Search results for 'Problem solving Study and teaching' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Joseph R. Herkert (2005). Ways of Thinking About and Teaching Ethical Problem Solving: Microethics and Macroethics in Engineering. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (3):373-385.score: 498.0
    Engineering ethics entails three frames of reference: individual, professional, and social. “Microethics” considers individuals and internal relations of the engineering profession; “macroethics” applies to the collective social responsibility of the profession and to societal decisions about technology. Most research and teaching in engineering ethics, including online resources, has had a “micro” focus. Mechanisms for incorporating macroethical perspectives include: integrating engineering ethics and science, technology and society (STS); closer integration of engineering ethics and computer ethics; and consideration of the influence (...)
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  2. Despina A. Stylianou, Maria L. Blanton & Eric J. Knuth (eds.) (2009). Teaching and Learning Proof Across the Grades: A K-16 Perspective. Routledge.score: 450.0
    Collectively these essays inform educators and researchers at different grade levels about the teaching and learning of proof at each level and, thus, help ...
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  3. Robert M. Gagné & Ernest C. Smith Jr (1962). A Study of the Effects of Verbalization on Problem Solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology 63 (1):12.score: 337.5
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  4. Dick Ruimschotel (1989). Explanation, Causation, and Psychological Theories: A Methodological Study Illustrated by an Analysis of Festinger's Theory of Cognitive Dissonance and Newell & Simon's Theory of Human Problem Solving. Swets & Zeitlinger.score: 337.5
  5. Laura Macchi & Maria Bagassi (2012). Intuitive and Analytical Processes in Insight Problem Solving: A Psycho-Rhetorical Approach to the Study of Reasoning. Mind and Society 11 (1):53-67.score: 297.0
    Language and thought share a unitary cognitive activity, addressed by an interpretative function. This interpretative effort reveals the assonance between the attribution of meaning to an utterance and the discovery of a solution via restructuring in insight problem solving. We suggest a view of complex integrated analytical thinking, which assumes that thinking processes information in different ways, depending on the characteristics of the tasks the subject has to solve, so that reasoning results in a stepwise, rule-based process or (...)
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  6. Magda Osman (2008). Observation Can Be as Effective as Action in Problem Solving. Cognitive Science 32 (1):162-183.score: 288.0
    The present study discusses findings that replicate and extend the original work of Burns and Vollmeyer (2002), which showed that performance in problem solving tasks was more accurate when people were engaged in a non-specific goal than in a specific goal. The main innovation here was to examine the goal specificity effect under both observation-based and conventional action-based learning conditions. The findings show that goal specificity affects the accuracy of problem solving in the same way, (...)
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  7. Sadjad Soltanzadeh (forthcoming). Humanist and Nonhumanist Aspects of Technologies as Problem Solving Physical Instruments. Philosophy and Technology:1-18.score: 288.0
    A form of metaphysical humanism in the field of philosophy of technology can be defined as the claim that besides technologies’ physical aspects, purely human attributes are sufficient to conceptualize technologies. Metaphysical nonhumanism, on the other hand, would be the claim that the meanings of the operative words in any acceptable conception of technologies refer to the states of affairs or events which are in a way or another shaped by technologies. In this paper, I focus on the conception of (...)
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  8. Sheldene K. Simola (2010). Use of a "Coping-Modeling, Problem-Solving" Program in Business Ethics Education. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (3):383 - 401.score: 288.0
    During the last decade, scholars have identified a number of factors that pose significant challenges to effective business ethics education. This article offers a "coping-modeling, problem-solving" (CMPS) approach (Cunningham, 2006) as one option for addressing these concerns. A rationale supporting the use of the CMPS framework for courses on ethical decisionmaking in business is provided, following which the implementation processes for this program are described. Evaluative data collected from N = 101 undergraduate business students enrolled in a third (...)
