Search results for 'Process' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Alfred North Whitehead (1966/1981). A Key to Whitehead's Process and Reality. University of Chicago Press.score: 24.0
    Whitehead's magnum opus is as important as it is difficult. It is the only work in which his metaphysical ideas are stated systematically and completely, and his metaphysics are the heart of his philosophical system as a whole. Sherburne has rearranged the text in a way designed to lead the student logically and coherently through the intricacies of the system without losing the vigor of Whitehead's often brilliant prose. "The Key renders Process and Reality pedagogically accessible for the first (...)
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  2. Guy Axtell (forthcoming). Thinking Twice About Virtue and Vice: From Epistemic Situationism to Dual Process Theories. In Mark Alfano & Abrol Fairweather (eds.), Epistemic Situationism. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Epistemic situationists (Alfano; Doris and Olin) urge that concerns about the empirical adequacy of different versions of virtue epistemology are to be judged in light of the situationsts’ own interpretations of social psychological studies. But these concerns, while real, should instead be judged by the consistency of virtue epistemologies with the leading psychological theory emerging from studies of heuristics and biases, which is not epistemic situationism, but rather dual process theory (Evans; Kahneman; Stanovich; West). I argue that such a (...)
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  3. Gregory M. Nixon (2010). Whitehead & the Elusive Present: Process Philosophy's Creative Core. Journal of Consciousness Exploration and Research 1 (5):625-639.score: 24.0
    Time’s arrow is necessary for progress from a past that has already happened to a future that is only potential until creatively determined in the present. But time’s arrow is unnecessary in Einstein’s so-called block universe, so there is no creative unfolding in an actual present. How can there be an actual present when there is no universal moment of simultaneity? Events in various places will have different presents according to the position, velocity, and nature of the perceiver. Standing against (...)
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  4. Andreas Hüttemann (2013). A Disposition-Based Process Theory of Causation. In Stephen Mumford & Matthew Tugby (eds.), Metaphysics and Science. Oxford. 101.score: 24.0
    Given certain well-known observations by Mach and Russell, the question arises what place there is for causation in the physical world. My aim in this chapter is to understand under what conditions we can use causal terminology and how it fi ts in with what physics has to say. I will argue for a disposition-based process-theory of causation. After addressing Mach’s and Russell’s concerns I will start by outlining the kind of problem the disposition based process-theory of causation (...)
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  5. Donald C. Hubin (1999). Parental Rights and Due Process. The Journal of Law and Family Studies 1 (2):123-150.score: 24.0
    The U.S. Supreme Court regards parental rights as fundamental. Such a status should subject any legal procedure that directly and substantively interferes with the exercise of parental rights to strict scrutiny. On the contrary, though, despite their status as fundamental constitutional rights, parental rights are routinely suspended or revoked as a result of procedures that fail to meet even minimal standards of procedural and substantive due process. This routine and cavalier deprivation of parental rights takes place in the context (...)
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  6. Guy Kahane (2012). On the Wrong Track: Process and Content in Moral Psychology. Mind and Language 27 (5):519-545.score: 24.0
    According to Joshua Greene’s influential dual process model of moral judgment, different modes of processing are associated with distinct moral outputs: automatic processing with deontological judgment, and controlled processing with utilitarian judgment. This paper aims to clarify and assess Greene’s model. I argue that the proposed tie between process and content is based on a misinterpretation of the evidence, and that the supposed evidence for controlled processing in utilitarian judgment is actually likely to reflect generic deliberation which, ironically, (...)
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  7. Susan Leigh Anderson (2003). Teaching Today's Students How to Examine Ethical Issues and Be More Actively Involved in the Learning Process. Journal of Academic Ethics 1 (2):189-198.score: 24.0
    In response to the difficulty of teaching an increasingly large number of students who are ill prepared for the sort of abstract thinking and well-structured essay writing that are essential to the field of Philosophy, I have discovered a five-step method for teaching students in my Philosophy and Social Ethics course how to examine any ethical issue and write well-structured essays discussing the issue. Just as important, students are now required to take more responsibility for the learning process which, (...)
