Search results for 'Priority (Philosophy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  38
    A. A. Derksen (1986). The Justificational Priority of Science Over the Philosophy of Science: Laudan's Science and Hypothesis. Philosophy of Science 53 (2):259-264.
    In this note I test a specific thesis about the dependence of philosophy of science on science that Laudan presents in his Science and Hypothesis; namely, that the sciences were justificationally prior to the philosophy of science. I argue that Laudan's historical case studies show a justificational priority that goes the other way. I also argue that the justificational role that in Progress and Its Problems the history of science is alleged to play vis-à-vis competing conceptions of scientific rationality (...)
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  2.  49
    John Michael Krois (2011). The Priority of "Symbolism" Over Language in Cassirer's Philosophy. Synthese 179 (1):9 - 20.
    This essay reconstructs the steps by which Cassirer moved from the philosophy of language in the early 1920s to his more general theory of symbolism. The linguistic turn in philosophy overcame idealism without falling into naturalism or psychologism, but according to Cassirer proclaiming the primacy of language was one-sided. He claimed that language is but one symbolic form among many and, what is more, it is not the most fundamental kind of symbolism. The basic function of symbolism is neither "reference" (...)
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  3.  1
    Josue Perez (2002). The Priority of Affirmation in the Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Philosophy Today 46 (4):396-403.
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  4. John Michael Krois (2011). The Priority of “Symbolism” Over Language in Cassirer’s Philosophy. Synthese 179 (1):9-20.
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  5.  67
    James Kreines (2012). Learning From Hegel What Philosophy is All About: For the Metaphysics of Reason; Against the Priority of Meaning. Verifiche - Rivista di Scienze Umane 41 (1-3):129-173.
  6.  15
    Christopher Shields (1992). John J. Cleary: Aristotle on the Many Senses of Priority. (Journal of the History of Philosophy, Monograph Series.) Pp. Xiv + 131. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 1988. Paper, $15.95. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 42 (01):209-210.
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  7.  4
    Jere Paul Surber (1992). The Priority of the Personal: An 'Other' Tradition in Modern Continental Philosophy. The Personalist Forum 8 (Supplement):225-231.
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  8.  2
    Richard Rorty (1992). Chapter 11. The Priority of Democracy to Philosophy. In John P. Reeder & Gene Outka (eds.), Prospects for a Common Morality. Princeton University Press 254-278.
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  9.  2
    Douglas Jesseph (2004). (Michael Ayers) of The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Philosophy (1998). Together with Steven Nadler, He Edits the Oxford Studies in Early-Modern Philosophy. Domenico Bertoloni Meli Teaches the History of Science at Indiana Uni-Versity, Bloomington. He is the Author of Equivalence and Priority: Newton. [REVIEW] Perspectives on Science 12 (2).
  10.  39
    Todd Bernard Weber (2000). Tragic Dilemmas and the Priority of the Moral. Journal of Ethics 4 (3):191-209.
    My purpose in this paper is to argue that we are not vulnerableto inescapable wrongdoing occasioned by tragic dilemmas. I directmy argument to those who are most inclined to accept tragicdilemmas: those of broadly Nietzschean inclination who reject``modern moral philosophy'''' in favor of the ethical ideas of theclassical Greeks. Two important features of their project are todeny the usefulness of the ``moral/nonmoral distinction,'''' and todeny that what are usually classified as moral reasons always oreven characteristically ``trump'''' nonmoral reasons in anadmirable (...)
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  11.  28
    Michail M. Peramatzis (2011). Priority in Aristotle's Metaphysics. Oxford University Press.
    Michail Peramatzis presents a new interpretation of Aristotle's view of the priority relations between fundamental and derivative parts of reality, following ...
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  12.  8
    M. Lerman (2010). A Framework for Priority Arguments. Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents a unifying framework for using priority arguments to prove theorems in computability.
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  13.  93
    Peter R. Anstey & Alberto Vanzo (2016). Early Modern Experimental Philosophy. In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell 87-102.