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  9. Noelle M. Crooks & Martha W. Alibali (2013). Noticing Relevant Problem Features: Activating Prior Knowledge Affects Problem Solving by Guiding Encoding. Frontiers in Psychology 4:884.score: 288.0
    This study investigated whether activating elements of prior knowledge can influence how problem solvers encode and solve simple mathematical equivalence problems (e.g., 3 + 4 + 5 = 3 + _). Past work has shown that such problems are difficult for elementary school students (McNeil & Alibali, 2000). One possible reason is that children’s experiences in math classes may encourage them to think about equations in ways that are ultimately detrimental. Specifically, children learn a set of patterns that (...)
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  10. Florence Jm Ruby, Jonathan Smallwood, Jerome Sackur & Tania Singer (2013). Is Self-Generated Thought a Means of Social Problem Solving? Frontiers in Psychology 4:962.score: 288.0
    Appropriate social problem solving constitutes a critical skill for individuals and may rely on processes important for self-generated thought (SGT). The aim of the current study was to investigate the link between SGT and social problem solving. Using the Means-End Problem Solving task (MEPS), we assessed participants’ abilities to resolve daily social problems in terms of overall efficiency and number of relevant means they provided to reach the given solution. We also asked participants (...)
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  11. V. Sevim & V. V. Cifarelli (2014). Authors' Response: Radical Constructivist Conceptual Analyses in Mathematical Problem Solving and Their Implications for Teaching. Constructivist Foundations 9 (3):386-392.score: 265.5
    Upshot: In this response to the open peer commentaries on our target article, we address two emerging themes: the need to explicate further the nature of learning processes from a radical constructivist perspective, and the need to investigate further the implications of our research for classroom teaching.
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  12. Seyyed Hadi Motamedi, Akbar Biglarian & Manijeh Fallah Selukolaee (2012). The Effect of Problem-Solving Skill Teaching on the Increase of the Social Efficiency of the Girl Juveniles. Social Research 5 (14):17-29.score: 263.3
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  13. Ying Gao & Hao Zhang (2014). Unconscious Processing Modulates Creative Problem Solving: Evidence From an Electrophysiological Study. Consciousness and Cognition 26:64-73.score: 256.5
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  14. Jean Paul Van Bendegem (2005). The Collatz Conjecture. A Case Study in Mathematical Problem Solving. Logic and Logical Philosophy 14 (1):7-23.score: 256.5
    In previous papers (see Van Bendegem [1993], [1996], [1998], [2000], [2004], [2005], and jointly with Van Kerkhove [2005]) we have proposed the idea that, if we look at what mathematicians do in their daily work, one will find that conceiving and writing down proofs does not fully capture their activity. In other words, it is of course true that mathematicians spend lots of time proving theorems, but at the same time they also spend lots of time preparing the ground, if (...)
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  15. Kam‐Wah Lucille Lee, Ngoh‐Khang Goh, Lian‐Sai Chia & Christine Chin (1996). Cognitive Variables in Problem Solving in Chemistry: A Revisited Study. Science Education 80 (6):691-710.score: 256.5
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  16. Richard D. Odom, Joseph G. Cunningham & Eileen C. Astor (1975). Adults Thinking the Way We Think Children Think, but Children Don't Always Think That Way: A Study of Perceptual Salience and Problem Solving. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 6 (5):545-548.score: 256.5
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  17. Ronald J. Raven (1987). A Study of the Use of Ratios in Science Problem Solving. Science Education 71 (4):565-570.score: 256.5
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  18. Eugene Omasta & Vincent N. Lunetta (1988). Exploring Functions: A Strategy for Teaching Physics Concepts and ProblemSolving. Science Education 72 (5):625-636.score: 256.5
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  19. Beverly C. Pestel (1993). Teaching Problem Solving Without Modeling Through “Thinking Aloud Pair Problem Solving”. Science Education 77 (1):83-94.score: 256.5
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  20. Nicolas Bullot (2007). A Study in the Cognition of Individuals' Identity: Solving the Problem of Singular Cognition in Object and Agent Tracking. Consciousness and Cognition 16 (2):276-293.score: 252.0
    This article compares the ability to track individuals lacking mental states with the ability to track intentional agents. It explains why reference to individuals raises the problem of explaining how cognitive agents track unique individuals and in what sense reference is based on procedures of perceptual-motor and epistemic tracking. We suggest applying the notion of singular-files from theories in perception and semantics to the problem of tracking intentional agents. In order to elucidate the nature of agent-files, three views (...)