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  8. Michel Weber & Anderson Weekes (eds.) (2010). Process Approaches to Consciousness in Psychology, Neuroscience, and Philosophy of Mind. State University of New York Press.score: 24.0
    This collection opens a dialogue between process philosophy and contemporary consciousness studies. Approaching consciousness from diverse disciplinary perspectives—philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, neuropathology, psychotherapy, biology, animal ethology, and physics—the contributors offer empirical and philosophical support for a model of consciousness inspired by the process philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947). Whitehead’s model is developed in ways he could not have anticipated to show how it can advance current debates beyond well-known sticking points. This has trenchant consequences for epistemology and suggests (...)
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  9. Johanna Seibt (2009). Forms of Emergent Interaction in General Process Theory. Synthese 166 (3):479 - 512.score: 24.0
    General Process Theory (GPT) is a new (non-Whiteheadian) process ontology. According to GPT the domains of scientific inquiry and everyday practice consist of configurations of ‘goings-on’ or ‘dynamics’ that can be technically defined as concrete, dynamic, non-particular individuals called general processes. The paper offers a brief introduction to GPT in order to provide ontological foundations for research programs such as interactivism that centrally rely on the notions of ‘process,’ ‘interaction,’ and ‘emergence.’ I begin with an analysis of (...)
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  10. Mark Bickhard (2011). Some Consequences (and Enablings) of Process Metaphysics. Axiomathes 21 (1):3-32.score: 24.0
    The interactivist model has explored a number of consequences of process metaphysics. These include reversals of some fundamental metaphysical assumptions dominant since the ancient Greeks, and multiple further consequences throughout the metaphysics of the world, minds, and persons. This article surveys some of these consequences, ranging from issues regarding entities and supervenience to the emergence of normative phenomena such as representation, rationality, persons, and ethics.
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  11. Nils-Eric Sahlin, Annika Wallin & Johannes Persson (2010). Decision Science: From Ramsey to Dual Process Theories. Synthese 172 (1):129 - 143.score: 24.0
    The hypothesis that human reasoning and decision-making can be roughly modeled by Expected Utility Theory has been at the core of decision science. Accumulating evidence has led researchers to modify the hypothesis. One of the latest additions to the field is Dual Process theory, which attempts to explain variance between participants and tasks when it comes to deviations from Expected Utility Theory. It is argued that Dual Process theories at this point cannot replace previous theories, since they, among (...)
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  12. Roselie McDevitt, Catherine Giapponi & Cheryl Tromley (2007). A Model of Ethical Decision Making: The Integration of Process and Content. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 73 (2):219 - 229.score: 24.0
    We develop a model of ethical decision making that integrates the decision-making process and the content variables considered by individuals facing ethical dilemmas. The process described in the model is drawn from Janis and Mann’s [1977, Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict Choice and Commitment (The Free Press, New York)] work describing the decision process in an environment of conflict, choice and commitment. The model is enhanced by the inclusion of content variables derived from the ethics (...)
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  13. Virginia Haufler (2009). The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme: An Innovation in Global Governance and Conflict Prevention. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 89 (4):403 - 416.score: 24.0
    The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme is an innovation in global governance that combines a voluntary industry-led certification system with an inter-state import/export control regime. States, industry, and activists speedily negotiated it in large part due to the concentrated structure of the industry, and the complementary nature of emerging norms regarding both corporate behavior and international intervention in civil conflicts. The potential strength of the Kimberley Process lies in its state-led border controls, but these are being undermined by weak (...)
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  14. Anton Froeyman (2012). The Ontology of Causal Process Theories. Philosophia 40 (3):523-538.score: 24.0
    There is a widespread belief that the so-called process theories of causation developed by Wesley Salmon and Phil Dowe have given us an original account of what causation really is. In this paper, I show that this is a misconception. The notion of “causal process” does not offer us a new ontological account of causation. I make this argument by explicating the implicit ontological commitments in Salmon and Dowe’s theories. From this, it is clear that Salmon’s Mark Transmission (...)
