Search results for 'Problem solving Study and teaching' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  18
    Joseph R. Herkert (2005). Ways of Thinking About and Teaching Ethical Problem Solving: Microethics and Macroethics in Engineering. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (3):373-385.
    Engineering ethics entails three frames of reference: individual, professional, and social. “Microethics” considers individuals and internal relations of the engineering profession; “macroethics” applies to the collective social responsibility of the profession and to societal decisions about technology. Most research and teaching in engineering ethics, including online resources, has had a “micro” focus. Mechanisms for incorporating macroethical perspectives include: integrating engineering ethics and science, technology and society (STS); closer integration of engineering ethics and computer ethics; and consideration of the influence (...)
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  2. Vinod Goel (1991). Sketches of Thought: A Study of the Role of Sketching in Design Problem-Solving and its Implications for the Computational Theory of Mind. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    Much of cognitive science is based on the Computational Theory of Mind hypothesis. The claim is that the mind is in part a computer and as such requires a representational medium--a language of thought--in which to represent information and to carry out computations. ;But the Computational Theory of Mind is much more than a bland commitment to internal representations. It requires that the system of representation have some very stringent properties. In this dissertation it is demonstrated that, depending on which (...)
     
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  3.  6
    Robert M. Gagné & Ernest C. Smith Jr (1962). A Study of the Effects of Verbalization on Problem Solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (1):12.
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  4. Dick Ruimschotel (1989). Explanation, Causation, and Psychological Theories: A Methodological Study Illustrated by an Analysis of Festinger's Theory of Cognitive Dissonance and Newell & Simon's Theory of Human Problem Solving. Swets & Zeitlinger.
  5.  17
    Despina A. Stylianou, Maria L. Blanton & Eric J. Knuth (eds.) (2009). Teaching and Learning Proof Across the Grades: A K-16 Perspective. Routledge.
    Collectively these essays inform educators and researchers at different grade levels about the teaching and learning of proof at each level and, thus, help ...
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  6.  8
    Laura Macchi & Maria Bagassi (2012). Intuitive and Analytical Processes in Insight Problem Solving: A Psycho-Rhetorical Approach to the Study of Reasoning. Mind and Society 11 (1):53-67.
    Language and thought share a unitary cognitive activity, addressed by an interpretative function. This interpretative effort reveals the assonance between the attribution of meaning to an utterance and the discovery of a solution via restructuring in insight problem solving. We suggest a view of complex integrated analytical thinking, which assumes that thinking processes information in different ways, depending on the characteristics of the tasks the subject has to solve, so that reasoning results in a stepwise, rule-based process or (...)
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  7.  8
    Pamela Davenport (1999). Conceptual Gain and Successful Problem-Solving in Primary School Mathematics. Educational Studies 25 (1):55-78.
    This study investigated the effects of children solving addition and subtraction problems collaboratively in comparison with solving problems in the traditional manner of the classroom. Seventy-seven children were divided into experimental and control groups, the experimental children being assigned to groups of four with note taken of the ability and gender mix. Following a pre-test-intervention-post-test design, the experimental children worked together in their groups using problem-solving guidelines to solve a number of problems, thereafter 'teaching' (...)
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  8.  7
    Ying Gao & Hao Zhang (2014). Unconscious Processing Modulates Creative Problem Solving: Evidence From an Electrophysiological Study. Consciousness and Cognition 26:64-73.
    Previous behavioral studies have identified the significant role of subliminal cues in creative problem solving. However, neural mechanisms of such unconscious processing remain poorly understood. Here we utilized an event-related potential approach and sandwich mask technique to investigate cerebral activities underlying the unconscious processing of cues in creative problem solving. College students were instructed to solve divergent problems under three different conditions . Our data showed that creative problem solving can benefit from unconscious cues, (...)
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  9.  1
    Seyyed Hadi Motamedi, Akbar Biglarian & Manijeh Fallah Selukolaee (2012). The Effect of Problem-Solving Skill Teaching on the Increase of the Social Efficiency of the Girl Juveniles. Social Research 5 (14):17-29.
