974). On the Old Saw: That May Be Right in Theory but It Won't Work in Practice. Philadelphia,University of Pennsylvania Press.score: 18.0
    Kant replies to the claim that there is conflict between what moral theory demands and what we can do in practice.
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  18. Zainal Abidin Bagir (2012). Practice and the Agenda of “Islam and Science”. Zygon 47 (2):354-366.score: 18.0
    Abstract When speaking about Islam and contemporary issues in science, Guessoum's Islam's Quantum Question shares many characterizations with Barbourian science and religion discourse. The focus is on theological responses to particular scientific theories. In this article I suggest an expansion of the discourse by looking at how science meets religion (as well as other local system of knowledge) in practice, in particular events such as natural disaster, when they are called upon as sources of meaning making. The encounter takes (...)
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  19. Michael Loughlin, George Lewith & Torkel Falkenberg (2013). Science, Practice and Mythology: A Definition and Examination of the Implications of Scientism in Medicine. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 21 (2):130-145.score: 18.0
    Scientism is a philosophy which purports to define what the world ‘really is’. It adopts what the philosopher Thomas Nagel called ‘an epistemological criterion of reality’, defining what is real as that which can be discovered by certain quite specific methods of investigation. As a consequence all features of experience not revealed by those methods are deemed ‘subjective’ in a way that suggests they are either not real, or lie beyond the scope of meaningful rational inquiry. This devalues capacities that (...)
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  20. Tom L. Beauchamp & Yashar Saghai (2012). The Historical Foundations of the Research-Practice Distinction in Bioethics. Heoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (1):45-56.score: 18.0
    The distinction between clinical research and clinical practice directs how we partition medicine and biomedical science. Reasons for a sharp distinction date historically to the work of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, especially to its analysis of the “boundaries” between research and practice in the Belmont Report (1978). Belmont presents a segregation model of the research-practice distinction, according to which research and practice form conceptually exclusive sets of (...)
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  21. Roberto Frega (2010). From Judgment to Rationality: Dewey's Epistemology of Practice. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 46 (4):591-610.score: 18.0
    The question of rationality and of its role in human agency has been at the core of pragmatist concerns since the beginning of this movement. While Peirce framed the horizon of a new understanding of human reason through the idea of inquiry as aiming at belief-fixation and James stressed the individualistic drives that move individuals to action, it is in Dewey’s writing that we find the deepest understanding of the naturalistic and normative traits of rationality considered as the qualifying attribute (...)
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  22. Jason A. Springs (2009). "Dismantling the Master's House": Freedom as Ethical Practice in Brandom and Foucault. Journal of Religious Ethics 37 (3):419-448.score: 18.0
    This article makes a case for the capacity of "social practice" accounts of agency and freedom to criticize, resist, and transform systemic forms of power and domination from within the context of religious and political practices and institutions. I first examine criticisms that Michel Foucault's analysis of systemic power results in normative aimlessness, and then I contrast that account with the description of agency and innovative practice that pragmatist philosopher Robert Brandom identifies as "expressive freedom." I argue that (...)
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  23. Jens Timmermann (2007). Simplicity and Authority: Reflections on Theory and Practice in Kant's Moral Philosophy. Journal of Moral Philosophy 4 (2):167-182.score: 18.0
    What is the proper task of Kantian ethical theory? This paper seeks to answer this question with reference to Kant's reply to Christian Garve in Section I of his 1793 essay on Theory and Practice . Kant reasserts the distinctness and natural authority of our consciousness of the moral law. Every mature human being is a moral professional—even philosophers like Garve, if only they forget about their ill-conceived ethical systems and listen to the voice of pure practical reason. Normative (...)
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  24. Shenbai Liao (2009). Aristotle's View on “the Right of Practice”: An Investigation Into Aristotle's Theory of Action. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (2):251-263.score: 18.0
    The concept of right or fit is an important element entailed, but not fully articulated, in the concept of action or practice in Aristotle’s theory of virtue; which, however, turns to be of the utmost importance in later Western ethics. Right is concerned with both feelings and actions, and is not the same for all individuals. It lies in between the two extremes of the spectrum of practical affairs, yet by no means equidistant from them. This account of the (...)
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  25. Joseph Raz (2003). The Practice of Value - Reply. In Jay Wallace (ed.), The Practice of Value. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    The privilege of having three sets of extensive and hard-hitting comments on one's work is as welcome as it is rare, and especially so on this occasion as the lectures were, for me, but thefirst (well, not entirely first) stab at a subject I hope to explore at greater length. The reflectionsthat follow will respond to some of the criticisms, but will not be a point by point reply. I will use the occasion to clarify some obscurities in the lectures, (...)
