Search results for 'Primitive Terms' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Wolfgang Lenzen (1991). Leibniz on Privative and Primitive Terms. Theoria 6 (1):83-96.score: 180.0
    We first present an edition of the manuscript LH VII, B 2, 39 in which Leibniz develops a new formalism in order to give rigorous definitions of positive, of privative, and of primitive terms.This formalism involves a symbolic treatment of conceptual quantification which differs quite considerably from Leibniz’s “standard” theory of “indefinite concepts” as developed, e.g., in the “General Inquirles” In the subsequent commentary we give an interpretation and a critical evaluation of Leibniz’s symbolic apparatus. It turns out (...)
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  2. Czesław Lejewski (1968). A Propositional Calculus in Which Three Mutually Undefinable Functors Are Used as Primitive Terms. Studia Logica 22 (1):17 - 50.score: 150.0
  3. Danie Strauss (2013). Primitive Terms and the Limits of Conceptual Understanding. South African Journal of Philosophy 32 (2):173-185.score: 150.0
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  4. Klaus‐Hilmar Sprenger (1997). Some Hierarchies of Primitive Recursive Functions on Term Algebras. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 43 (2):251-286.score: 70.0
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  5. T. Parent (2013). In the Mental Fiction, Mental Fictionalism is Fictitious. The Monist 96 (4):605-621.score: 60.0
    Here I explore the prospects for fictionalism about the mental, modeled after fictionalism about possible worlds. Mental fictionalism holds that the mental states posited by folk psychology do not exist, yet that some sentences of folk psychological discourse are true. This is accomplished by construing truths of folk psychology as “truths according to the mentalistic fiction.” After formulating the view, I identify five ways that the view appears self-refuting. Moreover, I argue that this cannot be fixed by semantic ascent or (...)
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  6. John T. Roberts, The Semantic Novelty of Theoretical Terms.score: 60.0
    Often when a new scientific theory is introduced, new terms are introduced along with it. Some of these new terms might be given explicit definitions using only terms that were in currency prior to the introduction of the theory. Some of them might be defined using other new terms introduced with the theory. But it frequently happens that the standard formulations of a theory do not define some of the new terms at all; these (...) are adopted as primitives. The audience is expected to come to grasp the meanings of the primitive terms by learning the role they play in the theory and its applications. I shall call such new and undefined terms, as well as new terms that are defined using them, theoretical terms. 1 If T is a theory, the T-terms are the theoretical terms introduced by T. A theoretical term need not be a word new to human language; it might be an old term that is employed in a new and specialized sense, not equivalent to any of its familiar senses; e.g. “color” in quantum chromodynamics. (shrink)
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  7. D. F. M. Strauss (2010). The Significance of a Non-Reductionist Ontology for the Discipline of Mathematics: A Historical and Systematic Analysis. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 20 (1):19-52.score: 60.0
    A Christian approach to scholarship, directed by the central biblical motive of creation, fall and redemption and guided by the theoretical idea that God subjected all of creation to His Law-Word, delimiting and determining the cohering diversity we experience within reality, in principle safe-guards those in the grip of this ultimate commitment and theoretical orientation from absolutizing or deifying anything within creation. In this article my over-all approach is focused on the one-sided legacy of mathematics, starting with Pythagorean arithmeticism (“everything (...)
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  8. Czesław Lejewski (1989). Formalization of Functionally Complete Propositional Calculus with the Functor of Implication as the Only Primitive Term. Studia Logica 48 (4):479 - 494.score: 60.0
    The most difficult problem that Leniewski came across in constructing his system of the foundations of mathematics was the problem of defining definitions, as he used to put it. He solved it to his satisfaction only when he had completed the formalization of his protothetic and ontology. By formalization of a deductive system one ought to understand in this context the statement, as precise and unambiguous as possible, of the conditions an expression has to satisfy if it is added to (...)
