Search results for 'Predicate (Logic History' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  41
    Ruth Barcan Marcus (2011). C. I. Lewis on Intensional Predicate Logic: A Letter Dated May 11, 1960. History and Philosophy of Logic 32 (2):103 - 106.
    History and Philosophy of Logic, Volume 32, Issue 2, Page 103-106, May 2011.
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  2.  16
    Hugh Miller (1995). Tractarian Semantics for Predicate Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 16 (2):197-215.
    It is a little understood fact that the system of formal logic presented in Wittgenstein?s Tractatusprovides the basis for an alternative general semantics for a predicate calculus that is consistent and coherent, essentially independent of the metaphysics of logical atomism, and philosophically illuminating in its own right. The purpose of this paper is threefold: to describe the general characteristics of a Tractarian-style semantics, to defend the Tractatus system against the charge of expressive incompleteness as levelled by Robert Fogelin, and (...)
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  3.  51
    Volker Peckhaus (1999). 19th Century Logic Between Philosophy and Mathematics. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 5 (4):433-450.
    The history of modern logic is usually written as the history of mathematical or, more general, symbolic logic. As such it was created by mathematicians. Not regarding its anticipations in Scholastic logic and in the rationalistic era, its continuous development began with George Boole's The Mathematical Analysis of Logic of 1847, and it became a mathematical subdiscipline in the early 20th century. This style of presentation cuts off one eminent line of development, the philosophical development of logic, although (...)
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  4. Hugh Miller Iii (1995). Tractarian Semantics for Predicate Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 16 (2):197-215.
  5. Jeffrey Barnouw (2002). Propositional Perception: Phantasia, Predication, and Sign in Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics. University Press of America.
    The early Greek Stoics were the first philosophers to recognize the object of normal human perception as predicative or propositional in nature. Fundamentally we do not perceive qualities or things, but situations and things happening, facts. To mark their difference from Plato and Aristotle, the Stoics adopted phantasia as their word for perception.
     
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  6. Madhabendranath Mitra (1988). Language, Truth, and Predication. New Statesman Pub. Co..
     
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  7.  2
    A. W. Stewart (2009). A Debate About Anderson's Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 30 (2):157-169.
    This article is about the history of logic in Australia. Douglas Gasking (1911?1994) undertook to translate the logical terminology of John Anderson (1893?1962) into that of Ludwig Wittgenstein's (1921) Tractatus. At the time Gilbert Ryle (1900?1976), and more recently David Armstrong, recommended the result to students; but it is reasonable to have misgivings about Gasking as a guide to either Anderson or Wittgenstein. The historical interest of the debate Gasking initiated is that it yielded surprisingly little information about Anderson's (...)
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  8. Jaakko Hintikka, Reforming Logic (and Set Theory).
    1. Frege’s mistake Frege is justifiably considered the most important thinker in the development of our contemporary “modern” logic. One corollary to this historical role of Frege’s is that his mistakes are found in a magnified form in the subsequent development of logic. This paper examines one such mistake and its later history. Diagnosing this history also reveals ways of overcoming some of the limitations that Frege’s mistake has unwittingly imposed on current forms of modern logic. Frege’s mistake (...)
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  9.  36
    Ulrich Nortmann (2002). The Logic of Necessity in Aristotle--An Outline of Approaches to the Modal Syllogistic, Together with a General Account of de Dicto - and de Re -Necessity. History and Philosophy of Logic 23 (4):253-265.
    This article investigates the prospect of giving de dicto- and de re-necessity a uniform treatment. The historical starting point is a puzzle raised by Aristotle's claim, advanced in one of the modal chapters of his Prior Analytics, that universally privative apodeictic premises simply convert. As regards the Prior and the Posterior Analytics, the data suggest a representation of propositions of the type in question by doubly modally qualified formulae of modal predicate logic that display a necessity operator in two (...)
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  10.  12
    Theodore Hailperin (1997). Ontologically Neutral Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 18 (4):185-200.