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  10.  9
    Patricia Calton (2014). Teaching Business Ethics as Innovative Problem Solving. Teaching Philosophy 37 (4):455-464.
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  11.  1
    V. Sevim & V. V. Cifarelli (2014). Authors' Response: Radical Constructivist Conceptual Analyses in Mathematical Problem Solving and Their Implications for Teaching. Constructivist Foundations 9 (3):386-392.
    Upshot: In this response to the open peer commentaries on our target article, we address two emerging themes: the need to explicate further the nature of learning processes from a radical constructivist perspective, and the need to investigate further the implications of our research for classroom teaching.
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  12.  9
    Jean Paul Van Bendegem (2005). The Collatz Conjecture. A Case Study in Mathematical Problem Solving. Logic and Logical Philosophy 14 (1):7-23.
    In previous papers (see Van Bendegem [1993], [1996], [1998], [2000], [2004], [2005], and jointly with Van Kerkhove [2005]) we have proposed the idea that, if we look at what mathematicians do in their daily work, one will find that conceiving and writing down proofs does not fully capture their activity. In other words, it is of course true that mathematicians spend lots of time proving theorems, but at the same time they also spend lots of time preparing the ground, if (...)
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  13.  1
    Samuel Greiff, Sascha Wüstenberg, Thomas Goetz, Mari-Pauliina Vainikainen, Jarkko Hautamäki & Marc H. Bornstein (2015). A Longitudinal Study of Higher-Order Thinking Skills: Working Memory and Fluid Reasoning in Childhood Enhance Complex Problem Solving in Adolescence. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  14.  3
    Beverly C. Pestel (1993). Teaching Problem Solving Without Modeling Through “Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving”. Science Education 77 (1):83-94.
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  15.  2
    Dandan Tong, Wenfu Li, Chaoying Tang, Wenjing Yang, Yan Tian, Lei Zhang, Meng Zhang, Jiang Qiu, Yijun Liu & Qinglin Zhang (2015). An Illustrated Heuristic Prototype Facilitates Scientific Inventive Problem Solving: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Consciousness and Cognition 34:43-51.
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  16.  1
    Richard D. Odom, Joseph G. Cunningham & Eileen C. Astor (1975). Adults Thinking the Way We Think Children Think, but Children Don’T Always Think That Way: A Study of Perceptual Salience and Problem Solving. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (5):545-548.
  17.  1
    Ronald J. Raven (1987). A Study of the Use of Ratios in Science Problem Solving. Science Education 71 (4):565-570.
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  18.  1
    Kam‐Wah Lucille Lee, Ngoh‐Khang Goh, Lian‐Sai Chia & Christine Chin (1996). Cognitive Variables in Problem Solving in Chemistry: A Revisited Study. Science Education 80 (6):691-710.
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  19. I. Krechevsky (1938). A Study of the Continuity of the Problem-Solving Process. Psychological Review 45 (2):107-133.
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  20. Eugene Omasta & Vincent N. Lunetta (1988). Exploring Functions: A Strategy for Teaching Physics Concepts and ProblemSolving. Science Education 72 (5):625-636.
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  21.  71
    Nicolas Bullot (2007). A Study in the Cognition of Individuals' Identity: Solving the Problem of Singular Cognition in Object and Agent Tracking. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):276-293.
    This article compares the ability to track individuals lacking mental states with the ability to track intentional agents. It explains why reference to individuals raises the problem of explaining how cognitive agents track unique individuals and in what sense reference is based on procedures of perceptual-motor and epistemic tracking. We suggest applying the notion of singular-files from theories in perception and semantics to the problem of tracking intentional agents. In order to elucidate the nature of agent-files, three views (...)
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  22.  1
    K. C. De Berg (2008). The Concepts of Heat and Temperature: The Problem of Determining the Content for the Construction of an Historical Case Study Which is Sensitive to Nature of Science Issues and Teaching–Learning Issues. Science and Education 17 (1):75-114.