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  9. Ludwik Borkowski (1957). Systems of the Propositional and of the Functional Calculus Based on One Primitive Term. Studia Logica 6 (1):7 - 55.score: 60.0
  10. Czesław Lejewski (1977). Systems of Leśniewski's Ontology with the Functor of Weak Inclusion as the Only Primitive Term. Studia Logica 36 (4):323-349.score: 60.0
  11. Andrew J. Weigert (1975). Substantival Self: A Primitive Term for a Sociological Psychology. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 5 (1):43-62.score: 60.0
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  12. K. Hałkowska (1967). A Note on the System of Propositional Calculus with Primitive Rule of Extensionality. Studia Logica 20 (1):150-150.score: 60.0
    The present paper deals with a systemS of propositional calculus, conjunction, equivalence and falsum being its primitive terms.The only primitive rule inS is the rule of extensionality defined by the scheme: $\frac{{E\alpha \beta ,\Phi (\alpha )}}{{\Phi (\beta )}}$.
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  13. Susan Schneider (forthcoming). The Nature of Primitive Symbols in the Language of Thought. Mind and Language.score: 54.0
    This paper provides a theory of the nature of symbols in the language of thought (LOT). My discussion consists in three parts. In part one, I provide three arguments for the individuation of primitive symbols in terms of total computational role. The first of these arguments claims that Classicism requires that primitive symbols be typed in this manner; no other theory of typing will suffice. The second argument contends that without this manner of symbol individuation, there will (...)
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  14. Dale Jacquette (2011). Intentionality as a Conceptually Primitive Relation. Acta Analytica 26 (1):15-35.score: 54.0
    If conceptual analysis is possible for finite thinkers, then there must ultimately be a distinction between complex and primitive or irreducible and unanalyzable concepts, by which complex concepts are analyzed as relations among primitive concepts. This investigation considers the advantages of categorizing intentionality as a primitive rather than analyzable concept, in both a historical Brentanian context and in terms of contemporary philosophy of mind. Arguments in support of intentionality as a primitive relation are evaluated relative (...)
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  15. Adrian Haddock (2012). Meaning, Justification, And'Primitive Normativity'. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 86 (1):147-174.score: 54.0
    I critically discuss two claims which Hannah Ginsborg makes on behalf of her account of meaning in terms of ‘primitive normativity’(2011; 2012): first, that it avoids the sceptical regress articulated by Kripke's Wittgenstein; second, that it makes sense of the thought—central to Kripke's Wittgenstein—that ‘meaning is normative’, in a way which shows this thought not only to be immune from recent criticisms but also to undermine reductively naturalistic theories of content. In the course of the discussion, I consider (...)
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  16. Timothy J. Nulty (2007). Primitive Disclosive Alethism. Metaphysica 8 (1):1-15.score: 54.0
    The contemporary debate about truth is polarized between deflationists and those who offer robust accounts of truth. I present a theory of truth called ‘Primitive Disclosive Alethism’ that occupies the middle ground between these two extremes. Contrary to deflationist claims, truth has a nature beyond its merely linguistic, expressive function. Truth is objective and non-epistemic, yet cannot be characterized in terms of correspondence. Primitive Disclosive Alethism offers a metaphysically satisfying explanation of our correspondence intuitions, while explaining why (...)
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  17. MB Kac (1997). The Proper Treatment of Singular Terms in Ordinary English. Mind 106 (424):661-696.score: 54.0
    A free logical analysis of singular terms couched in terms of the semantic theory of Keenan and Faltz (1985) is shown to avoid problems with both Frege's and Russell's treatments. At its heart is the proposal of Keenan and Faltz to reverse the usual mode-theoretic conception of individuals and properties, taking the latter as primitive and the former as derived therefrom. A simple extension of the notion 'property' is then shown (...)
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  18. Ken Warmbrod (1992). Primitive Representation and Misrepresentation. Topoi 11 (1):89-101.score: 54.0
    This paper develops a statistical approach to the problem of primitive representation. Representation of the kind commonly attributed to litmus paper, fuel gauges and tree rings occurs when, so to speak, there is a sufficiently good correlation between two variables. The fundamental distinction between misrepresentation and non-representation is explained in terms of the notion of an informationally useful correlation. The paper further argues that the statistical approach satisfactorily resolves well-known puzzles such as Fodor's disjunction problem.