    In the mid-seventeenth century a movement of self-styled experimental philosophers emerged in Britain. Originating in the discipline of natural philosophy amongst Fellows of the fledgling Royal Society of London, it soon spread to medicine and by the eighteenth century had impacted moral and political philosophy and even aesthetics. Early modern experimental philosophers gave epistemic priority to observation and experiment over theorising and speculation. They decried the use of hypotheses and system-building without recourse to experiment and, in some quarters, developed (...)
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  14. Dermot Moran (2008). Husserl's Transcendental Philosophy and the Critique of Naturalism. Continental Philosophy Review 41 (4):401-425.
    Throughout his career, Husserl identifies naturalism as the greatest threat to both the sciences and philosophy. In this paper, I explicate Husserl’s overall diagnosis and critique of naturalism and then examine the specific transcendental aspect of his critique. Husserl agreed with the Neo-Kantians in rejecting naturalism. He has three major critiques of naturalism: First, it (like psychologism and for the same reasons) is ‘countersensical’ in that it denies the very ideal laws that it needs for its own justification. Second, naturalism (...)
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  15.  36
    Wonbin Park (2008). Subject From Ethic? Or Subject From Philosophy? Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 45:265-269.
    Emmanuel Levinas (1906-1995), a French Philosopher and a Jew, became known first for his role in the introduction of Husserl’s phenomenology to France, and later for his criticisms of Husserl and Heidegger. As the Holocaust gave a significant impact on many theologians and philosophers to establish their theoretical systems, Levinas realized how ethic of responsibility was important through his personal tragic experience. What most peculiar character of his experience is that it leads him to cast a doubt a subject-oriented modern (...)
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  16.  24
    Jan Kielbasa (2013). What is First? Metaphysics as Prima Philosophia and Ultima Scientia in the Works of Thomas Aquinas. Philosophia 41 (3):635-648.
    The article analyzes the status of metaphysics in relation to other sciences, especially the sense and reasons behind its priority in the system of sciences, as conveyed in the works of Thomas Aquinas. The question of what comes first in the system of sciences has led to an exploration and justification of the criteria behind this priority. According to Thomas Aquinas, metaphysics is justly considered to be the first philosophy: on the one hand it is occupied with what (...)
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  17. David Ludwig (2011). Beyond Physicalism and Dualism? Putnam’s Pragmatic Pluralism and the Philosophy of Mind. European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 3 (1):245-257.
    Although Hilary Putnam has played a significant role in shaping contemporary philosophy of mind, he has more recently criticised its metaphysical foundations as fun-damentally flawed. According to Putnam, the standard positions in the philosophy of mind rest on dubious ontological assumptions which are challenged by his “pragmatic pluralism” and the idea that we can always describe reality in different but equally fun-damental ways. Putnam considers this pluralism about conceptual resources as an alterna-tive to both physicalism and dualism. Contrary to physicalism, (...)
     
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  18.  17
    Daniel E. Shannon (2013). Hegel's Philosophy of Nature of 1805-6; Its Relation to the Phenomenology of Spirit. Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (1):101-132.
    800x600 Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) was supposed to be the introduction and first part of the Jena System III, and as such it was to introduce us to the other parts of the project. Most commentators on Hegel’s Phenomenology , however, do not consider how the Phenomenology relates the other parts, and some discount Hegel understanding and commitment to the natural philosophy of his day. This paper attempts to make the connection between the Phenomenology and the Natural Philosophy of (...)
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  19.  8
    Leonid Tysyachnyy (2008). Four Key Rules of the Managerial Philosophy of the Global Center. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:801-805.
    Following the design of the author, reforms of the UN would consist of four rules. The first rule: Payments from the global community should correspond with the services provided by the UN. - For this purpose it is necessary to develop a system of compensation in which payment would be made only for the completion of a concrete service. Such a system would in effect serve as a continuous audit and guarantor of quality service at all times visible to the (...)
