Search results for 'Principle of Maximum Entropy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Stefan Lukits (2013). The Principle of Maximum Entropy and a Problem in Probability Kinematics. Synthese:1-23.score: 306.0
    Sometimes we receive evidence in a form that standard conditioning (or Jeffrey conditioning) cannot accommodate. The principle of maximum entropy (MAXENT) provides a unique solution for the posterior probability distribution based on the intuition that the information gain consistent with assumptions and evidence should be minimal. Opponents of objective methods to determine these probabilities prominently cite van Fraassen’s Judy Benjamin case to undermine the generality of maxent. This article shows that an intuitive approach to Judy Benjamin’s case (...)
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  2. J. Uffink (1996). The Constraint Rule of the Maximum Entropy Principle. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 27 (1):47-79.score: 202.5
    The principle of maximum entropy is a method for assigning values to probability distributions on the basis of partial information. In usual formulations of this and related methods of inference one assumes that this partial information takes the form of a constraint on allowed probability distributions. In practical applications, however, the information consists of empirical data. A constraint rule is then employed to construct constraints on probability distributions out of these data. Usually one adopts the rule that (...)
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  3. John F. Cyranski (1978). Analysis of the Maximum Entropy Principle “Debate”. Foundations of Physics 8 (5-6):493-506.score: 201.0
    Jaynes's maximum entropy principle (MEP) is analyzed by considering in detail a recent controversy. Emphasis is placed on the inductive logical interpretation of “probability” and the concept of “total knowledge.” The relation of the MEP to relative frequencies is discussed, and a possible realm of its fruitful application is noted.
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  4. Abner Shimony (1985). The Status of the Principle of Maximum Entropy. Synthese 63 (1):35 - 53.score: 153.0
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  5. Raghav Ramachandran, Arthur Ramer & Abhaya C. Nayak (2012). Probabilistic Belief Contraction. Minds and Machines 22 (4):325-351.score: 153.0
    Probabilistic belief contraction has been a much neglected topic in the field of probabilistic reasoning. This is due to the difficulty in establishing a reasonable reversal of the effect of Bayesian conditionalization on a probabilistic distribution. We show that indifferent contraction, a solution proposed by Ramer to this problem through a judicious use of the principle of maximum entropy, is a probabilistic version of a full meet contraction. We then propose variations of indifferent contraction, using both the (...)
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  6. J. E. Shore & R. W. Johnson (1980). Axiomatic Derivation of the Principle of Maximum Entropy and the Principle of Minimum Cross-Entropy. Ieee Transactions on Information Theory:26-37.score: 153.0
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  7. H. Haken (1993). Application of the Maximum Entropy Principle to Nonlinear Systems Far From Equilibrium. In E. T. Jaynes, Walter T. Grandy & Peter W. Milonni (eds.), Physics and Probability: Essays in Honor of Edwin T. Jaynes. Cambridge University Press. 239.score: 151.5
     
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  8. J. Uffink (1995). Can the Maximum Entropy Principle Be Explained as a Consistency Requirement? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 26 (3):223-261.score: 139.5
    The principle of maximum entropy is a general method to assign values to probability distributions on the basis of partial information. This principle, introduced by Jaynes in 1957, forms an extension of the classical principle of insufficient reason. It has been further generalized, both in mathematical formulation and in intended scope, into the principle of maximum relative entropy or of minimum information. It has been claimed that these principles are singled out as (...)
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  9. Jürgen Landes & Jon Williamson, Objective Bayesianism and the Maximum Entropy Principle.score: 135.0
    Objective Bayesian epistemology invokes three norms: the strengths of our beliefs should be probabilities, they should be calibrated to our evidence of physical probabilities, and they should otherwise equivocate sufficiently between the basic propositions that we can express. The three norms are sometimes explicated by appealing to the maximum entropy principle, which says that a belief function should be a probability function, from all those that are calibrated to evidence, that has maximum entropy. However, the (...)
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  10. P. Hájíček (2009). Quantum Model of Classical Mechanics: Maximum Entropy Packets. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 39 (9):1072-1096.score: 124.5
    In a previous paper, a statistical method of constructing quantum models of classical properties has been described. The present paper concludes the description by turning to classical mechanics. The quantum states that maximize entropy for given averages and variances of coordinates and momenta are called ME packets. They generalize the Gaussian wave packets. A non-trivial extension of the partition-function method of probability calculus to quantum mechanics is given. Non-commutativity of quantum variables limits its usefulness. Still, the general form of (...)