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  19. Raymond D. Gumb (2002). The Lazy Logic of Partial Terms. Journal of Symbolic Logic 67 (3):1065-1077.score: 54.0
    The Logic of Partial Terms LPT is a strict negative free logic that provides an economical framework for developing many traditional mathematical theories having partial functions. In these traditional theories, all functions and predicates are strict. For example, if a unary function (predicate) is applied to an undefined argument, the result is undefined (respectively, false). On the other hand, every practical programming language incorporates at least one nonstrict or lazy construct, such as the if-then-else, but nonstrict functions cannot be (...)
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  20. Herbert Hochberg (1978). Nominalism, General Terms, and Predication. The Monist 61 (3):460-475.score: 54.0
    Platonism, in its most recent and seemingly most cogent form, has rested on (a) the supposed indispensability of descriptive predicate terms in so-called "improved," or "clarified," or "perspicuous" languages; (b) the distinction between subject and predicate terms based on the asymmetry of the predication relation; and (c) the claimed ontological significance of the different categories of terms implied by (a) and (b). Nominalism, in one of its most pervasive recent forms, has involved the denial of the criterion (...)
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  21. Ken Warmbrōd (1992). Primitive Representation and Misrepresentation. Topoi 11 (1):89-101.score: 54.0
    This paper develops a statistical approach to the problem of primitive representation. Representation of the kind commonly attributed to litmus paper, fuel gauges and tree rings occurs when, so to speak, there is a sufficiently good correlation between two variables. The fundamental distinction between misrepresentation and non-representation is explained in terms of the notion of an informationally useful correlation. The paper further argues that the statistical approach satisfactorily resolves well known puzzles such as Fodor's disjunction problem.
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  22. Peter Smith, Expressing and Capturing the Primitive Recursive Functions.score: 54.0
    The last Episode wasn’t about logic or formal theories at all: it was about common-or-garden arithmetic and the informal notion of computability. We noted that addition can be defined in terms of repeated applications of the successor function. Multiplication can be defined in terms of repeated applications of addition. The exponential and factorial functions can be defined, in different ways, in terms of repeated applications of multiplication. There’s already a pattern emerging here! The main task in the (...)
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  23. Alessandro Salice (forthcoming). There Are No Primitive We-Intentions. Review of Philosophy and Psychology:1-21.score: 54.0
    John Searle’s account of collective intentions in action appears to have all the theoretical pros of the non-reductivist view on collective intentionality without the metaphysical cons of committing to the existence of group minds. According to Searle, when we collectively intend to do something together, we intend to cooperate in order to reach a collective goal. Intentions in the first-person plural form therefore have a particular psychological form or mode, for the we-intender conceives of his or her intended actions as (...)
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  24. Alexander P. Kreuzer (2012). Primitive Recursion and the Chain Antichain Principle. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 53 (2):245-265.score: 54.0
    Let the chain antichain principle (CAC) be the statement that each partial order on $\mathbb{N}$ possesses an infinite chain or an infinite antichain. Chong, Slaman, and Yang recently proved using forcing over nonstandard models of arithmetic that CAC is $\Pi^1_1$-conservative over $\text{RCA}_0+\Pi^0_1\text{-CP}$ and so in particular that CAC does not imply $\Sigma^0_2$-induction. We provide here a different purely syntactical and constructive proof of the statement that CAC (even together with WKL) does not imply $\Sigma^0_2$-induction. In detail we show using a (...)
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  25. R. O. Gandy (1959). Review: Ludwik Borkowski, Systems of the Propositional and of the Functional Calculus Based on One Primitive Term. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 24 (3):242-243.score: 50.0
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  26. William R. Stirton (2012). How to Assign Ordinal Numbers to Combinatory Terms with Polymorphic Types. Archive for Mathematical Logic 51 (5-6):475-501.score: 48.0
    The article investigates a system of polymorphically typed combinatory logic which is equivalent to Gödel’s T. A notion of (strong) reduction is defined over terms of this system and it is proved that the class of well-formed terms is closed under both bracket abstraction and reduction. The main new result is that the number of contractions needed to reduce a term to normal form is computed by an ε 0-recursive function. The ordinal assignments used to obtain this result (...)