    An elaboration in detail of the contention made in an earlier paper 1 that quantifier logic can be given an adequate formulation in which neither the notion of an individual nor that of a predicate appears. The logic is compatible with either an infinitistic or non-infinitistic completeness theorem.
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  11.  5
    Theodore Hailperin (1992). Herbrand Semantics, the Potential Infinite, and Ontology-Free Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 13 (1):69-90.
    This paper investigates the ontological presuppositions of quantifier logic. It is seen that the actual infinite, although present in the usual completeness proofs, is not needed for a proper semantic foundation. Additionally, quantifier logic can be given an adequate formulation in which neither the notion of individual nor that of a predicate appears.
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  12. Barry Smith (2005). Against Fantology. In Johann C. Marek & Maria E. Reicher (eds.), Experience and Analysis. HPT&ÖBV 153-170.
    The analytical philosophy of the last hundred years has been heavily influenced by a doctrine to the effect that the key to the correct understanding of reality is captured syntactically in the ‘Fa’ (or, in more sophisticated versions, in the ‘Rab’) of standard firstorder predicate logic. Here ‘F’ stands for what is general in reality and ‘a’ for what is individual. Hence “f(a)ntology”. Because predicate logic has exactly two syntactically different kinds of referring expressions—‘F’, ‘G’, ‘R’, etc., and (...)
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  13.  28
    Dwayne Hudson Mulder (1996). The Existential Assumptions of Traditional Logic. History and Philosophy of Logic 17 (1-2):141-154.
    There have been and continue to be disagreements about how to consider the traditional square of opposition and the traditional inferences of obversion, conversion, contraposition and inversion from the perspective of contemporary quantificational logic. Philosophers have made many different attempts to save traditional inferences that are invalid when they involve empty classes. I survey some of these attempts and argue that the only satisfactory way of saving all the traditional inferences is to make the existential assumption that both the subject (...)
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  14.  40
    Barry Smith (1998). An Introduction to Ontology. In Donna Peuquet, Barry Smith & Berit O. Brogaard (eds.), The Ontology of Fields: Report of the Specialist Meeting held under the auspices of the Varenius Project. National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis
    Analytical philosophy of the last one hundred years has been heavily influenced by a doctrine to the effect that one can arrive at a correct ontology by paying attention to certain superficial (syntactic) features of first-order predicate logic as conceived by Frege and Russell. More specifically, it is a doctrine to the effect that the key to the ontological structure of reality is captured syntactically in the ‘Fa’ (or, in more sophisticated versions, in the ‘Rab’) of first-order logic, where (...)
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  15.  43
    John Corcoran & Anthony Ramnauth (2013). Equality and Identity. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 19:255-256.
    Equality and identity. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic. 19 (2013) 255-6. (Coauthor: Anthony Ramnauth) Also see https://www.academia.edu/s/a6bf02aaab This article uses ‘equals’ [‘is equal to’] and ‘is’ [‘is identical to’, ‘is one and the same as’] as they are used in ordinary exact English. In a logically perfect language the oxymoron ‘the numbers 3 and 2+1 are the same number’ could not be said. Likewise, ‘the number 3 and the number 2+1 are one number’ is just as bad from a logical point (...)
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  16.  56
    Stefano Di Bella (2005). The Science of the Individual: Leibniz's Ontology of Individual Substance. Springer.
    In his well-known Discourse on Metaphysics , Leibniz puts individual substance at the basis of metaphysical building. In so doing, he connects himself to a venerable tradition. His theory of individual concept, however, breaks with another idea of the same tradition, that no account of the individual as such can be given. Contrary to what has been commonly accepted, Leibniz’s intuitions are not the mere result of the transcription of subject-predicate logic, nor of the uncritical persistence of some old (...)
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  17.  3
    Wayne Martin (2008). Theories of Judgment. Philosophical Studies 137 (1):121-134.