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  15. Richard Campbell (2009). A Process-Based Model for an Interactive Ontology. Synthese 166 (3):453 - 477.score: 24.0
    The paper proposes a process-based model for an ontology that encompasses the emergence of process systems generated by increasingly complex levels of organization. Starting with a division of processes into those that are persistent and those that are fleeting, the model builds through a series of exclusive and exhaustive disjunctions. The crucial distinction is between those persistent and cohesive systems that are energy wells, and those that are far-from-equilibrium. The latter are necessarily open; they can persist only by (...)
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  16. Varanasi Ramabrahmam (2005). Being and Becomming: A Physics and Upanishadic Awareness of Time and Thought Process. Ludus Vitalis 13 (24):139-154..score: 24.0
    Understanding of time, construed as movement, change and becoming, is explained taking examples from natural sciences. Durational and metrical aspects of time are elaborated. General assumptions about passage of time are listed. Indian, Chinese and later insights of path of passage of time are figured. Physical and psychological times are differentiated and explained using Energy-Presence (Being) and Energy-Transformation (Becoming) concepts. Concepts of Time at rest and Time in motion are proposed. -/- . The meanings of time-space, time-flow, different phases of (...)
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  17. Philip Clayton (2010). Something New Under the Sun: Forty Years of Philosophy of Religion, with a Special Look at Process Philosophy. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 68 (1):139-152.score: 24.0
    Looking back over the last 40 years of work in the philosophy of religion provides a fascinating vantage point from which to assess the state of the discipline today. I describe central features of American philosophy of religion in 1970 and reconstruct the last 40 years as a progression through four main stages. This analysis offers an overarching framework from which to examine the major contributions and debates of process philosophy of religion during the same period. The major thinkers, (...)
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  18. Haines Brown (2014). A Process Ontology. Axiomathes 24 (3):291-312.score: 24.0
    The paper assumes that to be of practical interest process must be understood as physical action that takes place in the world rather than being an idea in the mind. It argues that if an ontology of process is to accommodate actuality, it must be represented in terms of relative probabilities. Folk physics cannot accommodate this, and so the paper appeals to scientific culture because it is an emergent knowledge of the world derived from action in it. (...) is represented as a contradictory probability distribution that does not depend on a spatio-temporal frame. An actuality is a probability density that grounds the values of probabilities to constitute their distributions. Because probability is a conserved value, probability distributions are subject to the constraint of symmetry and must be zero-sum. An actuality is locked-in by other actualities to become a zero-sum symmetry of probability values. It is shown that the locking-in of actualities constructs spatio-temporal locality, lends actualities specificity, and makes them a contradiction. Localization is the basis for understanding empirical observation. Because becoming depends on its construction of being, processes exist as trajectories. The historical trajectories of evolution and revolution as well as the non-historical trajectory of strong emergence are how processes are observed to exist. (shrink)
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  19. Geoff Goddu (2011). Is “Argument” Subject to the Product/Process Ambiguity? Informal Logic 31 (2):75-88.score: 24.0
    The product/process distinction with regards to “argument” has a longstanding history and foundational role in argumentation theory. I shall argue that, regardless of one’s chosen ontology of arguments, arguments are not the product of some process of arguing. Hence, appeal to the distinction is distorting the very organizational foundations of argumentation theory and should be abandoned.
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  20. Robert W. P. Luk (2010). Understanding Scientific Study Via Process Modeling. Foundations of Science 15 (1):49-78.score: 24.0
    This paper argues that scientific studies distinguish themselves from other studies by a combination of their processes, their (knowledge) elements and the roles of these elements. This is supported by constructing a process model. An illustrative example based on Newtonian mechanics shows how scientific knowledge is structured according to the process model. To distinguish scientific studies from research and scientific research, two additional process models are built for such processes. We apply these process models: (1) to (...)
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  21. Cicely Roche & Felicity Kelliher (2009). Exploring the Patient Consent Process in Community Pharmacy Practice. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):91 - 99.score: 24.0
    This article explores the patient consent process in modern community pharmacy practice and discusses the related ethical dilemmas in this environment. The myth of appropriately informed consent, and irrefutable evidence as to a pharmacist’s intentions when advising a patient, are core issues for discussion. The objective is to clarify where such dilemmas may exist in the consent process and to ultimately form a framework against which ethical guidelines might facilitate resolution of the dilemma faced by the pharmacist who (...)