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  21. K. C. De Berg (2008). The Concepts of Heat and Temperature: The Problem of Determining the Content for the Construction of an Historical Case Study Which is Sensitive to Nature of Science Issues and Teaching–Learning Issues. Science and Education 17 (1):75-114.score: 243.0
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  22. Alan Radley (1991). Solving a Problem Together: A Study of Thinking in Small Groups. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 22 (1):39-59.score: 243.0
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  23. Michael Hoffmann & Jason Borenstein (2013). Understanding Ill-Structured Engineering Ethics Problems Through a Collaborative Learning and Argument Visualization Approach. Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (1):1-16.score: 234.0
    As a committee of the National Academy of Engineering recognized, ethics education should foster the ability of students to analyze complex decision situations and ill-structured problems. Building on the NAE’s insights, we report about an innovative teaching approach that has two main features: first, it places the emphasis on deliberation and on self-directed, problem-based learning in small groups of students; and second, it focuses on understanding ill-structured problems. The first innovation is motivated by an abundance of scholarly research (...)
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  24. Marvin Croy (2000). Problem Solving, Working Backwards, and Graphic Proof Representation REVIEWS. Teaching Philosophy 23 (2):169-187.score: 216.0
    Newell and Simon’s seminal Human Problem Solving (1972) characterized a problem in terms of a goal state, a starting state, and a set of transition rules which define legitimate transitions from one state to another.1 Problem solving thus becomes a process of searching through a set of alternative states (the "problem space") in an effort to find a path leading from starting state to the goal state. The search process can be guided by heuristic (...)
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  25. Manu Kapur (2014). Productive Failure in Learning Math. Cognitive Science 38 (5):1008-1022.score: 213.0
    When learning a new math concept, should learners be first taught the concept and its associated procedures and then solve problems, or solve problems first even if it leads to failure and then be taught the concept and the procedures? Two randomized-controlled studies found that both methods lead to high levels of procedural knowledge. However, students who engaged in problem solving before being taught demonstrated significantly greater conceptual understanding and ability to transfer to novel problems than those who (...)
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  26. Mareike B. Wieth & Rose T. Zacks (2011). Time of Day Effects on Problem Solving: When the Non-Optimal is Optimal. Thinking and Reasoning 17 (4):387 - 401.score: 207.0
    In a study examining the effects of time of day on problem solving, participants solved insight and analytic problems at their optimal or non-optimal time of day. Given the presumed differences in the cognitive processes involved in solving these two types of problems, it was expected that the reduced inhibitory control associated with non-optimal times of the day would differentially impact performance on the two types of problems. In accordance with this expectation, results showed consistently greater (...)
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  27. Fernand Gobet, Peter McLeod & Merim Bilalić (2011). Expert and “Novice” Problem Solving Strategies in Chess: Sixty Years of Citing de Groot (1946). Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):395-408.score: 207.0
    In a famous study of expert problem solving, de Groot (1946/1978) examined how chess players found the best move. He reported that there was little difference in the way that the best players (Grand Masters) and very good players (Candidate Masters) searched the board. Although this result has been regularly cited in studies of expertise, it is frequently misquoted. It is often claimed that de Groot found no difference in the way that experts and novices investigate a (...)
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  28. Merim Bilali (2008). Expert and “Novice” Problem Solving Strategies in Chess: Sixty Years of Citing de Groot (1946). Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):395 – 408.score: 207.0
    In a famous study of expert problem solving, de Groot (1946/1978) examined how chess players found the best move. He reported that there was little difference in the way that the best players (Grand Masters) and very good players (Candidate Masters) searched the board. Although this result has been regularly cited in studies of expertise, it is frequently misquoted. It is often claimed that de Groot found no difference in the way that experts and novices investigate a (...)
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  29. Fernand Gobet (1997). A Pattern-Recognition Theory of Search in Expert Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):291 – 313.score: 207.0
    Understanding how look-ahead search and pattern recognition interact is one of the important research questions in the study of expert problem solving. This paper examines the implications of the template theory Gobet & Simon, 1996a , a recent theory of expert memory, on the theory of problem solving in chess. Templates are chunks Chase & Simon, 1973 that have evolved into more complex data structures and that possess slots allowing values to be encoded rapidly. Templates (...)