    The paper assesses Martin's recent logico-phenomenological account of judgment that is cast in the form of an eclectic history of judging, from Hume and Kant through the 19th century to Frege and Heidegger as well as current neuroscience. After a preliminary discussion of the complex unity and temporal modalities of judgment that draws on a reading of Titian's "Allegory of Prudence" , the remainder of the paper focuses on Martin's views on Kant's logic in general and his theory of (...)
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  18.  39
    Günter Zöller (2008). Kant and the Problem of Existential Judgment: Critical Comments on Wayne Martin's Theories of Judgment. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 137 (1):121 - 134.
    The paper assesses Martin's recent logico-phenomenological account of judgment that is cast in the form of an eclectic history of judging, from Hume and Kant through the 19th century to Frege and Heidegger as well as current neuroscience. After a preliminary discussion of the complex unity and temporal modalities of judgment that draws on a reading of Titian's "Allegory of Prudence" (National Gallery, London), the remainder of the paper focuses on Martin's views on Kant's logic in general and his (...)
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  19.  50
    John Corcoran & Hassan Masoud (2014). Existential Import Today: New Metatheorems; Historical, Philosophical, and Pedagogical Misconceptions. History and Philosophy of Logic 36 (1):39-61.
    Contrary to common misconceptions, today's logic is not devoid of existential import: the universalized conditional ∀ x [S→ P] implies its corresponding existentialized conjunction ∃ x [S & P], not in all cases, but in some. We characterize the proexamples by proving the Existential-Import Equivalence: The antecedent S of the universalized conditional alone determines whether the universalized conditional has existential import, i.e. whether it implies its corresponding existentialized conjunction.A predicate is an open formula having only x free. An existential-import (...)
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  20.  10
    John N. Martin (2002). Lukasiewicz's Many-Valued Logic and Neoplatonic Scalar Modality. History and Philosophy of Logic 23 (2):95-120.
    This paper explores the modal interpretation of ?ukasiewicz's n -truth-values, his conditional and the puzzles they generate by exploring his suggestion that by ?necessity? he intends the concept used in traditional philosophy. Scalar adjectives form families with nested extensions over the left and right fields of an ordering relation described by an associated comparative adjective. Associated is a privative negation that reverses the ?rank? of a predicate within the field. If the scalar semantics is interpreted over a totally ordered (...)
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  21.  12
    Palle Leth (2013). On Frege's Notion of Predicate Reference. History and Philosophy of Logic 34 (4):335 - 350.
    Frege's extension of his distinction between Sinn and Bedeutung to predicate terms is widely considered to be problematic. Interpreters generally assume that the notion of Bedeutung comprises the name/bearer relation as a prototype and that the extension is justified only in so far as the relation of predicate terms to their alleged referents is analogous to the relation of names to their bearers. However, interpreters have generally paid insufficient attention to Frege's own dealing with the issue. By examining (...)
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  22.  16
    Jan Woleński (1995). Ways of Dealing with Non-Existence. Grazer Philosophische Studien 50:113-127.
    Non-existence provides big problems for ontology and modest for logic. Logical problems of non-existence consist in licensing inferences in which sentences with empty terms are involved. The standard predicate logic solves this question by presupposing that every individual constant has an object to which it refers. This means that empty domains are excluded from semantics for the first-order logic. However, there is a temptation to consider logic without existential presuppositions.The ontological problem of non-existence leads to the question of the (...)
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  23.  67
    Alex Oliver & Timothy Smiley (2004). Multigrade Predicates. Mind 113 (452):609-681.
    The history of the idea of predicate is the history of its emancipation. The lesson of this paper is that there are two more steps to take. The first is to recognize that predicates need not have a fixed degree, the second that they can combine with plural terms. We begin by articulating the notion of a multigrade predicate: one that takes variably many arguments. We counter objections to the very idea posed by Peirce, Dummett's Frege, (...)