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  20.  10
    Angela Coventry & Alexander Sager (2012). The Humean Elements of Rawls' Political Philosophy. In Ilya Kasavin (ed.), David Hume and Contemporary Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
    David Hume is a constant, but underappreciated presence in John Rawls’ work. This paper attempts to uncover and explicate the core Humean elements in Rawls’ philosophy and advocates for the merits of a more Humean Rawls. Though Rawls’ familiarity with Hume is well known and his commentators frequently mention the importance of Hume’s circumstances of justice, the depth and range of the Humean influence has not been sufficiently understood. Commentators have been too quick to accept Rawls’ own account of Hume (...)
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  21.  26
    Martha Craven Nussbaum (1990). Love's Knowledge: Essays on Philosophy and Literature. Oxford University Press.
    This volume brings together Nussbaum's published papers on the relationship between literature and philosophy, especially moral philosophy. The papers, many of them previously inaccessible to non-specialist readers, explore such fundamental issues as the relationship between style and content in the exploration of ethical issues; the nature of ethical attention and ethical knowledge and their relationship to written forms and styles; and the role of the emotions in deliberation and self-knowledge. Nussbaum investigates and defends a conception of ethical understanding which involves (...)
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  22. Sam Baron (2014). The Priority of the Now. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly:0-0.
    This paper motivates and develops a new theory of time: priority presentism. Priority presentism is the view according to which (i) only present entities exist fundamentally and (ii) past and future entities exist, but they are grounded in the present. The articulation of priority presentism is an exercise in applied grounding: it draws on concepts from the recent literature on ontological dependence and applies those concepts in a new way, to the philosophy of time. The result, as (...)
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  23. Nicholas Maxwell (2014). What Philosophy Ought to Be. In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death And Anti-Death, Volume 11: Ten Years After Donald Davidson (1917-2003). Ria University Press 125-162.
    The proper task of philosophy is to keep alive awareness of what our most fundamental, important, urgent problems are, what our best attempts are at solving them and, if possible, what needs to be done to improve these attempts. Unfortunately, academic philosophy fails disastrously even to conceive of the task in these terms. It makes no attempt to ensure that universities tackle global problems - global intellectually, and global in the sense of concerning the future of the earth and humanity. (...)
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  24. Robert S. Taylor (2012). Hate Speech, the Priority of Liberty, and the Temptations of Nonideal Theory. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (3):353-68.
    Are government restrictions on hate speech consistent with the priority of liberty? This relatively narrow policy question will serve as the starting point for a wider discussion of the use and abuse of nonideal theory in contemporary political philosophy, especially as practiced on the academic left. I begin by showing that hate speech (understood as group libel) can undermine fair equality of opportunity for historically-oppressed groups but that the priority of liberty seems to forbid its restriction. This tension (...)
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  25.  42
    Fredrik Svenaeus (2013). The Relevance of Heidegger's Philosophy of Technology for Biomedical Ethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (1):1-15.
    Heidegger’s thoughts on modern technology have received much attention in many disciplines and fields, but, with a few exceptions, the influence has been sparse in biomedical ethics. The reason for this might be that Heidegger’s position has been misinterpreted as being generally hostile towards modern science and technology, and the fact that Heidegger himself never subjected medical technologies to scrutiny but was concerned rather with industrial technology and information technology. In this paper, Heidegger’s philosophy of modern technology is introduced and (...)
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  26.  65
    Stewart Shapiro (ed.) (2005). The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Mathematics and Logic. Oxford University Press.
    Mathematics and logic have been central topics of concern since the dawn of philosophy. Since logic is the study of correct reasoning, it is a fundamental branch of epistemology and a priority in any philosophical system. Philosophers have focused on mathematics as a case study for general philosophical issues and for its role in overall knowledge- gathering. Today, philosophy of mathematics and logic remain central disciplines in contemporary philosophy, as evidenced by the regular appearance of articles on these topics (...)
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  27.  37
    Katrin Flikschuh (2000). Kant and Modern Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    In this book Katrin Flikschuh examines the relevance of Kant's political thought to major issues and problems in contemporary political philosophy. She advances and defends two principal claims: that Kant's philosophy of Right endorses the role of metaphysics in political thinking, in contrast to its generally hostile reception in the field today, and that his account of political obligation is cosmopolitan in its inception, assigning priority to the global rather than the domestic context. She shows how Kant's metaphysics of (...)