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  23.  2
    Alan Radley (1991). Solving a Problem Together: A Study of Thinking in Small Groups. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 22 (1):39-59.
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  24.  3
    Miles MacLeod & Nancy J. Nersessian (forthcoming). Interdisciplinary Problem- Solving: Emerging Modes in Integrative Systems Biology. European Journal for Philosophy of Science:1-18.
    Integrative systems biology is an emerging field that attempts to integrate computation, applied mathematics, engineering concepts and methods, and biological experimentation in order to model large-scale complex biochemical networks. The field is thus an important contemporary instance of an interdisciplinary approach to solving complex problems. Interdisciplinary science is a recent topic in the philosophy of science. Determining what is philosophically important and distinct about interdisciplinary practices requires detailed accounts of problem-solving practices that attempt to understand how specific (...)
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  25.  20
    Sadjad Soltanzadeh (2015). Humanist and Nonhumanist Aspects of Technologies as Problem Solving Physical Instruments. Philosophy and Technology 28 (1):139-156.
    A form of metaphysical humanism in the field of philosophy of technology can be defined as the claim that besides technologies’ physical aspects, purely human attributes are sufficient to conceptualize technologies. Metaphysical nonhumanism, on the other hand, would be the claim that the meanings of the operative words in any acceptable conception of technologies refer to the states of affairs or events which are in a way or another shaped by technologies. In this paper, I focus on the conception of (...)
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  26.  12
    Sheldene K. Simola (2010). Use of a "Coping-Modeling, Problem-Solving" Program in Business Ethics Education. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (3):383 - 401.
    During the last decade, scholars have identified a number of factors that pose significant challenges to effective business ethics education. This article offers a "coping-modeling, problem-solving" (CMPS) approach (Cunningham, 2006) as one option for addressing these concerns. A rationale supporting the use of the CMPS framework for courses on ethical decisionmaking in business is provided, following which the implementation processes for this program are described. Evaluative data collected from N = 101 undergraduate business students enrolled in a third (...)
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  27.  32
    Magda Osman (2008). Observation Can Be as Effective as Action in Problem Solving. Cognitive Science 32 (1):162-183.
    The present study discusses findings that replicate and extend the original work of Burns and Vollmeyer (2002), which showed that performance in problem solving tasks was more accurate when people were engaged in a non-specific goal than in a specific goal. The main innovation here was to examine the goal specificity effect under both observation-based and conventional action-based learning conditions. The findings show that goal specificity affects the accuracy of problem solving in the same way, (...)
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  28. Mareike B. Wieth & Rose T. Zacks (2011). Time of Day Effects on Problem Solving: When the Non-Optimal is Optimal. Thinking and Reasoning 17 (4):387 - 401.
    In a study examining the effects of time of day on problem solving, participants solved insight and analytic problems at their optimal or non-optimal time of day. Given the presumed differences in the cognitive processes involved in solving these two types of problems, it was expected that the reduced inhibitory control associated with non-optimal times of the day would differentially impact performance on the two types of problems. In accordance with this expectation, results showed consistently greater (...)
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  29.  36
    Marvin Croy (2000). Problem Solving, Working Backwards, and Graphic Proof Representation REVIEWS. Teaching Philosophy 23 (2):169-187.
    Newell and Simon’s seminal Human Problem Solving (1972) characterized a problem in terms of a goal state, a starting state, and a set of transition rules which define legitimate transitions from one state to another.1 Problem solving thus becomes a process of searching through a set of alternative states (the "problem space") in an effort to find a path leading from starting state to the goal state. The search process can be guided by heuristic (...)
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  30. Robert N. Mccauley (1986). Problem Solving in Science and the Competence Approach to Theorizing in Linguistics. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 16 (3):299–312.