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  24.  16
    Vitor Bartoletti Sartori (2014). De Hegel a Marx: Da Inflexão Ontológica À Antítese Direta. Kriterion: Revista de Filosofia 55 (130):691-713.
    Abordaremos a crítica marxiana à noção hegeliana de "ser" , mostrando que a historicidade e a objetividade, em verdade, são determinações desta . Deste modo, intentamos mostrar que analogias entre a lógica hegeliana e a teoria marxiana podem eclipsar aspectos centrais à abordagem materialista proposta pelo autor de "O capital". Apontando a inversão hegeliana entre sujeito e predicado, Marx trata da apreensão do real que, muito embora seja traçada em diálogo com a dialética hegeliana, é também sua antítese direta . (...)
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  25.  9
    Peter M. Simons (1999). Bolzano, Brentano and Meinong: Three Austrian Realists. In Anthony O'Hear (ed.), Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement. Cambridge University Press 109-136.
    Although Brentano generally regarded himself as at heart a metaphysician, his work then and subsequently has always been dominated by the Psychology. He is rightly celebrated as the person who reintroduced the Aristotelian-Scholastic notion of intentio back into the study of the mind. Brentano's inspiration was Aristotle's theory of perception in De anima, though his terminology of intentional inexistence was medieval. For the history of the work and its position in his output may I refer to my Introduction to (...)
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  26.  1
    I. S. Narskii (1963). Formal Logic: Logical Positivism and the Concept of "Existence". Russian Studies in Philosophy 2 (1):30-48.
    In everyday speech, expressions of the type "that thing exists" are frequently employed. What do they mean? They must be dealt with at the logical level where we seek greater precision. Also at the philosophical level, the predicate "exists" stands in need of analysis, inasmuch as its meanings are associated in one way or another with the meanings of the term "reality." It might also be stated that every entity, to the degree that it is "real" in one sense (...)
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  27.  6
    Dorothea Olkowski (1986). Art and the Orientation of Thought. Research in Phenomenology 16 (1):171-184.
    Heidegger has shown how the subject-predicate structure of language and the substance-accident structure of things are both derived from the analysis of the "mere thing" into some matter that stands together with some form, a form always determined by the use to which the thing will be put. Regardless of what we try to say, discourse concerns itself with some subject related to some predicate in a manner indicating either that it is useful or that it is stripped (...)
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  28.  3
    Bo Mou (forthcoming). How the Validity of the Parallel Inference is Possible: From the Ancient Mohist Diagnose to a Modern Logical Treatment of Its Semantic-Syntactic Structure. History and Philosophy of Logic:1-24.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of how the validity of the parallel inference is possible in view of its deep semantic-syntactic structure. I first present a philosophical interpretation of the ancient Mohist treatment of the parallel inference concerning its semantic-syntactic structure. Then, to formally and accurately capture the later Mohist point in this connection for the sake of giving a general condition for the validity of the parallel inference, I suggest a modern logical treatment via (...)
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  29.  19
    Nino Cocchiarella (2001). A Conceptualist Interpretation of Lesniewski's Ontology. History and Philosophy of Logic 22 (1):29-43.
    A first-order formulation of Le?niewski's ontology is formulated and shown to be interpretable within a free first-order logic of identity extended to include nominal quantification over proper and common-name concepts. The latter theory is then shown to be interpretable in monadic second-order predicate logic, which shows that the first-order part of Le?niewski's ontology is decidable.
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  30.  8
    Gary Ebbs (2015). Satisfying Predicates: Kleene's Proof of the Hilbert–Bernays Theorem. History and Philosophy of Logic 36 (4):346-366.
    The Hilbert–Bernays Theorem establishes that for any satisfiable first-order quantificational schema S, one can write out linguistic expressions that are guaranteed to yield a true sentence of elementary arithmetic when they are substituted for the predicate letters in S. The theorem implies that if L is a consistent, fully interpreted language rich enough to express elementary arithmetic, then a schema S is valid if and only if every sentence of L that can be obtained by substituting predicates of L (...)