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  30. Joseph J. Fins, Matthew D. Bacchetta & Franklin G. Miller (1997). Clinical Pragmatism: A Method of Moral Problem Solving. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 7 (2):129-143.score: 207.0
    : This paper presents a method of moral problem solving in clinical practice that is inspired by the philosophy of John Dewey. This method, called "clinical pragmatism," integrates clinical and ethical decision making. Clinical pragmatism focuses on the interpersonal processes of assessment and consensus formation as well as the ethical analysis of relevant moral considerations. The steps in this method are delineated and then illustrated through a detailed case study. The implications of clinical pragmatism for the use (...)
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  31. Henry Frankel (1980). Problem-Solving, Research Traditions, and the Development of Scientific Fields. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:29 - 40.score: 207.0
    The general thesis that science is essentially a problem-solving activity is extended to the development of new fields. Their development represents a research strategy for generating and solving new unsolved problems and solving existing ones in related fields. The pattern of growth of new fields is guided by the central problems within the field and applicable problems in other fields. Proponents of existing research traditions welcome work in new fields, if they believe it will increase the (...)
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  32. Raanan Lipshitz, Daphna Leshem Levy & Keren Orchen (2006). Is This Problem Likely to Be Solved? A Cognitive Schema of Effective Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning 12 (4):413 – 430.score: 207.0
    The present study tested the existence of a cognitive schema that guides people's evaluations of the likelihood that observed problem-solving processes will succeed. The hypothesised schema consisted of attributes that were found to distinguish between retrospective case reports of successful and unsuccessful real world problem solving (Lipshitz & Bar Ilan, 1996). Participants were asked to evaluate the likelihood of success of identical cases of problem solving that differed in the presence or absence of (...)
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  33. Robert N. Mccauley (1986). Problem Solving in Science and the Competence Approach to Theorizing in Linguistics. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 16 (3):299–312.score: 207.0
    The goals ofthis paper are to identify (in Section II) some general features of problem solving strategies in science, to discuss (in Section III) how Chomsky has employed two particularly popular discovery strategies in science, and to show (in Section IV) how these strategies inform Chomskyan linguistics. In Section IV I will discuss (1) how their employment in linguistics manifests features of scientific problem solving outlined in Section Il and (2) how an analysis in terms of (...)
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  34. Christopher R. Bearman, Linden J. Ball & Thomas C. Ormerod (2007). The Structure and Function of Spontaneous Analogising in Domain-Based Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning 13 (3):273 – 294.score: 207.0
    Laboratory-based studies of problem solving suggest that transfer of solution principles from an analogue to a target arises only minimally without the presence of directive hints. Recently, however, real-world studies indicate that experts frequently and spontaneously use analogies in domain-based problem solving. There is also some evidence that in certain circumstances domain novices can draw analogies designed to illustrate arguments. It is less clear, however, whether domain novices can invoke analogies in the sophisticated manner of experts (...)
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  35. Linden J. Ball Jonathan St B. T. Evans Ian Dennis Thomas & C. Ormerod (1997). Problem-Solving Strategies and Expertise in Engineering Design. Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):247 – 270.score: 207.0
    A study is reported which focused on the problem-solving strategies employed by expert electronics engineers pursuing a real-world task: integrated-circuit design. Verbal protocol data were analysed so as to reveal aspects of the organisation and sequencing of ongoing design activity. These analyses indicated that the designers were implementing a highly systematic solution-development strategy which deviated only a small degree from a normatively optimal top-down and breadth-first method. Although some of the observed deviation could be described as opportunistic (...)
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  36. Olga Megalakaki, Charles Tijus, Romain Baiche & Sébastien Poitrenaud (2012). The Effect of Semantics on Problem Solving is to Reduce Relational Complexity. Thinking and Reasoning 18 (2):159 - 182.score: 207.0
    This article reports a study carried out in order to measure how semantic factors affect reductions in the difficulty of the Chinese Ring Puzzle (CRP) that involves removing five objects according to a recursive rule. We hypothesised that semantics would guide inferences about action decision making. The study involved a comparison of problem solving for two semantic isomorphic variants of the CRP ( fish and fleas ) with problem solving for the puzzle's classic variant (...)