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  27. E. A. Cichon & Andreas Weiermann (1997). Term Rewriting Theory for the Primitive Recursive Functions. Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 83 (3):199-223.score: 40.0
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  28. Richard Montague (1960). Review: Herbert A. Simon, Definable Terms and Primitives in Axiom Systems. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 25 (4):355-356.score: 40.0
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  29. Berit Brogaard (2011). Primitive Knowledge Disjunctivism. Philosophical Issues 21 (1):45-73.score: 36.0
    I argue that McDowell-style disjunctivism, as the position is often cashed out, goes wrong because it takes the good epistemic standing of veridical perception to be grounded in “manifest” facts which do not necessarily satisfy any epistemic constraints. A better form of disjunctivism explains the difference between good and bad cases in terms of epistemic constraints that the states satisfy. This view allows us to preserve McDowell’s thesis that good cases make facts manifest, as long as manifest facts must (...)
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  30. Antonio Vassallo & Michael Esfeld (2014). A Proposal for a Bohmian Ontology of Quantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics (1):1-18.score: 36.0
    The paper shows how the Bohmian approach to quantum physics can be applied to develop a clear and coherent ontology of non-perturbative quantum gravity. We suggest retaining discrete objects as the primitive ontology also when it comes to a quantum theory of space-time and therefore focus on loop quantum gravity. We conceive atoms of space, represented in terms of nodes linked by edges in a graph, as the primitive ontology of the theory and show how a non-local (...)
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  31. Jamin Asay (2013). Primitive Truth. Dialectica 67 (4):503-519.score: 36.0
    Conceptual primitivism is the view that truth is among our most basic and fundamental concepts. It cannot be defined, analyzed, or reduced into concepts that are more fundamental. Primitivism is opposed to both traditional attempts at defining truth (in terms of correspondence, coherence, or utility) and deflationary theories that argue that the notion of truth is exhausted by means of the truth schema. Though primitivism might be thought of as a view of last resort, I believe that the view (...)
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  32. Richard Holton (forthcoming). Primitive Self-Ascription: Lewis on the De Se. In Barry Loewer & Jonathan Schaffer (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to David Lewis. Blackwell.score: 36.0
    There are two parts to Lewis's account of the de se. First there is the idea that the objects of de se thought (and, by extension of de dicto thought too) are properties, not propositions. This is the idea that is center-stage in Lewis's discussion. Second there is the idea that the relation that thinkers bear to these properties is that of self-ascription. It is crucial to LewisÕs account that this is understood as a fundamental, unanalyzable, notion: self-ascription of a (...)
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  33. C. Taylor (1999). Sympathy. Journal of Ethics 3 (1):73-87.score: 36.0
    In this article I examine an example of sympathy -- the actions of one woman who rescued Jews during their persecution in Nazi Europe. I argue that this woman''s account of her actions here suggests that sympathy is a primitive response to the suffering of another. By primitive here I mean: first, that these responses are immediate and unthinking; and second, that these responses are explanatorily basic, that they cannot be explained in terms of some more fundamental (...)
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  34. Kordula Świętorzecka (2008). The Formalised Conception of Substantial Change in Terms of Some Modal Sentential Calculus (Logic LCG). Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 13:113-120.score: 36.0
    The intention of the presented paper is to establish within a certain modal semantic based on the situational ontology a description of the phenomenon of substantial change, which originally had been formulated within Aristotelian metaphysics – a theory based in reistic ontology. We understand substantial changesto be such changes whose subjects are primary substances (πρωται ουσι αι ) conceived as actually existing individual essences. The analysed changeability is of an existential character - it pertains to the existence of those substances. (...)
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  35. Sören Stenlund (1972). Combinators, -Terms and Proof Theory. Dordrecht,D. Reidel.score: 36.0
    The main aim of Schonfinkel's paper was methodological: to reduce the primitive logical notions to as few and definite notions as possible. ...