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  26. Einar Aadland (2010). Values in Professional Practice: Towards a Critical Reflective Methodology. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 97 (3):461-472.score: 18.0
    A prevailing conceptualization of values in organizations regards values as preferable modes of conduct or end-states of existence. Accordingly, values are pursued through prescriptions, actions of implementation and evaluation, based on the presumption that values inform actions. Thus, holding the ‘right’ values leads to desired practice. However, this is a problematic stance, suppressing the fact that correlation between value and action is highly questioned. The article claims that proliferation of values in organizations is more plausible and influential turning the (...)
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  27. David Lauer (2012). Expressivism and the Layer Cake Picture of Discursive Practice. Philosophia 40 (1):55-73.score: 18.0
    Robert Brandom defends the intelligibility of the notion of a fully discursive practice that does not include any kind of logical vocabulary. Logical vocabulary, according to his account, should be understood as an optional extra to discursive practice, not as a necessary ingredient. Call this the Layer Cake Picture of the relation of logical to non-logical discursive practices. The aim pursued in this paper is to show, by way of an internal critique, that the Layer Cake Picture is (...)
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  28. Hanoch Sheinman (2008). Promise as Practice Reason. Acta Analytica 23 (4):287-318.score: 18.0
    To promise someone to do something is to commit oneself to that person to do that thing, but what does that commitment consist of? Some think a promissory commitment is an obligation to do what’s promised, and that while promising practices facilitate the creation of promissory obligations, they are not essential to them. I favor the broadly Humean view in which, when it comes to promises (and so promissory obligations), practices are of the essence. I propose the Practice Reason (...)
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  29. Simone Galea (2012). Reflecting Reflective Practice. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (3):245-258.score: 18.0
    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of reflection themselves can suggest ways out of dictated pathways of reflection in teaching. Drawing on Luce Irigaray's and Plato's ideas on reflection, the paper includes a (...)
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  30. Annette J. Browne, Colleen Varcoe, Victoria Smye, Sheryl Reimer-Kirkham, M. Judith Lynam & Sabrina Wong (2009). Cultural Safety and the Challenges of Translating Critically Oriented Knowledge in Practice. Nursing Philosophy 10 (3):167-179.score: 18.0
    Cultural safety is a relatively new concept that has emerged in the New Zealand nursing context and is being taken up in various ways in Canadian health care discourses. Our research team has been exploring the relevance of cultural safety in the Canadian context, most recently in relation to a knowledge-translation study conducted with nurses practising in a large tertiary hospital. We were drawn to using cultural safety because we conceptualized it as being compatible with critical theoretical perspectives that foster (...)
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  31. Kathryn Montgomery (2006). How Doctors Think: Clinical Judgment and the Practice of Medicine. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    How Doctors Think defines the nature and importance of clinical judgment. Although physicians make use of science, this book argues that medicine is not itself a science but rather an interpretive practice that relies on clinical reasoning. A physician looks at the patient's history along with the presenting physical signs and symptoms and juxtaposes these with clinical experience and empirical studies to construct a tentative account of the illness. How Doctors Think is divided into four parts. Part one introduces (...)
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  32. Kenneth Shockley (2008). On That Peculiar Practice of Promising. Philosophical Studies 140 (3):385 - 399.score: 18.0
    T. M. Scanlon has alleged that the social practice of promising fails to capture the sense in which when I break my promise I have wronged the promisee in particular. I suggest the practice of promising requires the promisee to have a normatively significant status, a status with interpersonal authority with respect to the promisor, and so be at risk of a particular harm made possible by the social practice of promising. This formulation of the social (...) account avoids Scanlon’s concern without collapsing into what Elinor Mason has recently referred to as deflationism about promising. (shrink)
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  33. Stephen Hetherington (2006). Scepticism and Ordinary Epistemic Practice. Philosophia 34 (3):303-310.score: 18.0
    It is not unusual for epistemologists to argue that ordinary epistemic practice is a setting within which (infallibilist) scepticism will not arise. Such scepticism is deemed to be an alien invader, impugning such epistemic practice entirely from without. But this paper argues that the suggested sort of analysis overstates the extent to which ordinary epistemic practice is antipathetic to some vital aspects of such sceptical thinking. The paper describes how a gradualist analysis of knowledge can do more (...)