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  11. R. W. Spekkens & J. E. Sipe (2001). A Modal Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics Based on a Principle of Entropy Minimization. Foundations of Physics 31 (10):1431-1464.score: 100.5
    Within many approaches to the interpretation of quantum mechanics, especially modal interpretations, one singles out a particular decomposition of the state vector in order to fix the properties that are well-defined for the system. We present a novel proposal for this preferred decomposition. Given a distinguished factorization of the Hilbert space, it is the decomposition that minimizes the Ingarden–Urbanik entropy from among all product decompositions with respect to the distinguished factorization. We incorporate this choice of preferred decomposition into a (...)
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  12. Shunlong Luo (2002). Maximum Shannon Entropy, Minimum Fisher Information, and an Elementary Game. Foundations of Physics 32 (11):1757-1772.score: 95.3
    We formulate an elementary statistical game which captures the essence of some fundamental quantum experiments such as photon polarization and spin measurement. We explore and compare the significance of the principle of maximum Shannon entropy and the principle of minimum Fisher information in solving such a game. The solution based on the principle of minimum Fisher information coincides with the solution based on an invariance principle, and provides an informational explanation of Malus' law for (...)
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  13. Milan M. Ćirković (2002). Anthropic Fluctuations Vs. Weak Anthropic Principle. Foundations of Science 7 (4):453-463.score: 93.0
    A modern assessment of the classical Boltzmann-Schuetz argument for large-scale entropy fluctuations as the origin of our observable cosmological domain is given.The emphasis is put on the central implication of this picture which flatly contradicts the weak anthropic principle as an epistemological statement about the universe. Therefore, to associate this picture with the anthropic principle as it is usually done is unwarranted. In particular, Feynman's criticism of theanthropic principle based on the entropy-fluctuation picture is a (...)
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  14. A. Weale (1979). Statistical Lives and the Principle of Maximum Benefit. Journal of Medical Ethics 5 (4):185-195.score: 90.8
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  15. D. J. Scalapino (1993). A Look Back: Early Applications of Maximum Entropy Estimation to Quantum Statistical Mechanics. In E. T. Jaynes, Walter T. Grandy & Peter W. Milonni (eds.), Physics and Probability: Essays in Honor of Edwin T. Jaynes. Cambridge University Press. 9.score: 90.8
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  16. Jeff Paris (1998). Common Sense and Maximum Entropy. Synthese 117 (1):75-93.score: 90.0
    This paper concerns the question of how to draw inferences common sensically from uncertain knowledge. Since the early work of Shore and Johnson (1980), Paris and Vencovská (1990), and Csiszár (1989), it has been known that the Maximum Entropy Inference Process is the only inference process which obeys certain common sense principles of uncertain reasoning. In this paper we consider the present status of this result and argue that within the rather narrow context in which we work this (...)
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  17. Christopher Manning, Enriching the Knowledge Sources Used in a Maximum Entropy Part-of-Speech Tagger.score: 88.5
    Kristina Toutanova Christopher D. Manning Dept of Computer Science Depts of Computer Science and Linguistics Gates Bldg 4A, 353 Serra Mall Gates Bldg 4A, 353 Serra Mall Stanford, CA 94305–9040, USA Stanford, CA 94305–9040, USA kristina@cs.stanford.edu manning@cs.stanford.edu..
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  18. Brian Skyrms (1985). Maximum Entropy Inference as a Special Case of Conditionalization. Synthese 63 (1):55 - 74.score: 85.5
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  19. Greg Novack (2010). A Defense of the Principle of Indifference. Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (6):655-678.score: 84.0
    The principle of indifference (hereafter ‘Poi’) says that if one has no more reason to believe A than B (and vice versa ), then one ought not to believe A more than B (nor vice versa ). Many think it’s demonstrably false despite its intuitive plausibility, because of a particular style of thought experiment that generates counterexamples. Roger White ( 2008 ) defends Poi by arguing that its antecedent is false in these thought experiments. Like White I believe Poi, (...)