    The goals ofthis paper are to identify (in Section II) some general features of problem solving strategies in science, to discuss (in Section III) how Chomsky has employed two particularly popular discovery strategies in science, and to show (in Section IV) how these strategies inform Chomskyan linguistics. In Section IV I will discuss (1) how their employment in linguistics manifests features of scientific problem solving outlined in Section Il and (2) how an analysis in terms of (...)
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  31.  42
    Fernand Gobet, Peter McLeod & Merim Bilalić (2011). Expert and “Novice” Problem Solving Strategies in Chess: Sixty Years of Citing de Groot (1946). Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):395-408.
    In a famous study of expert problem solving, de Groot (1946/1978) examined how chess players found the best move. He reported that there was little difference in the way that the best players (Grand Masters) and very good players (Candidate Masters) searched the board. Although this result has been regularly cited in studies of expertise, it is frequently misquoted. It is often claimed that de Groot found no difference in the way that experts and novices investigate a (...)
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  32.  23
    Joseph J. Fins, Matthew D. Bacchetta & Franklin G. Miller (1997). Clinical Pragmatism: A Method of Moral Problem Solving. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7 (2):129-143.
    : This paper presents a method of moral problem solving in clinical practice that is inspired by the philosophy of John Dewey. This method, called "clinical pragmatism," integrates clinical and ethical decision making. Clinical pragmatism focuses on the interpersonal processes of assessment and consensus formation as well as the ethical analysis of relevant moral considerations. The steps in this method are delineated and then illustrated through a detailed case study. The implications of clinical pragmatism for the use (...)
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  33.  26
    Robert W. Weisberg (2014). Toward an Integrated Theory of Insight in Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning 21 (1):5-39.
    The study of insight in problem solving and creative thinking has seen an upsurge of interest in the last 30 years. Current theorising concerning insight has taken one of two tacks. The special-process view, which grew out of the Gestalt psychologists’ theorising about insight, proposes that insight is the result of a dedicated set of processes that is activated by the individual's reaching impasse while trying to deal with a problematic situation. In contrast, the business-as-usual view argues (...)
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  34.  4
    Brian D. Ostafin & Kyle T. Kassman (2012). Stepping Out of History: Mindfulness Improves Insight Problem Solving. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):1031-1036.
    Insight problem solving is hindered by automated verbal–conceptual processes. Because mindfulness meditation training aims at “nonconceptual awareness” which involves a reduced influence of habitual verbal–conceptual processes on the interpretation of ongoing experience, mindfulness may facilitate insight problem solving. This hypothesis was examined across two studies . Participants in both studies completed a measure of trait mindfulness and a series of insight and noninsight problems. Further, participants in Study 2 completed measures of positive affect and a (...)
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  35. Raanan Lipshitz, Daphna Leshem Levy & Keren Orchen (2006). Is This Problem Likely to Be Solved? A Cognitive Schema of Effective Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning 12 (4):413 – 430.
    The present study tested the existence of a cognitive schema that guides people's evaluations of the likelihood that observed problem-solving processes will succeed. The hypothesised schema consisted of attributes that were found to distinguish between retrospective case reports of successful and unsuccessful real world problem solving (Lipshitz & Bar Ilan, 1996). Participants were asked to evaluate the likelihood of success of identical cases of problem solving that differed in the presence or absence of (...)
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  36.  36
    Fernand Gobet (1997). A Pattern-Recognition Theory of Search in Expert Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):291 – 313.
    Understanding how look-ahead search and pattern recognition interact is one of the important research questions in the study of expert problem solving. This paper examines the implications of the template theory Gobet & Simon, 1996a , a recent theory of expert memory, on the theory of problem solving in chess. Templates are chunks Chase & Simon, 1973 that have evolved into more complex data structures and that possess slots allowing values to be encoded rapidly. Templates (...)
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  37.  23
    Christopher R. Bearman, Linden J. Ball & Thomas C. Ormerod (2007). The Structure and Function of Spontaneous Analogising in Domain-Based Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning 13 (3):273 – 294.