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  22. Robyn Bluhm (2014). No Need for Alarm: A Critical Analysis of Greene’s Dual-Process Theory of Moral Decision-Making. Neuroethics 7 (3):299-316.score: 24.0
    Joshua Greene and his colleagues have proposed a dual-process theory of moral decision-making to account for the effects of emotional responses on our judgments about moral dilemmas that ask us to contemplate causing direct personal harm. Early formulations of the theory contrast emotional and cognitive decision-making, saying that each is the product of a separable neural system. Later formulations emphasize that emotions are also involved in cognitive processing. I argue that, given the acknowledgement that emotions inform cognitive decision-making, a (...)
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  23. Maureen H. Fitzgerald (2005). Punctuated Equilibrium, Moral Panics and the Ethics Review Process. Journal of Academic Ethics 2 (4):315-338.score: 24.0
    A review of the literature and ethnographic data from Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United States, and the United Kingdom on the research ethics review process suggest that moral panics can become triggers for punctuated equilibrium in the review process at both the macro and microlevel, albeit with significantly different levels of magnitude and impact. These data suggest that neither the development of the ethics review process nor the process itself proceeds gradually, but both are characterized (...)
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  24. Edward J. O'Boyle (2002). An Ethical Decision-Making Process for Computing Professionals. Ethics and Information Technology 4 (4):267-277.score: 24.0
    Our comments focus on the ACMCode of Ethics and situate the Code within ageneral ethical decision-making process tospecify the five steps which logically precedehuman action in ethical matters and determinethat action, and the individual differencetraits in these five steps which bear upon theresolution of an ethical problem and lead tomorally responsible action. Our main purpose isto present a cognitive moral processing modelwhich computing professionals can use to betterunderstand their professional rights andduties. It is clear that the Code providessubstantial guidance (...)
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  25. Alexander Rueger (2006). Connection and Influence: A Process Theory of Causation. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science 37 (1):77 - 97.score: 24.0
    A combination of process and counterfactual theories of causation is proposed with the aim of preserving the strengths of each of the approaches while avoiding their shortcomings. The basis for the combination, or hybrid, view is the need, common to both accounts, of imposing a stability requirement on the causal relation.
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  26. Fred Harris (2011). The Grammar of the Human Life Process: John Dewey's New Theory of Language. Educational Philosophy and Theory 44 (s1):18-30.score: 24.0
    Dewey proposed a new theory of language, in which the form (such as symbols) and content of language are not separated. The content of language includes the physical aspects of the world, which are purely quantitative: the life process, which involves functional responses to qualities, and the human life process, which involves the conscious integration of the potentiality of qualities to form a functional whole. The pinnacle of this process is individuality, or the emergence of a unique (...)
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  27. Yingxu Wang (2003). Using Process Algebra to Describe Human and Software Behaviors. Brain and Mind 4 (2):199-213.score: 24.0
    Although there are various ways to express actions and behaviors in natural languages, it is found in cognitive informatics that human and system behaviors may be classified into three basic categories: to be , to have , and to do . All mathematical means and forms, in general, are an abstract description of these three categories of system behaviors and their common rules. Taking this view, mathematical logic may be perceived as the abstract means for describing to be, set theory (...)
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  28. Eric W. Stein & Norita Ahmad (2009). Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (Ahp) to Construct a Measure of the Magnitude of Consequences Component of Moral Intensity. Journal of Business Ethics 89 (3):391 - 407.score: 24.0
    The purpose of this work is to elaborate an empirically grounded mathematical model of the magnitude of consequences component of “moral intensity” (Jones, Academy of Management Review 16 (2),366, 1991) that can be used to evaluate different ethical situations. The model is built using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) (Saaty, The Analytic Hierarchy Process , 1980) and empirical data from the legal profession. One contribution of our work is that it illustrates how AHP can be applied in the (...)