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  37. V. V. Cifarelli & V. Sevim (2014). Examining the Role of Re-Presentation in Mathematical Problem Solving: An Application of Ernst von Glasersfeld's Conceptual Analysis. Constructivist Foundations 9 (3):360-369.score: 207.0
    Context: The paper utilizes a conceptual analysis to examine the development of abstract conceptual structures in mathematical problem solving. In so doing, we address two questions: 1. How have the ideas of RC influenced our own educational theory? and 2. How has our application of the ideas of RC helped to improve our understanding of the connection between teaching practice and students’ learning processes? Problem: The paper documents how Ernst von Glasersfeld’s view of mental representation can (...)
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  38. C. W. Castillo-Garsow (2014). Mathematical Modeling and the Nature of Problem Solving. Constructivist Foundations 9 (3):373-375.score: 207.0
    Open peer commentary on the article “Examining the Role of Re-Presentation in Mathematical Problem Solving: An Application of Ernst von Glasersfeld’s Conceptual Analysis” by Victor V. Cifarelli & Volkan Sevim. Upshot: Problem solving is an enormous field of study, where so-called “problems” can end up having very little in common. One of the least studied categories of problems is open-ended mathematical modeling research. Cifarelli and Sevim’s framework - although not developed for this purpose - may (...)
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  39. C. M. Rubie-Davies & K. Lee (2012). Self-Concept of Students in Higher Education: Are There Differences by Faculty and Gender? Educational Studies 39 (1):56-67.score: 202.0
    Many studies examine student self-concept during compulsory schooling but few have explored the self-concept of students in higher educational settings. The current study examined self-concept by faculty and gender among higher education students in New Zealand. Participants were 929 undergraduate students from a large New Zealand university. The results showed some differences in verbal and maths self-concept by faculty. Generally, students in faculties teaching subjects more reliant on maths skills had higher maths self-concept than those in faculties where (...)
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  40. J. M. Touriñan Lopez & A. Rodriguez Martinez (1993). La significacion del conocimiento de la educacion. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 49 (1/2):29 - 62.score: 198.0
    La educación es un ámbito de realidad susceptible de ser conocido. En el conocimiento de la educación se utilizan actualmente, teorías filosóficas, teorias prácticas, investigaciones aplicadas y se han generado ya términos propios con significación intrínseca a la educación. El conocimiento de la educación ha crecido a través dei tiempo. Se ha convertido en un conocimiento especializado. En este trabajo se aborda la distinción entre los conocimientos especializados de cada área cultural que se enseña y el conocimiento específico dei estúdio (...)
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  41. Howard Brody & Peter Vinten-Johansen (1991). Teaching the History of Medicine by Case Study and Small Group Discussion. Journal of Medical Humanities 12 (1):19-24.score: 189.0
    A case-study, small-group-discussion (“focal problem”) exercise in the history of medicine was designed, piloted, and evaluated in an overseas course and an on-campus elective course for medical students. Results suggest that this is a feasible approach to teaching history of medicine which can overcome some of the problems often encountered in teaching this subject in the medical curriculum.
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  42. Chiou-Fen Lin, Meei-Shiow Lu, Chun-Chih Chung & Che-Ming Yang (2010). A Comparison of Problem-Based Learning and Conventional Teaching in Nursing Ethics Education. Nursing Ethics 17 (3):373-382.score: 189.0
    The aim of this study was to compare the learning effectiveness of peer tutored problem-based learning and conventional teaching of nursing ethics in Taiwan. The study adopted an experimental design. The peer tutored problem-based learning method was applied to an experimental group and the conventional teaching method to a control group. The study sample consisted of 142 senior nursing students who were randomly assigned to the two groups. All the students were tested for (...)