    Laboratory-based studies of problem solving suggest that transfer of solution principles from an analogue to a target arises only minimally without the presence of directive hints. Recently, however, real-world studies indicate that experts frequently and spontaneously use analogies in domain-based problem solving. There is also some evidence that in certain circumstances domain novices can draw analogies designed to illustrate arguments. It is less clear, however, whether domain novices can invoke analogies in the sophisticated manner of experts (...)
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  38.  4
    Erika Branchini, Roberto Burro, Ivana Bianchi & Ugo Savardi (2015). Contraries as an Effective Strategy in Geometrical Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning 21 (4):397-430.
    A focused review of the literature on reasoning suggests that mechanisms based upon contraries are of fundamental importance in various abilities. At the same time, the importance of contraries in the human perceptual experience of space has been recently demonstrated in experimental studies. Solving geometry problems represents an interesting case as both reasoning abilities and the manipulation of perceptual–figural aspects are involved.In this study we focus on perceptual changes in geometrical problem solving processes in order to (...)
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  39.  16
    Henry Frankel (1980). Problem-Solving, Research Traditions, and the Development of Scientific Fields. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:29 - 40.
    The general thesis that science is essentially a problem-solving activity is extended to the development of new fields. Their development represents a research strategy for generating and solving new unsolved problems and solving existing ones in related fields. The pattern of growth of new fields is guided by the central problems within the field and applicable problems in other fields. Proponents of existing research traditions welcome work in new fields, if they believe it will increase the (...)
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  40.  21
    Merim Bilali (2008). Expert and “Novice” Problem Solving Strategies in Chess: Sixty Years of Citing de Groot (1946). Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):395 – 408.
    In a famous study of expert problem solving, de Groot (1946/1978) examined how chess players found the best move. He reported that there was little difference in the way that the best players (Grand Masters) and very good players (Candidate Masters) searched the board. Although this result has been regularly cited in studies of expertise, it is frequently misquoted. It is often claimed that de Groot found no difference in the way that experts and novices investigate a (...)
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  41.  5
    C. W. Castillo-Garsow (2014). Mathematical Modeling and the Nature of Problem Solving. Constructivist Foundations 9 (3):373-375.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Examining the Role of Re-Presentation in Mathematical Problem Solving: An Application of Ernst von Glasersfeld’s Conceptual Analysis” by Victor V. Cifarelli & Volkan Sevim. Upshot: Problem solving is an enormous field of study, where so-called “problems” can end up having very little in common. One of the least studied categories of problems is open-ended mathematical modeling research. Cifarelli and Sevim’s framework - although not developed for this purpose - may (...)
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  42.  7
    Olga Megalakaki, Charles Tijus, Romain Baiche & Sébastien Poitrenaud (2012). The Effect of Semantics on Problem Solving is to Reduce Relational Complexity. Thinking and Reasoning 18 (2):159 - 182.
    This article reports a study carried out in order to measure how semantic factors affect reductions in the difficulty of the Chinese Ring Puzzle (CRP) that involves removing five objects according to a recursive rule. We hypothesised that semantics would guide inferences about action decision making. The study involved a comparison of problem solving for two semantic isomorphic variants of the CRP ( fish and fleas ) with problem solving for the puzzle's classic variant (...)
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  43.  3
    V. V. Cifarelli & V. Sevim (2014). Examining the Role of Re-Presentation in Mathematical Problem Solving: An Application of Ernst von Glasersfeld's Conceptual Analysis. Constructivist Foundations 9 (3):360-369.
    Context: The paper utilizes a conceptual analysis to examine the development of abstract conceptual structures in mathematical problem solving. In so doing, we address two questions: 1. How have the ideas of RC influenced our own educational theory? and 2. How has our application of the ideas of RC helped to improve our understanding of the connection between teaching practice and students’ learning processes? Problem: The paper documents how Ernst von Glasersfeld’s view of mental representation can (...)
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  44.  3
    Patrick J. Cushen & Jennifer Wiley (2012). Cues to Solution, Restructuring Patterns, and Reports of Insight in Creative Problem Solving. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1166-1175.