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  20. Patricia Kauark-Leite (2009). The Transcendental Role of the Principle of Anticipations of Perception in Quantum Mechanics. In Michel Bitbol, Jean Petitot & Pierre Kerszberg (eds.), CONSTITUTING OBJECTIVITY The Western Ontario Series in Philosophy of Science.score: 84.0
    The aim of this work is to analyse the diffrerences between the formal structure of anticipation of perception in classical and in quantum context. I argue that a transcendental point of view can be supported in quantum context if objectivity is defined by an invariant anticipative structure, which has only a predictive character. The classical objectivity, which defined a set of properties having a descriptive meaning must be abandoned in quantum context. I will focus my analysis on Kant's Principle (...)
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  21. Domènec Melé (2005). Exploring the Principle of Subsidiarity in Organisational Forms. Journal of Business Ethics 60 (3):293 - 305.score: 84.0
    The paper starts with a case study of a medium-sized company in which a strong and successful change in the organisational form and job design took place. A bureaucratic organisation with highly-specialised jobs was converted into a new organisation in which employees became much more autonomous in managing their own work. This not only entailed new techniques and managerial systems but also a new anthropological vision. Bureaucratic rules were reduced, but not eliminated completely, and management became less authoritarian. Employees could (...)
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  22. Guido Gorgoni (forthcoming). The Principle of Precaution and the Governance of Insecurity. Governare la Paura. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.score: 84.0
    After a brief reconstruction of the principle of precaution’s juridical rising, I will discuss in short the question of the juridical nature of the same principle and then examine some of its extra-juridical implications, showing how the intrinsic logic of the principle of precaution implies a strict connection with the needs and proper forms of a conception of democracy as participative.
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  23. Shieva Kleinschmidt (forthcoming). Reasoning Without the Principle of Sufficient Reason. In Tyron Goldschmidt (ed.), The Philosophy of Existence: Why Is There Something Rather Than Nothing? Routledge.score: 83.0
    According to Principles of Sufficient Reason, every truth (in some relevant group) has an explanation. One of the most popular defenses of Principles of Sufficient Reason has been the presupposition of reason defense, which takes endorsement of the defended PSR to play a crucial role in our theory selection. According to recent presentations of this defense, our method of theory selection often depends on the assumption that, if a given proposition is true, then it has an explanation, and this will (...)
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  24. Anthony Brueckner (2009). Moore-Paradoxicality and the Principle of Charity. Theoria 75 (3):245-247.score: 81.0
    In a recent article in Theoria , Hamid Vahid offered an explanation of the phenomenon of Moore-paradoxicality which employed Davidson's Principle of Charity regarding radical interpretation. I argue here that Vahid's explanation fails.
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  25. Christopher Evan Franklin (2011). Neo-Frankfurtians and Buffer Cases: The New Challenge to the Principle of Alternative Possibilities. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 152 (2):189–207.score: 81.0
    The debate over whether Frankfurt-style cases are counterexamples to the principle of alternative possibilities (PAP) has taken an interesting turn in recent years. Frankfurt originally envisaged his attack as an attempting to show that PAP is false—that the ability to do otherwise is not necessary for moral responsibility. To many this attack has failed. But Frankfurtians have not conceded defeat. Neo-Frankfurtians, as I will call them, argue that the upshot of Frankfurt-style cases is not that PAP is false, but (...)
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  26. Simon Căbulea May (2009). Religious Democracy and the Liberal Principle of Legitimacy. Philosophy and Public Affairs 37 (2):136-170.score: 81.0
    I argue against Rawls's claim that the liberal principle of legitimacy would be selected in the original position in addition to a democratic principle. Since a religious democracy could satisfy the democratic principle, the parties in the original position would not exclude it as illegitimate.
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  27. Andrea Sauchelli (2012). Fictional Objects, Non-Existence, and the Principle of Characterization. Philosophical Studies 159 (1):139-146.score: 81.0
    I advance an objection to Graham Priest’s account of fictional entities as nonexistent objects. According to Priest, fictional characters do not have, in our world, the properties they are represented as having; for example, the property of being a bank clerk is possessed by Joseph K. not in our world but in other worlds. Priest claims that, in this way, his theory can include an unrestricted principle of characterization for objects. Now, some representational properties attributed to fictional characters, a (...)
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  28. Michael Moehler (2012). A Hobbesian Derivation of the Principle of Universalization. Philosophical Studies 158 (1):83-107.score: 81.0
    In this article, I derive a weak version of Kant's categorical imperative within an informal game-theoretic framework. More specifically, I argue that Hobbesian agents would choose what I call the weak principle of universalization, if they had to decide on a rule of conflict resolution in an idealized but empirically defensible hypothetical decision situation. The discussion clarifies (i) the rationality requirements imposed on agents, (ii) the empirical conditions assumed to warrant the conclusion, and (iii) the political institutions that are (...)