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  36. William R. Stirton (2013). A Decidable Theory of Type Assignment. Archive for Mathematical Logic 52 (5-6):631-658.score: 36.0
    This article investigates a theory of type assignment (assigning types to lambda terms) called ETA which is intermediate in strength between the simple theory of type assignment and strong polymorphic theories like Girard’s F (Proofs and types. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989). It is like the simple theory and unlike F in that the typability and type-checking problems are solvable with respect to ETA. This is proved in the article along with three other main results: (1) all primitive (...)
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  37. James Robert Brown (1998). What is a Definition? Foundations of Science 3 (1):111-132.score: 30.0
    According to the standard view of definition, all defined terms are mere stipulations, based on a small set of primitive terms. After a brief review of the Hilbert-Frege debate, this paper goes on to challenge the standard view in a number of ways. Examples from graph theory, for example, suggest that some key definitions stem from the way graphs are presented diagramatically and do not fit the standard view. Lakatos's account is also discussed, since he provides further (...)
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  38. J. Baird Callicott (1986). The Metaphysical Implications of Ecology. Environmental Ethics 8 (4):301-316.score: 30.0
    Although ecology is neither a universal nor foundational science, it has metaphysical implications because it profoundly alters traditional Western concepts of terrestrial nature and human being. I briefly sketch the received metaphysical foundations of the modem world view, set out a historical outline of an emerging ecological world view, and identify its principal metaphysical implications. Among these the most salient are a field ontology, the ontological subordination of matter to energy, internal relations, and systemic (as opposed to oceanic) holism. I (...)
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  39. Arianna Betti (2010). Leśniewski's Characteristica Universalis. Synthese 174 (2):295-314.score: 30.0
    Leśniewski’s systems deviate greatly from standard logic in some basic features. The deviant aspects are rather well known, and often cited among the reasons why Leśniewski’s work enjoys little recognition. This paper is an attempt to explain why those aspects should be there at all. Leśniewski built his systems inspired by a dream close to Leibniz’s characteristica universalis: a perfect system of deductive theories encoding our knowledge of the world, based on a perfect language. My main claim is that Leśniewski (...)
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  40. Kim Sterelny (1981). Davidson on Truth and Reference. Southern Journal of Philosophy 19 (1):95-116.score: 30.0
    Davidson argues against the view that a theory of truth consists of two parts (a) a (reductive) theory of reference for the primitive terms of the language, And (b) a theory of how the semantics of complex expressions depends on the semantics of simple expressions. In this paper I argue that 1) davidson's case against reductive theories of reference fails: theories of reference of the sort defended by (e.G.,) causal theorists are possible, And 2) davidson's attempts to defend (...)
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  41. David J. Stump (2007). The Independence of the Parallel Postulate and Development of Rigorous Consistency Proofs. History and Philosophy of Logic 28 (1):19-30.score: 30.0
    I trace the development of arguments for the consistency of non-Euclidean geometries and for the independence of the parallel postulate, showing how the arguments become more rigorous as a formal conception of geometry is introduced. I analyze the kinds of arguments offered by Jules Hoüel in 1860-1870 for the unprovability of the parallel postulate and for the existence of non-Euclidean geometries, especially his reaction to the publication of Beltrami’s seminal papers, showing that Beltrami was much more concerned with the existence (...)
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  42. Jim Edwards (2003). Reduction and Tarski's Definition of Logical Consequence. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 44 (1):49-62.score: 30.0
    In his classic 1936 paper Tarski sought to motivate his definition of logical consequence by appeal to the inference form: P(0), P(1), . . ., P(n), . . . therefore ∀nP(n). This is prima facie puzzling because these inferences are seemingly first-order and Tarski knew that Gödel had shown first-order proof methods to be complete, and because ∀nP(n) is not a logical consequence of P(0), P(1), . . ., P(n), . . . by Taski's proposed definition. An attempt to resolve (...)