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  28.  27
    David Wolfsdorf (2008). Trials of Reason: Plato and the Crafting of Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Interpretation -- Introduction -- Interpreting Plato -- The political culture of Plato's early dialogues -- Dialogue -- Character and history -- The mouthpiece principle -- Forms of evidence -- Desire -- Socrates and eros -- The subjectivist conception of desire -- Instrumental and terminal desire -- Rational and irrational desires -- Desire in the critique of Akrasia -- Interpreting Lysis -- The deficiency conception of desire -- Inauthentic friendship -- Platonic desire -- Antiphilosophical desires -- Knowledge -- Excellence as wisdom (...)
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  29. Nicholas Rescher (2000). Process Philosophy: A Survey of Basic Issues. University of Pittsburgh Press.
    _Process Philosophy_ surveys the basic issues and controversies surrounding the philosophical approach known as “process philosophy.” Process philosophy views temporality, activity, and change as the cardinal factors for our understanding of the real—process has priority over product, both ontologically and epistemically. Rescher examines the movement’s historical origins, reflecting a major line of thought in the work of such philosophers as Heracleitus, Leibniz, Bergson, Peirce, William James, and especially A. N. Whitehead. Reacting against the tendency to associate process philosophy too (...)
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  30.  34
    Susan Mendus (2002). Impartiality in Moral and Political Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    The debate between impartialists and their critics has dominated both moral and political philosophy for over a decade. Characteristically, impartialists argue that any sensible form of impartialism can accommodate the partial concerns we have for others. By contrast, partialists deny that this is so. They see the division as one which runs exceedingly deep and argue that, at the limit, impartialist thinking requires that we marginalise those concerns and commitments that make our lives meaningful. This book attempts to show both (...)
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  31.  84
    Brian Weatherson (2007). Doing Philosophy with Words. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 135 (3):429 - 437.
    This paper discusses the coverage of ordinary language philosophy in Scott Soames' Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century. After praising the book's virtues, I raise three points where I dissent from Soames' take on the history. First, I suggest that there is more to ordinary language philosophy than the rather implausible version of it that Soames sees to have been destroyed by Grice. Second, I argue that confusions between analyticity, necessity and priority are less important to the ordinary language (...)
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  32.  11
    Ramona Hosu (2011). Sherlock Holmes and Philosophy. The Footprints of a Gigantic Mind. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 10 (30):373-382.
    800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false RO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url(#ieooui) } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabel Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Review of Joseph Steiff (ed.), Sherlock Holmes and Philosophy. The Footprints of a Gigantic Mind (Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 2011), 376 pages.
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  33.  21
    Manuel García-Carpintero & Max Kölbel (eds.) (2012). The Continuum Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Continuum International Pub..
    The Continuum Companion to Philosophy of Language offers the definitive guide to contemporary philosophy of language. The book covers all the fundamental questions asked by the philosophy of language - areas that have continued to attract interest historically as well as topics that have emerged more recently as active areas of research. Ten specially commissioned essays from an international team of experts reveal where important work continues to be done in the area and, most valuably, the exciting new directions the (...)
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  34.  33
    Dermot Moran (2004). The Philosophy of John Scottus Eriugena: A Study of Idealism in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press.
    This work is a substantial contribution to the history of philosophy. Its subject, the ninth-century philosopher John Scottus Eriugena, developed a form of idealism that owed as much to the Greek Neoplatonic tradition as to the Latin fathers and anticipated the priority of the subject in its modern, most radical statement: German idealism. Moran has written the most comprehensive study yet of Eriugena's philosophy, tracing the sources of his thinking and analyzing his most important text, the Periphyseon. This volume (...)
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  35.  22
    Daniel Rynhold (2005). Two Models of Jewish Philosophy: Justifying One's Practices. Oxford University Press.