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  29. Marc le Menestrel (2001). A Process Approach to the Utility for Gambling. Theory and Decision 50 (3):249-262.score: 24.0
    This paper argues that any specific utility or disutility for gambling must be excluded from expected utility because such a theory is consequential while a pleasure or displeasure for gambling is a matter of process, not of consequences. A (dis)utility for gambling is modeled as a process utility which monotonically combines with expected utility restricted to consequences. This allows for a process (dis)utility for gambling to be revealed. As an illustration, the model shows how empirical observations in (...)
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  30. Peter Lloyd & Jerry Busby (2003). “Things That Went Well — No Serious Injuries or Deaths”: Ethical Reasoning in a Normal Engineering Design Process. Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (4):503-516.score: 24.0
    We argue that considering only a few ‘big’ ethical decisions in any engineering design process — both in education and practice — only reinforces the mistaken idea of engineering design as a series of independent sub-problems. Using data collected in engineering design organisations over a seven year period, we show how an ethical component to engineering decisions is much more pervasive. We distinguish three types of ethical justification for engineering decisions: (1) consequential, (2) deontological or non-consequential, and (3) virtue-based. (...)
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  31. Alan J. Richardson (2008). Due Process and Standard-Setting: An Analysis of Due Process in Three Canadian Accounting and Auditing Standard-Setting Bodies. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3):679 - 696.score: 24.0
    Due process is the means by which ethical constraints are placed on administrative decision-making. I have developed a model of variation in due process and use this model to explore the implementation of “due process” norms by three standard-setting bodies that are created, funded, and overseen by the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants – the Accounting Standards Board, the Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, and the Public Sector Accounting Standards Board. I conducted two analyses: a comparative analysis (...)
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  32. Stephen Pratten (2013). Critical Realism and the Process Account of Emergence. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 43 (3):251-279.score: 24.0
    For advocates of critical realism emergence is a central theme. Critical realists typically ground their defence of the relative disciplinary autonomy of various sciences by arguing that emergent phenomena exist in a robust non-ontologically, non-causally reductionist sense. Despite the importance they attach to it critical realists have only recently begun to elaborate on emergence at length and systematically compare their own account with those developed by others. This paper clarifies what is distinctive about the critical realist account of emergence by (...)
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  33. Joshua D. Reichard (2013). Of Miracles and Metaphysics: A Pentecostal‐Charismatic and Process‐Relational Dialogue. Zygon 48 (2):274-293.score: 24.0
    This article is comprised of a dialogue between Pentecostal-Charismatic and Process-Relational theologies on the perennial issue of miracles. The language of supernaturalism, widely employed by Pentecostal-Charismatic theologians, is contrasted with the metaphysical naturalism of Process-Relational theology; it is proposed that a philosophically and scientifically sensitive theology of miracles is possible through a synthesis of both traditions. Themes such as nonmaterialism over materialism, spiritual experience, and prayer for healing miracles are explored. A theology of miracles, mutually informed by both (...)
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  34. Guillaume Beaulac (2010). A Two Speed Mind? For a Heuristic Interpretation of Dual-Process Theories (L'esprit À Deux Vitesses ? Pour Une Interprétation Heuristique des Théories À Processus Duaux). Dissertation, Université du Québec à Montréalscore: 24.0
    This dissertation is devoted to dual-process theories, widely discussed in the recent literature in cognitive science. The author argues for a significantly modified version of the account suggested by Samuels (2009), replacing the distinction between ‘Systems’ with a distinction between ‘Types of processes,’ which allows a critique of both the (only) modularist accounts and the accounts describing a deep difference between two systems each having their specificities (functional, phenomenological and neurological). In the account of dual-process theories developed here, (...)
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  35. Richard Dazeley & Beyong Ho Kang (2008). Epistemological Approach to the Process of Practice. Minds and Machines 18 (4):547-567.score: 24.0
    Systems based on symbolic knowledge have performed extremely well in processing reason, yet, remain beset with problems of brittleness in many domains. Connectionist approaches do similarly well in emulating interactive domains, however, have struggled when modelling higher brain functions. Neither of these dichotomous approaches, however, have provided many inroads into the area of human reasoning that psychology and sociology refer to as the process of practice. This paper argues that the absence of a model for the process of (...)