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  43. Ansten Klev (2011). Dedekind and Hilbert on the Foundations of the Deductive Sciences. Review of Symbolic Logic 4 (4):645-681.score: 30.0
    We offer an interpretation of the words and works of Richard Dedekind and the David Hilbert of around 1900 on which they are held to entertain diverging views on the structure of a deductive science. Firstly, it is argued that Dedekind sees the beginnings of a science in concepts, whereas Hilbert sees such beginnings in axioms. Secondly, it is argued that for Dedekind, the primitive terms of a science are substantive terms whose sense is to be conveyed (...)
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  44. William Sites (2000). Primitive Globalization? State and Locale in Neoliberal Global Engagement. Sociological Theory 18 (1):121-144.score: 30.0
    Drawing widely from sociology, political science, and urban studies, this article introduces the term "primitive globalization" in order to address issues of state and governance for localities that globalize within a national context. Suggested by the discussion of primitive accumulation in Marx's Capital, this conceptual frame highlights the ways in which states neither circumvented by globalization nor resistant to it may facilitate neoliberal globalization by "separating" or disembedding social actors from conditions that otherwise impede short-term economic activity. This (...)
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  45. Francis Heylighen (1999). Advantages and Limitations of Formal Expression. Foundations of Science 4 (1):25-56.score: 30.0
    Testing the validity of knowledge requires formal expression of that knowledge. Formality of an expression is defined as the invariance, under changes of context, of the expression's meaning, i.e. the distinction which the expression represents. This encompasses both mathematical formalism and operational determination. The main advantages of formal expression are storability, universal communicability, and testability. They provide a selective edge in the Darwinian competition between ideas. However, formality can never be complete, as the context cannot be eliminated. Primitive (...), observation set-ups, and background conditions are inescapable parts of formal or operational definitions, that all refer to a context beyond the formal system. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Gödel's Theorem provide special cases of this more universal limitation principle. Context-dependent expressions, on the other hand, have the benefit of being more flexible, intuitive and direct, and putting less strain on memory. It is concluded that formality is not an absolute property, but a context-dependent one: different people will apply different amounts of formality in different situations or for different purposes. Some recent computational and empirical studies of formality and contexts illustrate the emerging scientific investigation of this dependence. (shrink)
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  46. Eduardo H. Flichman (2001). Newton's Dynamics, Kuhn, and Incommensurability. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 2001:89-96.score: 30.0
    In this paper I will attempt to show how incommensurability between theories is usually manifested, framing this notion in a sense similar to the Kuhnian one in certain aspects, though very different in others. Further, I will show that it is possible, and desirable, to rid Kuhn’s thesis of the idea that in many important theories a certain part of the theoretical nucleus partially contains in a more or less vague sense, synthetic a priori or even analytic statements. Alternatively, I (...)
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  47. John Roberts (2001). Introduction. Business Ethics Quarterly 11 (1):67-71.score: 30.0
    Often when a new scientific theory is introduced, new terms are introduced along with it. Some of these new terms might be given explicit definitions using only terms that were in currency prior to the introduction of the theory. Some of them might be defined using other new terms introduced with the theory. But it frequently happens that the standard formulations of a theory do not define some of the new terms at all; these (...) are adopted as primitives. The audience is expected to come to grasp the meanings of the primitive terms by learning the role they play in the theory and its applications. I shall call such new and undefined terms, as well as new terms that are defined using them, theoretical terms. [1] If T is a theory, the T-terms are the theoretical terms introduced by T. A theoretical term need not be a word new to human language; it might be an old term that is employed in a new and specialized sense, not equivalent to any of its familiar senses; e.g. “color” in quantum chromodynamics. (shrink)
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  48. W. A. Pogorzelski (1962). The Adequacy of the Theories of Deductive Systems with Respect to Sentential Calculi. Studia Logica 13 (1):129-131.score: 30.0
    The sentential calculiR, under discussion, are axiomatizable and implication is among their primitive terms. The modus ponens and the rule of substitution are their primitive rules. ByS r is denoted the set of sentences obtained from the formulae of the calculusR by substituting sentences of a given language for all variables. The variablesx, y, z ... represent the elements of the setS r , the variablesX, Y, Z ... represent the subsets ofS R . The formulacxy designates (...)
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