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  34. Michael Loughlin, Robyn Bluhm, Stephen Buetow, Ross E. G. Upshur, Maya J. Goldenberg, Kirstin Borgerson & Vikki Entwistle (2011). Virtue, Progress and Practice. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 17 (5):839-846.score: 18.0
  35. Katrin Nikoleyczik (2012). Towards Diffractive Transdisciplinarity: Integrating Gender Knowledge Into the Practice of Neuroscientific Research. Neuroethics 5 (3):231-245.score: 18.0
    The current neurosciences contribute to the construction of gender/sex to a high degree. Moreover, the subject of gender/sex differences in cognitive abilities attracts an immense public interest. At the same time, the entanglement of gender and science has been shown in many theoretical and empirical analyses. Although the body of literature is very extensive and differentiated with regards to the dimensions of ‘neuroscience of gender’ and ‘gender in neuroscience’, the feeding back of these findings into the field of neuroscience remains (...)
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  36. Christopher Dowrick & Lucy Frith (eds.) (1999). General Practice and Ethics: Uncertainty and Responsibility. Routledge.score: 18.0
    Explores the ethical issues faced by GPs in their everyday practice, addressing two central themes; the uncertainty of outcomes and effectiveness in general practice and the changing pattern of general practitioners' responsibilities.
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  37. Dorota Switula (2000). Principles of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) in Clinical Research. Science and Engineering Ethics 6 (1):71-77.score: 18.0
    Good Clinical Practice is an international quality standard for conducting trials that involve participation of human subjects. Currently, the most widely accepted international document forming the base for GCP is the ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guideline for GCP, which defines in detail the responsibilities and obligations of parties engaged in clinical research. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how compliance with GCP provides protection of the trial subjects and assures quality and credibility of the data obtained.
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  38. Weixiang Ding (2010). Taking on Proper Appearance and Putting It Into Practice: Two Different Systems of Effort in Song and Ming Neo-Confucianism. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (3):326-351.score: 18.0
    Both jianxing 践形 (taking on proper appearance) and jianxing 践行 (putting into practice) were concepts coined by Confucians before the Qin Dynasty. They largely referred to similar things. But because the Daxue 大学 ( Great Learning ) was listed as one of the Sishu 四书 (The Four Books) during the Song Dynasty, different explanations and trends in terms of the Great Learning resulted in taking on proper appearance and putting into practice becoming two different systems of efforts. The (...)
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  39. Ingemar Nordin (2000). Expert and Non-Expert Knowledge in Medical Practice. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 3 (3):295-302.score: 18.0
    One problematic aspect of the rationality of medical practice concerns the relation between expert knowledge and non-expert knowledge. In medical practice it is important to match medical knowledge with the self-knowledge of the individual patient. This paper tries to study the problem of such matching by describing a model for technological paradigms and comparing it with an ideal of technological rationality. The professionalised experts tend to base their decisions and actions mostly on medical knowledge while the rationality of (...)
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  40. Eyun-Jung Ki, Junghyuk Lee & Hong-Lim Choi (2012). Factors Affecting Ethical Practice of Public Relations Professionals Within Public Relations Firms. Asian Journal of Business Ethics 1 (2):123 - 141.score: 18.0
    Abstract This study was designed to investigate the factors affecting ethical practices of public relations professionals in public relations firms. In particular, the following organizational ethics factors were examined: (1) presence of ethics code, (2) top management support for ethical practice, (3) ethical climate, and (4) perception of the association between career success and ethical practice. Analysis revealed that the presence of an ethics code along with top management support and a non-egoistic ethical climate within public relations firms (...)
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  41. Shijun Tong (2006). “Critique” Immanent in “Practice”: New Frankfurt School and American Pragmatism. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (2):295-316.score: 18.0
    As a result of a new understanding of the relation between theory and practice, the "New Frankfurt School," with Jürgen Habermas as its major representative, highly values the philosophical tradition of American pragmatism, in contrast to the first generation Critical Theorists represented by Max Horkheimer. In Habermas, the idea of"critique" is, both substantially and methodologically, closely connected with the idea of "praxis" in the following senses: communicative action, rational argumentation, public discussion and political culture. "Critique" is thus found to (...)
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  42. David Hitchcock (2002). The Practice of Argumentative Discussion. Argumentation 16 (3):287-298.score: 18.0
    I propose some changes to the conceptions of argument and of argumentative discussion in Ralph Johnson's Manifest Rationality (2000). An argument is a discourse whose author seeks to persuade an audience to accept a thesis by producing reasons in support of it and discharging his dialectical obligations. An argumentative discussion (what Johnson calls ‘argumentation’) is a sociocultural activity of constructing, presenting, interpreting, criticizing, and revising arguments for the purpose of reaching a shared rationally supported position on some issue. Johnson's theory (...)