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  36. Andreas Fejes (2008). European Citizens Under Construction: The Bologna Process Analysed From a Governmentality Perspective. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (4):515-530.score: 24.0
    This article focuses on problematizing the harmonisation of higher education in Europe today. The overall aim is to analyse the construction of the European citizen and the rationality of governing related to such a construction. The specific focus will be on the rules and standards of reason in higher education reforms which inscribe continuums of values that exclude as they include. Who is and who is not constructed as a European citizen? Documents on the Bologna process produced in Europe (...)
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  37. Marcello Frixione & Antonio Lieto (2014). Concepts, Perception and the Dual Process Theories of Mind. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 9.score: 24.0
    In this article we argue that the problem of the relationships between concepts and perception in cognitive science is blurred by the fact that the very notion of concept is rather confused. Since it is not always clear exactly what concepts are, it is not easy to say, for example, whether and in what measure concept possession involves entertaining and manipulating perceptual representations, whether concepts are entirely different from perceptual representations, and so on. As a paradigmatic example of this state (...)
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  38. Michael Grüninger & Christopher Menzel (2003). The Process Specification Language: Theory and Applications. AI Magazine 24 (3):63-74.score: 24.0
    The Process Specification Language (PSL) has been designed to facilitate correct and complete exchange of process information among manufacturing systems, such as scheduling, process modeling, process planning, production planning, simulation, project management, work flow, and business process reengineering. We given an overview of the theories with the PSL ontology, discuss some of the design principles for the ontology, and finish with examples of process specifications that are based on the ontology.
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  39. Julian Fink (2011). Are There Process-Requirements of Rationality? Organon F 18 (4):475-88.score: 24.0
    Does a coherentist version of rationality issue requirements on states? Or does it issue requirements on processes? This paper evalu- ates the possibility of process-requirements. It argues that there are two possible definitions of state- and process-requirements: a satisfaction- based definition and a content-based definition. I demonstrate that the satisfaction-based definition is inappropriate. It does not allow us to uphold a clear-cut distinction between state- and process-requirements. We should therefore use a content-based definition of state- and pro- (...)
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  40. Jo Murphy-Lawless (2004). The Impact of BSE and FMD on Ethics and Democratic Process. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (4-5):385-403.score: 24.0
    The recent crises of BSE and FMD in the United Kingdom have revealed widespread concerns on the part of farmers and consumers about government regulations and handling of animal movements, animal welfare, and food safety. Both crises raised issues of government accountability and the lack of openness in public debate. The issues of democratic process and decision-making were especially strong in relation to the mass slaughter policy of the government to control FMD. This article explores public disquiet about these (...)
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  41. Sharon C. Bolton, Rebecca Chung-hee Kim & Kevin D. O'Gorman (2011). Corporate Social Responsibility as a Dynamic Internal Organizational Process: A Case Study. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 101 (1):61 - 74.score: 24.0
    This article tracks Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as an emergent organizational process that places the employee at its center. Predominantly, research on CSR tends to focus on external pressures and outcomes leading to a neglect of CSR as a dynamic and developing process that relies on the involvement of the employee as a major stakeholder in its co-creation and implementation. Utilizing case study data drawn from a study of a large multinational energy company, we explore how management relies (...)
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  42. Bin Jiang (2009). Implementing Supplier Codes of Conduct in Global Supply Chains: Process Explanations From Theoretic and Empirical Perspectives. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 85 (1):77 - 92.score: 24.0
    Western buying companies impose Supplier Codes of Conduct (SCC) on their suppliers in developing countries; however, many suppliers cannot fully comply with SCC and some of them even cheat in SCC. In this research, we link contract characteristics - price pressure, production complexity, contract duration - to the likelihood of supplier's commitment to SCC through a mediating process: how the buying companies govern their suppliers. Our structural equation model analysis shows that the hierarchy/relational norms governance is a perfect mediator (...)
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  43. James MacLean (2011). Rethinking Law as Process: Creativity, Novelty, Change. Routledge.score: 24.0
    Rethinking Law as Process draws on insights from 'process philosophy' in order to rethink the nature of legal decision-making.