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  29. Srećko Kovač (2008). In What Sense is Kantian Principle of Contradiction Non-Classical? Logic and Logical Philosophy 17 (3):251-274.score: 81.0
    On the ground of Kant’s reformulation of the principle of con- tradiction, a non-classical logic KC and its extension KC+ are constructed. In KC and KC+, \neg(\phi \wedge \neg\phi),  \phi \rightarrow (\neg\phi \rightarrow \phi), and  \phi \vee \neg\phi are not valid due to specific changes in the meaning of connectives and quantifiers, although there is the explosion of derivable consequences from {\phi, ¬\phi} (the deduc- tion theorem lacking). KC and KC+ are interpreted as fragments of an S5-based (...)
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  30. Kristian Skagen Ekeli (2006). The Principle of Liberty and Legal Representation of Posterity. Res Publica 12 (4):385-409.score: 81.0
    This paper considers a guardianship model for the legal representation of future generations. According to this model, national and international courts should be given the competence to appoint guardians for future generations, if agents who care about the welfare of posterity apply for the creation of a guardianship in relation to a dispute that can be resolved by the application of law. This reform would grant guardians of future people legal standing or locus standi before courts, that is, the right (...)
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  31. Göran Hermerén (2012). The Principle of Proportionality Revisited: Interpretations and Applications. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (4):373-382.score: 81.0
    The principle of proportionality is used in many different contexts. Some of these uses and contexts are first briefly indicated. This paper focusses on the use of this principle as a moral principle. I argue that under certain conditions the principle of proportionality is helpful as a guide in decision-making. But it needs to be clarified and to be used with some flexibility as a context-dependent principle. Several interpretations of the principle are distinguished, using (...)
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  32. Claudio Mazzola (2013). Correlations, Deviations and Expectations: The Extended Principle of the Common Cause. Synthese 190 (14):2853-2866.score: 81.0
    The Principle of the Common Cause is usually understood to provide causal explanations for probabilistic correlations obtaining between causally unrelated events. In this study, an extended interpretation of the principle is proposed, according to which common causes should be invoked to explain positive correlations whose values depart from the ones that one would expect to obtain in accordance to her probabilistic expectations. In addition, a probabilistic model for common causes is tailored which satisfies the generalized version of the (...)
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  33. Giovanni Maio (2003). Research Ethics and the Principle of Justice as Fairness – a Restatement. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 24 (5):395-406.score: 81.0
    In my recent article, I addressed the question of whether a potential categorical exclusion of decisionally impaired patients from non-therapeutic medical research would be inaccordance with the Principle of Justice as Fairness. I came to the conclusion that a categorical exclusion of decisionally impaired persons from relevant research projects may collide with Rawls’s understanding of Justice as Fairness. Derek Bell has criticized my paper by denying that it is legitimate to apply Rawls to this bioethical problem. In my restatement (...)
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  34. Rogers M. Smith (2008). The Principle of Constituted Identities and the Obligation to Include. Ethics and Global Politics 1 (3).score: 81.0
    Most analysts agree that democratic theorists have not offered a persuasive answer to the question of how the boundaries of a demos, a democratic people, should legitimately be defined. Some contend that boundaries should be maintained in ways that preserve sufficient sense of common identity to sustain support for redistributive policies. Many others endorse the “principle of all affected interests,” but it has been widely criticized as unrealistically destructive of too many existing community boundaries. This essay argues for an (...)
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  35. Rebecca Bennett (2013). When Intuition is Not Enough. Why the Principle of Procreative Beneficence Must Work Much Harder to Justify Its Eugenic Vision. Bioethics 28 (2):n/a-n/a.score: 81.0
    The Principle of Procreative Beneficence (PPB) claims that we have a moral obligation, where choice is possible, to choose to create the best child we can. The existence of this moral obligation has been proposed by John Harris and Julian Savulescu and has proved controversial on many levels, not least that it is eugenics, asking us to produce the best children we can, not for the sake of that child's welfare, but in order to make a better society. These (...)