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  43. Bernadette Loacker & Sara Louise Muhr (2009). How Can I Become a Responsible Subject? Towards a Practice-Based Ethics of Responsiveness. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):265 - 277.score: 18.0
    Approaches to business ethics can be roughly divided into two streams: ‹codes of behavior’ and ‹forms of subjectification’, with code-oriented approaches clearly dominating the field. Through an elaboration of poststructuralist approaches to moral philosophy, this paper questions the emphasis on codes of behaviour and, thus, the conceptions of the moral and responsible subject that are inherent in rule-based approaches. As a consequence of this critique, the concept of a practice-based ‹ethics of responsiveness’ in which ethics is never final but (...)
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  44. F. Svenaeus (2000). Hermeneutics of Clinical Practice: The Question of Textuality. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (2):171-189.score: 18.0
    In this article I scrutinize the question whetherclinical medicine, in order to be considered ahermeneutical enterprise, must be thought of as areading of different texts. Three differentproposals for a definition of the concept of text inmedicine, suggested by other hermeneuticians, arediscussed. All three proposals are shown to beunsatisfying in various ways. Instead of attempting tofind a fourth definition of the concept of textsuitable to a hermeneutics of medicine, I then try toshow that the assumption that one needs to operatewith the (...)
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  45. Marcela Espinosa-Pike (1999). Business Ethics and Accounting Information. An Analysis of the Spanish Code of Best Practice. Journal of Business Ethics 22 (3):249 - 259.score: 18.0
    The main purpose of this article is to analyse one aspect of Spanish business ethics: the role of the transparency and quality of the economic and financial information given to meet the demands and requirements of shareholders. To that end we concentrate firstly on analysing the Spanish capital market and the situation of shareholders prior to the publication in February 1988 of the Code of Best Practice for Spanish Companies, drawn up by a Special Committee created at the request (...)
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  46. Melinda B. Fagan (2007). Wallace, Darwin, and the Practice of Natural History. Journal of the History of Biology 40 (4):601 - 635.score: 18.0
    There is a pervasive contrast in the early natural history writings of the co-discoverers of natural selection, Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Darwin. In his writings from South America and the Malay Archipelago (1848-1852, 1854-1862). Wallace consistently emphasized species and genera, and separated these descriptions from his rarer and briefer discussions of individual organisms. In contrast, Darwin's writings during the Beagle voyage (1831-1836) emphasized individual organisms, and mingled descriptions of individuals and groups. The contrast is explained by the different practices (...)
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  47. Peter Hucklenbroich (1998). Steps Towards a Theory of Medical Practice. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (3):215-228.score: 18.0
    This article has a threefold intention. 1. It intends to contribute to the clarification of the question in what respect medicine may be called a science and in what respect a practice. 2. It proposes a concept of clinical methodology (including clinical-ethical aspects), as a theory of medical practice that is one component of theoretical medicine. 3. It sketches an approach and some steps towards a systematic analysis of medical-clinical practice. In the first part, the position that (...)
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  48. Ingemar Nordin (1999). The Limits of Medical Practice. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (2):105-123.score: 18.0
    Should medicine be defined as the enterprise in charge of the health problems of society? If so, then any problem (individual, public, social or political) that can be reformulated as a “health problem” could serve as a goal of medicine. If, on the other hand, medicine ⁀ or medicine proper ⁀ is defined in terms of some limited goal and limited means, then some medical professionals would find themselves working in other fields than medicine. It could be of some importance (...)
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  49. Christiane Thompson (2011). Exercising Theory: A Perspective on its Practice. Studies in Philosophy and Education 30 (5):449-454.score: 18.0
    What is the task of educational theory or philosophy if it is not merely conceived as specification of philosophical doctrines in the realm of education? In my view it is the particular task of educational-philosophical theory to work critically on the historically developed cultural constructs that shape our (educational) experience. Thus, the activity that educational theorists are to perform is the critical reflection of the “limits of our world” by drawing on philosophical references and theories. In this text I describe (...)
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  50. Claudia Wiesemann (1998). The Significance of Prognosis for a Theory of Medical Practice. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (3):253-261.score: 18.0
    A typical problem of modern medicine results from the gap between scientific knowledge and its application in individual cases. Whereas scientific knowledge is generalized and impersonal information, medical practice takes place under conditions which are singular, individual and irreversible. The paper examines whether prognosis is able to bridge this gap or hiatus theoreticus. It is shown that diagnosis of a single case always relies on prognostic considerations. The individual prognosis (as distinguished from the nosologic prognosis of a certain disease) (...)
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