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  43. Iordanis Kavathatzopoulos (1994). Training Professional Managers in Decision-Making About Real Life Business Ethics Problems: The Acquisition of the Autonomous Problem-Solving Skill. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 13 (5):379 - 386.score: 172.5
    In the present study business managers in Kabi Pharmacia Company were trained in the use of the autonomous method in their decision-making about solving real life business ethics problems. According to the psychological theories of Piaget, Vygotsky, and Kohlberg, it is possible to promote the acquisition of the autonomous ethical skill by instruction and training. Indeed, participation in a one-day educational programme which focused on the training of the autonomous cognitive ability and not on the transfer of moral (...)
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  44. Ellen Urell (2006). Simulating Benevolence: Obstructing Systemic Problem Solving. World Futures 62 (7):524 – 532.score: 172.5
    Traditional methods of evaluating and solving world problems are insufficient to deal with today's issues, which are complex and interconnected, and therefore cannot be understood, or solved, in isolation. The author's study aimed to better understand behaviors that impact systemic problems in the capacity-building community. The resultant theory of simulating benevolence conceptualizes a collection of behaviors where change agents undertake activities that are not in the best interest of community members. Instead, activities satisfy the need for activity, involvement, (...)
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  45. Chi-Ming Lam (2007). Is Popper's Falsificationist Heuristic a Helpful Resource for Developing Critical Thinking? Educational Philosophy and Theory 39 (4):432–448.score: 171.0
  46. Timothy R. Colburn (1995). Heuristics, Justification, and Defeasible Reasoning. Minds and Machines 5 (4):467-487.score: 166.5
    Heuristics can be regarded as justifying the actions and beliefs of problem-solving agents. I use an analysis of heuristics to argue that a symbiotic relationship exists between traditional epistemology and contemporary artificial intelligence. On one hand, the study of models of problem-solving agents usingquantitative heuristics, for example computer programs, can reveal insight into the understanding of human patterns of epistemic justification by evaluating these models'' performance against human problem-solving. On the other hand,qualitative heuristics (...)
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  47. Márta Gácsi, Sára Szakadát & Ádám Miklósi (2013). Assistance Dogs Provide a Useful Behavioural Model to Enrich Communicative Skills of Assistance Robots. Frontiers in Psychology 4:971.score: 166.5
    These studies are part of a project aiming to reveal relevant aspects of human-dog interactions, which could serve as a model to design successful human-robot interactions. Presently there are no successfully commercialised assistance robots, however, assistance dogs work efficiently as partners for persons with disabilities. In Study 1, we analysed the cooperation of 32 assistance dog-owner dyads performing a carrying task. We revealed typical behaviour sequences and also differences depending on the dyads’ experiences and on whether the owner was (...)
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  48. Mark Perry (2010). Socially Distributed Cognition in Loosely Coupled Systems. AI and Society 25 (4):387-400.score: 166.5
    Distributed cognition provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of data from socio-technical systems within a problem-solving framework. While the approach has been applied in tightly constrained activity domains, composed of well-structured problems and highly organised infrastructures, little is known about its use in other forms of activity systems. In this paper, we explore how distributed cognition could be applied in less well-constrained settings, with ill-structured problems and loosely organised resource sets, critically reflecting on this using data from (...)
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  49. Jim Davies, Nancy J. Nersessian & Ashok K. Goel (2005). Visual Models in Analogical Problem Solving. Foundations of Science 10 (1):133-152.score: 162.0
    Visual analogy is believed to be important in human problem solving. Yet, there are few computational models of visual analogy. In this paper, we present a preliminary computational model of visual analogy in problem solving. The model is instantiated in a computer program, called Galatea, which uses a language for representing and transferring visual information called Privlan. We describe how the computational model can account for a small slice of a cognitive-historical analysis of Maxwell’s reasoning about (...)
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  50. M. A. van Rees (2003). Pragma-Dialectical Analysis and Evaluation of Problem-Solving Discussion. Argumentation 17 (4):465-479.score: 162.0
    In this article, after arguing that present approaches to improving problem-solving discussions for various reasons are not satisfactory, I turn to the pragma-dialectic approach to argumentative discourse to derive a normative framework that can serve as a point of departure to enhance the quality of problem-solving discussions. I then show how this approach can be used as analytical and evaluative instrument that can help the analyst to establish whether participants in actual practice act in a fashion (...)
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