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  36. Jonathan Pugh (2013). Embryos, The Principle of Proportionality, and the Shaky Ground of Moral Respect. Bioethics 27 (8):n/a-n/a.score: 81.0
    The debate concerning the moral permissibility of using human embryos in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research has long centred on the question of the embryo's supposed right to life. However, in focussing only on this question, many opponents to hESC research have escaped rigorous scrutiny by making vague and unfounded appeals to the concept of moral respect in order to justify their opposition to certain hESC practices. In this paper, I offer a critical analysis of the concept of moral (...)
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  37. Deryck Beyleveld (2012). The Principle of Generic Consistency as the Supreme Principle of Human Rights. Human Rights Review 13 (1):1-18.score: 81.0
    Alan Gewirth’s claim that agents contradict that they are agents if they do not accept that the principle of generic consistency (PGC) is the supreme principle of practical rationality has been greeted with widespread scepticism. The aim of this article is not to defend this claim but to show that if the first and least controversial of the three stages of Gewirth’s argument for the PGC is sound, then agents must interpret and give effect to human rights in (...)
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  38. Chong Un Choe Smith (2014). Confronting Ethical Permissibility in Animal Research: Rejecting a Common Assumption and Extending a Principle of Justice. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (2):175-185.score: 81.0
    A common assumption in the selection of nonhuman animal subjects for research and the approval of research is that, if the risks of a procedure are too great for humans, and if there is a so-called scientific necessity, then it is permissible to use nonhuman animal subjects. I reject the common assumption as neglecting the central ethical issue of the permissibility of using nonhuman animal subjects and as being inconsistent with the principle of justice used in human subjects research (...)
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  39. Michael Gorman (1992). Henry of Oyta's Nominalism and the Principle of Individuation. The Modern Schoolman 69 (2):135-148.score: 81.0
    Henry’s view of individuation makes him a nominalist; this doesn’t stop him from talking about the principle of individuation.
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  40. Enrica Carbone & John D. Hey (2001). A Test of the Principle of Optimality. Theory and Decision 50 (3):263-281.score: 81.0
    This paper reports on an experimental test of the Principle of Optimality in dynamic decision problems. This Principle, which states that the decision-maker should always choose the optimal decision at each stage of the decision problem, conditional on behaving optimally thereafter, underlies many theories of optimal dynamic decision making, but is normally difficult to test empirically without knowledge of the decision-maker's preference function. In the experiment reported here we use a new experimental procedure to get round this difficulty, (...)
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  41. Iñaki San Pedro & Mauricio Suárez (2009). The Principle of Common Cause and Indeterminism: A Review. In José Luis González Recio (ed.), Philosophical Essays on Physics and Biology. Georg Olms Verlag.score: 81.0
    We offer a review of some of the most influential views on the status of Reichenbach’s Principle of the Common Cause (RPCC) for genuinely indeterministic systems. We first argue that the RPCC is properly a conjunction of two distinct claims, one metaphysical and another methodological. Both claims can and have been contested in the literature, but here we simply assume that the metaphysical claim is correct, in order to focus our analysis on the status of the methodological claim. We (...)
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  42. Paula Sweeney (forthcoming). Contextualism and the Principle of Tolerance. Grazer Philosophische Studien.score: 81.0
    When we bring together certain plausible and compatible principles guiding the use of vague predicates the inclination to accept that vague predicates are tolerant is significantly weakened. As the principle of tolerance is a troublesome, paradox inducing principle, a theory giving a satisfactory account of the nature of vague predicates and accounting for the appeal of the sorites paradox, without recourse to the principle of tolerance is a worthy addition to the vagueness debate. The theory offered, Contextual (...)
     
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  43. Florian Hulpke, Uffe V. Poulsen, Anna Sanpera, Aditi Sen, Ujjwal Sen & Maciej Lewenstein (2006). Unitarity as Preservation of Entropy and Entanglement in Quantum Systems. Foundations of Physics 36 (4):477-499.score: 80.5
    The logical structure of Quantum Mechanics (QM) and its relation to other fundamental principles of Nature has been for decades a subject of intensive research. In particular, the question whether the dynamical axiom of QM can be derived from other principles has been often considered. In this contribution, we show that unitary evolutions arise as a consequences of demanding preservation of entropy in the evolution of a single pure quantum system, and preservation of entanglement in the evolution of composite (...)