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  44. Leah McClimans & John P. Browne (2012). Quality of Life is a Process Not an Outcome. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 33 (4):279-292.score: 24.0
    Quality improvement mechanisms increasingly use outcome measures to evaluate health care providers. This move toward outcome measures is a radical departure from the traditional focus on process measures. More radical still is the proposal to shift from relatively simple and proximal measures of outcome, such as mortality, to complex outcomes, such as quality of life. While the practical, scientific, and ethical issues associated with the use of outcomes such as mortality and morbidity to compare health care providers have been (...)
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  45. Attilia Ruzzene (2013). Process Tracing as an Effective Epistemic Complement. Topoi:1-12.score: 24.0
    In the last decades philosophers of science and social scientists promoted the view that knowledge of mechanisms might help causal inference considerably in the social sciences. Mechanisms, however, can only assist causal inference effectively if scientists have a means to identify them correctly. Some scholars suggested that process-tracing might be a helpful strategy in this respect. Shared criteria to assess its performance, however, are not available yet; furthermore, the criteria proposed so far tie the validity of process-tracing findings (...)
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  46. Thomas Scheffer (2007). Event and Process: An Exercise in Analytical Ethnography. [REVIEW] Human Studies 30 (3):167 - 197.score: 24.0
    Analytical ethnography does not presume a principal analytical frame. It does not know (yet) where and when the field takes place. Rather, the ethnographer is in search for appropriate spatiotemporal frames in correspondence with the occurrences in the field. Accordingly, the author organizes a dialogue between conceptual frames and his various empirical accounts. He confronts snapshots of English Crown Court proceedings with models of event and process from micro-sociology and macro-sociology. A range of–more or less early or late, relevant (...)
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  47. Theodore J. Sheskin (2006). An Analytic Hierarchy Process Model to Apportion Co-Author Responsibility. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (3):555-565.score: 24.0
    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) can be used to determine co-author responsibility for a scientific paper describing collaborative research. The objective is to deter scientific fraud by holding co-authors accountable for their individual contributions. A hiearchical model of the research presented in a paper can be created by dividing it into primary and secondary elements. The co-authors then determine the contributions of the primary and secondary elements to the work as a whole as well as their own individual contributions. (...)
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  48. Robert F. Hadley (1991). A Sense-Based, Process Model of Belief. Minds and Machines 1 (3):279-320.score: 24.0
    A process-oriented model of belief is presented which permits the representation of nested propositional attitudes within first-order logic. The model (NIM, for nested intensional model) is axiomatized, sense-based (via intensions), and sanctions inferences involving nested epistemic attitudes, with different agents and different times. Because NIM is grounded upon senses, it provides a framework in which agents may reason about the beliefs of another agent while remaining neutral with respect to the syntactic forms used to express the latter agent's beliefs. (...)
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  49. Wolfgang Tschacher Sergio Salvatore (2012). Time Dependency of Psychotherapeutic Exchanges: The Contribution of the Theory of Dynamic Systems in Analyzing Process. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    This paper provides a general framework for the use of TDS in the field of psychotherapy research. Psychotherapy is inherently dynamic, namely a function of time. Consequently, the improvement of construct validity and clinical relevance of psychotherapy process research require the development of models of investigation allowing dynamic mappings of clinical exchange. Thus, the Theory of Dynamic Systems (TDS) becomes a significant theoretical and methodological reference. The paper focuses two topics. First, the main concepts of TDS are briefly introduced (...)
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  50. Jesus De La Fuente, Maria Cardelle-Elawar, Francisco Javier Sánchez Peralta, Maria Dolores Roda Sánchez, Jose Manuel Vicente Martínez & Lucia Sevillano Zapata (2011). Students' Factors Affecting Undergraduates' Perceptions of Their Teaching and Learning Process Within ECTS Experience. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 24.0
    Introduction. The objective of this research was to learn what variables determine satisfaction with the teaching-learning process (TLP), from the perspective of students participating in the ECTS experience (European Credit Transfer System). Method. A total of 1490 students from the Universities of Almería and Granada (Spain) participated in an evaluation of their class subjects. They completed a protocol for evaluating the ECTS experience. Analyses of Variance were carried out, taking different measures as independent variables, such as student’s grade average, (...)
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