    The question of how to justify our practices is central in both general and Jewish philosophy. In this book Daniel Rynhold critiques abstract approaches to justifying Jewish practice from the history of Jewish philosophy. Instead, he suggests a more practical model for justifying practices that he terms the Priority of Practice approach, illustrating thereby how Jewish philosophy can make a genuine contribution to general philosophical debates.
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  36.  88
    Kevin J. Harrelson (2015). The Priority of Epistemology in Early Neo-Kantianism. History of Philosophy Quarterly 32 (1):57-77.
    This essay examines the argumentative context in which early Neo-Kantian philosophers defined and defended "epistemology." The paper defends Richard Rorty's claim that the priority of epistemology influenced how the history of modern philosophy was written but corrects his story by showing that epistemology was defended mainly via antifoundational arguments. The essay begins with a few programmatic arguments by Kuno Fischer and Eduard Zeller but focuses mainly on Otto Liebmann's Kant und die Epigonen. I argue that Liebmann completes the agenda (...)
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  37. Sahotra Sarkar (2012). Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The first comprehensive treatment of environmental philosophy, going beyond ethics to address the philosophical concepts that underlie environmental thinking and policy-making today Encompasses all of environmental philosophy, including conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability, environmental justice, and more Offers the first treatment of decision theory in an environmental philosophy text Explores the conceptions of nature and ethical presuppositions that underlie contemporary environmental debates, and, moving from theory to practice, shows how decision theory translates to public policy Addresses both hot-button issues, including (...)
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  38.  68
    John Cottingham (2009). What is Humane Philosophy and Why is It At Risk? Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 84 (65):233-.
    Let me begin with what may seem a very minor point, but one which I think reveals something about how many philosophers today conceive of their subject. During the past few decades, there has been an increasing tendency for references in philosophy books and articles to be formatted in the ‘author and date’ style (‘see Fodor (1996)’, ‘see Smith (2001)’.) A neat and economical reference system, you may think; and it certainly saves space, albeit inconveniencing readers by forcing them to (...)
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  39.  13
    Lew Gerbilsky (2006). The Philosophy of Integratism. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 4:35-43.
    At the beginning of the third millennium we are entering a new era. I call it "The Integration/Disintegration Era" because the Integration/ Disintegration Problem is one of the basic problems our world is facing today. Philosophy attempts to work out an integrated view of the universe, of human nature, and of society. The specific philosophical science which has concerned itself with integration/ disintegration, is Integratism. This is the common denominator of different particular problems in the integration /disintegration of the universe, (...)
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  40.  23
    George Duke (2012). The Syntactic Priority Thesis and Ontological Disputes. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 42 (2):149-164.
    The syntactic priority thesis (henceforth SP) asserts that the truth of appropriate sentential contexts containing what are, by syntactic criteria, singular terms, is sufficient to justify the attribution of objectual reference to such terms (Wright, 1983, 24). One consequence that the neo-Fregean draws from SP is that it is through an analysis of the syntactic structure of true statements that 'ontological questions are to be understood and settled' (Wright, 1983, 25). Despite the significant literature on SP, little consideration has (...)
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  41.  15
    Celal Türer (2006). The Challenge of William James's Philosophy of Religion. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 8:25-30.
    James's philosophy of religion reveals a great deal about his general philosophical position. Moreover, it provides insights concerning the epistemic priority of experience and feeling, the role of faith in the justification of belief, the nature of religious truth, and the limits of philosophic rationality. This essay tries to explain what it means, on James's view, to see the world in religious terms, and defends his pragmatic argument regarding the justification of belief.
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  42.  11
    Garth Hallett (1998). Priorities and Christian Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    This book provides the fullest contemporary treatment of an issue which is particularly pressing today: when the claims of the nearest (e.g. parents, children, spouses, friends) conflict with the claims of the neediest, as they constantly do, where should preference go? Professor Hallett focuses first on a specific, representative case, pitting the lesser need of a son against the greater need of starving strangers. He brings to bear on this single paradigm all the resources of theological and philosophical reflection - (...)