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  44. Milan M. Ćirković & Vesna Milošević-Zdjelar (2004). Three's a Crowd: On Causes, Entropy and Physical Eschatology. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 9 (1):1-24.score: 79.5
    Recent discussions of theorigins of the thermodynamical temporal asymmetry (thearrow of time) by Huw Price and others arecritically assessed. This serves as amotivation for consideration of relationshipbetween thermodynamical and cosmologicalcauses. Although the project of clarificationof the thermodynamical explanandum is certainlywelcome, Price excludes another interestingoption, at least as viable as the sort ofAcausal-Particular approach he favors, andarguably more in the spirit of Boltzmannhimself. Thus, the competition of explanatoryprojects includes three horses, not two. Inaddition, it is the Acausal-Particular approachthat could benefit enormously (...)
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  45. PD Dr Giovanni Maio (2002). The Relevance of Rawls' Principle of Justice for Research on Cognitively Impaired Patients. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 23 (1):45-53.score: 79.5
    An ethical conflict arises when we must performresearch in the interest of future patients,but that this may occasionally injure theinterests of today''s patients.In the case of cognitively impaired persons, thequestion arises whether it is compatible withhumane healthcare not only to treat, but alsoto use these patients for research purposes.Some bioethicists and theologians haveformulated a general duty of solidarity, alsopertaining to cognitively impaired persons, as ajustification for research on these persons. Ifone examines this thesis from the theory ofjustice according to John (...)
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  46. Milan Cirkovic (2003). The Thermodynamical Arrow of Time: Reinterpreting the Boltzmann–Schuetz Argument. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 33 (3):467-490.score: 78.0
    The recent surge of interest in the origin of the temporal asymmetry of thermodynamical systems (including the accessible part of the universe itself) has put forward two possible explanatory approaches to this age-old problem. Hereby we show that there is a third possible alternative, based on the generalization of the classical (“Boltzmann–Schuetz”) anthropic fluctuation picture of the origin of the perceived entropy gradient. This alternative (which we dub the Acausal-Anthropic approach) is based on accepting Boltzmann's statistical measure at its (...)
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  47. C. T. Ng, R. Duncan Luce & A. A. J. Marley (2009). Utility of Gambling When Events Are Valued: An Application of Inset Entropy. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 67 (1):23-63.score: 78.0
    The present theory leads to a set of subjective weights such that the utility of an uncertain alternative (gamble) is partitioned into three terms involving those weights—a conventional subjectively weighted utility function over pure consequences, a subjectively weighted value function over events, and a subjectively weighted function of the subjective weights. Under several assumptions, this becomes one of several standard utility representations, plus a weighted value function over events, plus an entropy term of the weights. In the finitely additive (...)
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  48. Jon Williamson (2011). Objective Bayesianism, Bayesian Conditionalisation and Voluntarism. Synthese 178 (1):67-85.score: 76.5
    Objective Bayesianism has been criticised on the grounds that objective Bayesian updating, which on a finite outcome space appeals to the maximum entropy principle, differs from Bayesian conditionalisation. The main task of this paper is to show that this objection backfires: the difference between the two forms of updating reflects negatively on Bayesian conditionalisation rather than on objective Bayesian updating. The paper also reviews some existing criticisms and justifications of conditionalisation, arguing in particular that the diachronic Dutch (...)
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  49. Henk van den Belt & Bart Gremmen (2002). Between Precautionary Principle and “Sound Science”: Distributing the Burdens of Proof. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 15 (1):103-122.score: 75.0
    Opponents of biotechnology ofteninvoke the Precautionary Principle to advancetheir cause, whereas biotech enthusiasts preferto appeal to ``sound science.'' Publicauthorities are still groping for a usefuldefinition. A crucial issue in this debate isthe distribution of the burden of proof amongthe parties favoring and opposing certaintechnological developments. Indeed, the debateon the significance and scope of thePrecautionary Principle can be fruitfullyre-framed as a debate on the proper division ofburdens of proof. In this article, we attemptto arrive at a more refined way (...)
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  50. G. E. Volovik (2003). What Can the Quantum Liquid Say on the Brane Black Hole, the Entropy of an Extremal Black Hole, and the Vacuum Energy? Foundations of Physics 33 (2):349-368.score: 75.0
    Using quantum liquids one can simulate the behavior of the quantum vacuum in the presence of the event horizon. The condensed matter analogs demonstrate that in most cases the quantum vacuum resists formation of the horizon, and even if the horizon is formed different types of the vacuum instability develop, which are faster than the process of Hawking radiation. Nevertheless, it is possible to create the horizon on the quantum-liquid analog of the brane, where the vacuum life-time is long enough (...)
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