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  31.  38
    Peter M. Simons (1983). Class, Mass and Mereology. History and Philosophy of Logic 4 (1-2):157-180.
    LeSniewski?s systems of Ontology and Mereology, considered from a purely formal point of view, possessstriking algebraic parallels, ascan be seen in their respective relations to Boolean algebra. But there are alsoimportant divergences, above all that general Mereology is silent, where Ontology is not, on the existenceof ?atoms? (individuals). By employing plural terms, LeSniewski sought to accommodate talk of (distributive)classes, without according these an autonomous ontological status. His logic also ? like predicate logic? has no place for mass predication in (...)
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  32.  14
    David Bostock (2009). Russell's Early Theory of Denoting. History and Philosophy of Logic 30 (1):49-67.
    The article concerns the treatment of the so-called denoting phrases, of the forms ?every A?, ?any A?, ?an A? and ?some A?, in Russell's Principles of Mathematics. An initially attractive interpretation of what Russell's theory was has been proposed by P.T. Geach, in his Reference and Generality (1962). A different interpretation has been proposed by P. Dau (Notre Dame Journal, 1986). The article argues that neither of these is correct, because both credit Russell with a more thought-out theory than he (...)
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  33.  9
    John N. Martin (1995). Existence, Negation, and Abstraction in the Neoplatonic Hierarchy1. History and Philosophy of Logic 16 (2):169-196.
    The paper is a study of the logic of existence, negation, and order in the Neoplatonic tradition. The central idea is that Neoplatonists assume a logic in which the existence predicate is a comparative adjective and in which monadic predicates function as scalar adjectives that nest the background order. Various scalar predicate negations are then identifiable with various Neoplatonic negations, including a privative negation appropriate for the lower orders of reality and a hyper-negation appropriate for the higher. Reversion (...)
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  34.  35
    Gabriella Crocco (2006). Gödel on Concepts. History and Philosophy of Logic 27 (2):171-191.
    This article is an attempt to present Gödel's discussion on concepts, from 1944 to the late 1970s, in particular relation to the thought of Frege and Russell. The discussion takes its point of departure from Gödel's claim in notes on Bernay's review of ?Russell's mathematical logic?. It then retraces the historical background of the notion of intension which both Russell and Gödel use, and offers some grounds for claiming that Gödel consistently considered logic as a free-type theory of concepts, called (...)
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  35.  65
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2006). Implicit Comparatives and the Sorites. History and Philosophy of Logic 27 (1):1-8.
    A person with one dollar is poor. If a person with n dollars is poor, then so is a person with n + 1 dollars. Therefore, a person with a billion dollars is poor. True premises, valid reasoning, a false a conclusion. This is an instance of the Sorites-paradox. (There are infinitely many such paradoxes. A man with an IQ of 1 is unintelligent. If a man with an IQ of n is unintelligent, so is a man with an IQ (...)
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  36.  7
    Paul Thom (1982). Conversion of Propositions Containing Singular or Quantified Terms in Pseudo-Scotus. History and Philosophy of Logic 3 (2):129-149.
    A formal analysis is offered of Pseudo-Scotus's theory of the conversion of (i) propositions containing singular terms (including propositions with a singular term as predicate): and (ii) propositions with a quantified predicate. An attempt is made to steer a middle course between using the Aristotelian logic as a framework for the analysis, and using a Fregean framework.
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  37.  14
    Philip Hugly & Charles Sayward (1998). A Fregean Principle. History and Philosophy of Logic 19 (3):125-135.
    Frege held that the result of applying a predicate to names lacks reference if any of the names lack reference. We defend the principle against a number of plausible objections. We put forth an account of consequence for a first-order language with identity in which the principle holds.
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  38. Alan Baker (2004). Malebranche on Laws of Nature and God’s General Volitions. Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 7.