    While the subjective experience of insight during problem solving is a common occurrence, an understanding of the processes leading to solution remains relatively uncertain. The goal of this study was to investigate the restructuring patterns underlying solution of a creative problem, and how providing cues to solution may alter the process. Results show that both providing cues to solution and analyzing problem solving performance on an aggregate level may result in restructuring patterns that appear (...)
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  45.  9
    Linden J. Ball Jonathan St B. T. Evans Ian Dennis Thomas & C. Ormerod (1997). Problem-Solving Strategies and Expertise in Engineering Design. Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):247 – 270.
    A study is reported which focused on the problem-solving strategies employed by expert electronics engineers pursuing a real-world task: integrated-circuit design. Verbal protocol data were analysed so as to reveal aspects of the organisation and sequencing of ongoing design activity. These analyses indicated that the designers were implementing a highly systematic solution-development strategy which deviated only a small degree from a normatively optimal top-down and breadth-first method. Although some of the observed deviation could be described as opportunistic (...)
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  46.  6
    R. RebeR, M. RuchMonachon & W. Perrig (2007). Decomposing Intuitive Components in a Conceptual Problem Solving Task☆. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):294-309.
    Research into intuitive problem solving has shown that objective closeness of participants’ hypotheses were closer to the accurate solution than their subjective ratings of closeness. After separating conceptually intuitive problem solving from the solutions of rational incremental tasks and of sudden insight tasks, we replicated this finding by using more precise measures in a conceptual problem-solving task. In a second study, we distinguished performance level, processing style, implicit knowledge and subjective feeling of closeness (...)
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  47.  4
    Howard Brody & Peter Vinten-Johansen (1991). Teaching the History of Medicine by Case Study and Small Group Discussion. Journal of Medical Humanities 12 (1):19-24.
    A case-study, small-group-discussion (“focal problem”) exercise in the history of medicine was designed, piloted, and evaluated in an overseas course and an on-campus elective course for medical students. Results suggest that this is a feasible approach to teaching history of medicine which can overcome some of the problems often encountered in teaching this subject in the medical curriculum.
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  48.  3
    Chiou-Fen Lin, Meei-Shiow Lu, Chun-Chih Chung & Che-Ming Yang (2010). A Comparison of Problem-Based Learning and Conventional Teaching in Nursing Ethics Education. Nursing Ethics 17 (3):373-382.
    The aim of this study was to compare the learning effectiveness of peer tutored problem-based learning and conventional teaching of nursing ethics in Taiwan. The study adopted an experimental design. The peer tutored problem-based learning method was applied to an experimental group and the conventional teaching method to a control group. The study sample consisted of 142 senior nursing students who were randomly assigned to the two groups. All the students were tested for (...)
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  49.  2
    Mara Cotič & Milena Valenčič Zuljan (2009). Problem‐Based Instruction in Mathematics and its Impact on the Cognitive Results of the Students and on Affective‐Motivational Aspects. Educational Studies 35 (3):297-310.
    International studies on the knowledge of mathematics at the generalist‐class teaching level have indicated that Slovene students are quite skilled at computations, but have difficulties solving mathematical problems. This finding stimulated us to create a problem‐based instruction model. We wanted to find out whether the students in the experimental group, who received problem‐based instruction, would display greater ability in solving difficult mathematical problems compared to the group receiving conventional instruction. We were also interested in the (...)
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  50. Janet M. Dukerich, Mary J. Waller, Elizabeth George & George P. Huber (2000). Moral Intensity and Managerial Problem Solving. Journal of Business Ethics 24 (1):29 - 38.
    There is an increasing interest in how managers describe and respond to what they regard as moral versus nonmoral problems in organizations. In this study, forty managers described a moral problem and a nonmoral problem that they had encountered in their organization, each of which had been resolved. Analyses indicated that: (1) the two types of problems could be significantly differentiated using four of Jones' (1991) components of moral intensity; (2) the labels managers used to describe problems (...)
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