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  43.  12
    Udo Etuk (1987). Philosophy in a Developing Country. Philosophy 62 (239):59 - 66.
    Philosophy as an academic programme is very young in higher institutions of learning in Nigeria. Third World developing countries usually have concerns other than the teaching of philosophy on their agenda when trying to disburse their meagre resources for the educational sector. They would want to clothe, feed, house and provide medical care for their teeming populations first, and then people who want to T philosophize can do so. So their priority in the area of education is not I (...)
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  44.  3
    Roman Darowski (2009). The Polish Contribution to World Philosophy. Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 14 (2):217-245.
    The state of philosophy on Polish soil in different periods was significantly influenced by the prevailing political and social conditions. The defense and preservation of the national identity for long demanding years of determination and resistance became a specific socio-cultural priority. Despite of the adverse circumstances the influence of Poles on world philosophy has been significant, particularly during the period when the language of publication was Latin. The later and contem­porary heritage, written in Polish and not made available for (...)
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  45. Sahotra Sarkar (2011). Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The first comprehensive treatment of environmental philosophy, going beyond ethics to address the philosophical concepts that underlie environmental thinking and policy-making today Encompasses all of environmental philosophy, including conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability, environmental justice, and more Offers the first treatment of decision theory in an environmental philosophy text Explores the conceptions of nature and ethical presuppositions that underlie contemporary environmental debates, and, moving from theory to practice, shows how decision theory translates to public policy Addresses both hot-button issues, including (...)
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  46. Sahotra Sarkar (2011). Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The first comprehensive treatment of environmental philosophy, going beyond ethics to address the philosophical concepts that underlie environmental thinking and policy-making today Encompasses all of environmental philosophy, including conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability, environmental justice, and more Offers the first treatment of decision theory in an environmental philosophy text Explores the conceptions of nature and ethical presuppositions that underlie contemporary environmental debates, and, moving from theory to practice, shows how decision theory translates to public policy Addresses both hot-button issues, including (...)
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  47.  1
    Sahotra Sarkar (2011). Environmental Philosophy: From Theory to Practice. Wiley-Blackwell.
    The first comprehensive treatment of environmental philosophy, going beyond ethics to address the philosophical concepts that underlie environmental thinking and policy-making today Encompasses all of environmental philosophy, including conservation biology, restoration ecology, sustainability, environmental justice, and more Offers the first treatment of decision theory in an environmental philosophy text Explores the conceptions of nature and ethical presuppositions that underlie contemporary environmental debates, and, moving from theory to practice, shows how decision theory translates to public policy Addresses both hot-button issues, including (...)
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  48. Robert S. Taylor (2003). Rawls’s Defense of the Priority of Liberty: A Kantian Reconstruction. Philosophy and Public Affairs 31 (3):246–271.
    Rawls offers three arguments for the priority of liberty in Theory, two of which share a common error: the belief that once we have shown the instrumental value of the basic liberties for some essential purpose (e.g., securing self-respect), we have automatically shown the reason for their lexical priority. The third argument, however, does not share this error and can be reconstructed along Kantian lines: beginning with the Kantian conception of autonomy endorsed by Rawls in section 40 of (...)
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  49.  33
    Andrew M. Bailey (2015). The Priority Principle. Journal of the American Philosophical Association 1 (1):163-174.
    I introduce and argue for a Priority Principle, according to which we exemplify certain of our mental properties in the primary or non-derivative sense. I then apply this principle to several debates in the metaphysics and philosophy of mind.
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  50. Kenneth R. Westphal (1993). ‘The Basic Context and Structure of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right’. In F. C. Beiser (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Hegel. Cambridge
    Hegel’s Philosophy of Right responds to two dichotomies. One is between the freedom of rational thought in its practical application and the givenness of natural impulses and desires. Against Kant Hegel argues that pure reason alone cannot determine the content of any maxim or principle of action. Thus Hegel must find a way in which the content of natural needs and impulses – the only source of content for maxims of action – can be transfigured into contents of rationally self-given (...)
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