    According to Malebranche’s occasionalism, all cases of causation in the world are due to the action of God’s will. These actions are divided into "particular volitions" and "general volitions". There has been sharp disagreement in the secondary literature concerning the nature of general volitions, for Malebranche. One side claims that general volitions are volitions of wide scope which cover a multiplicity of potential situations. The other side claims that general volitions are specific but fall under the scope of broader laws (...)
     
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  39.  13
    Riccardo Strobino (2015). Avicenna on Knowledge , Certainty , Cause and the Relative 1. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (3):426-446.
    In his Kitāb al-Burhān, Avicenna discusses a theoretical framework broadly inspired by Aristotle's Posterior Analytics which brings together logic, epistemology and metaphysics. One of the central questions explored in the book is the problem of the relation between knowledge, certainty and causal explanation. Burhān 1.8, in particular, is devoted to the analysis of how certainty comes about in causal as opposed to non-causal contexts. The distinction is understood in Avicenna's system as one between cases in which the conclusion of an (...)
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  40.  32
    James McGray (2006). The Power and the Limits of Wittgenstein's N Operator. History and Philosophy of Logic 27 (2):143-169.
    The power of Wittgenstein's N operator described in the Tractatus is that every proposition which can be expressed in the Russellian variant of the predicate calculus familiar to him has an equivalent proposition in an extended variant of his N operator notation. This remains true if the bound variables are understood in the usual inclusive sense or in Wittgenstein's restrictive exclusive sense. The problematic limit of Wittgenstein's N operator comes from his claim that symbols alone reveal the logical status (...)
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  41.  25
    Juan Manuel Campos Benítez (2015). The Medieval Octagon of Opposition for Sentences with Quantified Predicates. History and Philosophy of Logic 35 (4):354-368.
    The traditional Square of Opposition consists of four sentence types. Two are universal and two particular; two are affirmative and two negative. Examples, where ‘S’ and ‘P’ designate the subject and the predicate, are: ‘every S is P’, ‘no S is P’, ‘some S is P’ and ‘some S is not P’. Taking the usual sentences of the square of opposition, quantifying over their predicates exhibits non-standard sentence forms. These sentences may be combined into non-standard Squares of Opposition , (...)
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  42.  9
    Gregory Landini (2000). Quantification Theory in *9 of Principia Mathematica. History and Philosophy of Logic 21 (1):57-77.
    This paper examines the quantification theory of *9 of Principia Mathematica. The focus of the discussion is not the philosophical role that section *9 plays in Principia's full ramified type-theory. Rather, the paper assesses the system of *9 as a quantificational theory for the ordinary predicate calculus. The quantifier-free part of the system of *9 is examined and some misunderstandings of it are corrected. A flaw in the system of *9 is discovered, but it is shown that with a (...)
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  43.  13
    H. C. M. de Swart (1992). Spreads or Choice Sequences? History and Philosophy of Logic 13 (2):203-213.
    Intuitionistically. a set has to be given by a finite construction or by a construction-project generating the elements of the set in the course of time. Quantification is only meaningful if the range of each quantifier is a well-circumscribed set. Thinking upon the meaning of quantification, one is led to insights?in particular, the so-called continuity principles?which are surprising from a classical point of view. We believe that such considerations lie at the basis of Brouwer?s reconstruction of mathematics. The predicate (...)
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  44.  10
    Jan Wole'nski (1986). Reism and Le'sniewski's Ontology. History and Philosophy of Logic 7 (2):167-176.
    This paper examines relations between reism, the metaphysical theory invented by Tadeusz Kotarbi?ski, and Le?niewski's calculus of names. It is shown that Kotarbi?ski's interpretation of common nouns as genuine names, i.e. names of things is essentially based on Le?niewski's logical ideas. It is pointed out that Le?niewskian semantics offers better prospects for nominalism than does semantics of the standard firstorder predicate calculus.
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