Search results for 'Program' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Xiaoli Liu (2010). Gödel's Philosophical Program and Husserl's Phenomenology. Synthese 175 (1):33 - 45.score: 24.0
    Gödel’s philosophical rationalism includes a program for “developing philosophy as an exact science.” Gödel believes that Husserl’s phenomenology is essential for the realization of this program. In this article, by analyzing Gödel’s philosophy of idealism, conceptual realism, and his concept of “abstract intuition,” based on clues from Gödel’s manuscripts, I try to investigate the reasons why Gödel is strongly interested in Husserl’s phenomenology and why his program for an exact philosophy is unfinished. One of the topics that (...)
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  2. Ronald J. Planer (2014). Replacement of the “Genetic ProgramProgram. Biology and Philosophy 29 (1):33-53.score: 24.0
    Talk of a “genetic program” has become almost as common in cell and evolutionary biology as talk of “genetic information”. But what is a genetic program? I understand the claim that an organism’s genome contains a program to mean that its genes not only carry information about which proteins to make, but also about the conditions in which to make them. I argue that the program description, while accurate in some respects, is ultimately misleading and should (...)
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  3. Martin Roth (2005). Program Execution in Connectionist Networks. Mind and Language 20 (4):448-467.score: 24.0
    Recently, connectionist models have been developed that seem to exhibit structuresensitive cognitive capacities without executing a program. This paper examines one such model and argues that it does execute a program. The argument proceeds by showing that what is essential to running a program is preserving the functional structure of the program. It has generally been assumed that this can only be done by systems possessing a certain temporalcausal organization. However, counterfactualpreserving functional architecture can be instantiated (...)
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  4. Timothy R. Colburn (1991). Program Verification, Defeasible Reasoning, and Two Views of Computer Science. Minds and Machines 1 (1):97-116.score: 24.0
    In this paper I attempt to cast the current program verification debate within a more general perspective on the methodologies and goals of computer science. I show, first, how any method involved in demonstrating the correctness of a physically executing computer program, whether by testing or formal verification, involves reasoning that is defeasible in nature. Then, through a delineation of the senses in which programs can be run as tests, I show that the activities of testing and formal (...)
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  5. Cam Caldwell, Howard White & R. H. Red Owl (2007). The Case for Creating a DBa Program – a Virtue-Based Opportunity for Universities. Journal of Academic Ethics 5 (2-4):179-188.score: 24.0
    Although efforts have been made to increase the opportunities for American-born minorities to obtain doctoral degrees in business, the actual number of business students who are American-born minorities has been extremely low. At the same time more than half of all PhD candidates in business schools are foreign-born. We suggest that business schools owe an ethical duty to provide role models for minority business students, and that this duty can be achieved by initiating Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) programs that (...)
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  6. Uri Pincas (2011). Program Verification and Functioning of Operative Computing Revisited: How About Mathematics Engineering? [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 21 (2):337-359.score: 24.0
    The issue of proper functioning of operative computing and the utility of program verification, both in general and of specific methods, has been discussed a lot. In many of those discussions, attempts have been made to take mathematics as a model of knowledge and certitude achieving, and accordingly infer about the suitable ways to handle computing. I shortly review three approaches to the subject, and then take a stance by considering social factors which affect the epistemic status of both (...)
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  7. Itai Beeri, Rachel Dayan, Eran Vigoda-Gadot & Simcha B. Werner (2013). Advancing Ethics in Public Organizations: The Impact of an Ethics Program on Employees' Perceptions and Behaviors in a Regional Council. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 112 (1):59-78.score: 24.0
    Ethics in public administration has been a subject of growing interest for both researchers and practitioners interested in the future of governance. This study examined the relationship between ethics and performance in local governance. We tested the effects over time of an ethics program on employees' perceptions (awareness of the code of ethics, ethical leadership, inclusion of employees in ethical decision making [EDM], ethical climate [EC], organizational commitment, and quality of work life [QWL]) and behavior (organizational citizenship behavior) in (...)
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  8. Gerrit Balen (1987). Conceptual Tensions Between Theory and Program: The Chromosome Theory and the Mendelian Research Program. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 2 (4):435-461.score: 24.0
    Laudan's thesis that conceptual problem solving is at least as important as empirical problem solving in scientific research is given support by a study of the relation between the chromosome theory and the Mendelian research program. It will be shown that there existed a conceptual tension between the chromosome theory and the Mendelian program. This tension was to be resolved by changing the constraints of the Mendelian program. The relation between the chromosome theory and the Mendelian (...) is shown to be a good illustration of the influence of science itself on the rational standards governing scientific development. (shrink)
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  9. James Weber (2006). Implementing an Organizational Ethics Program in an Academic Environment: The Challenges and Opportunities for the Duquesne University Schools of Business. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 65 (1):23 - 42.score: 24.0
    This paper acknowledges the paucity of attention regarding the development of ethics programs within an academic environment and describes in a case study how the Duquesne University schools of business attempted to introduce, integrate and promote its own ethics program. The paper traces the business school’s attention to mission statements, curriculum development, ethics policy, program oversight and outcome assessment. Lessons learned are offered as suggestions for others seeking to develop and implement an ethics program in their school.
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  10. Ulrich Berger, Stefan Berghofer, Pierre Letouzey & Helmut Schwichtenberg (2006). Program Extraction From Normalization Proofs. Studia Logica 82 (1):25 - 49.score: 24.0
    This paper describes formalizations of Tait's normalization proof for the simply typed λ-calculus in the proof assistants Minlog, Coq and Isabelle/HOL. From the formal proofs programs are machine-extracted that implement variants of the well-known normalization-by-evaluation algorithm. The case study is used to test and compare the program extraction machineries of the three proof assistants in a non-trivial setting.
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  11. David A. Nelson (1992). Deductive Program Verification (a Practitioner's Commentary). Minds and Machines 2 (3):283-307.score: 24.0
    A proof of ‘correctness’ for a mathematical algorithm cannot be relevant to executions of a program based on that algorithm because both the algorithm and the proof are based on assumptions that do not hold for computations carried out by real-world computers. Thus, proving the ‘correctness’ of an algorithm cannot establish the trustworthiness of programs based on that algorithm. Despite the (deceptive) sameness of the notations used to represent them, the transformation of an algorithm into an executable program (...)
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  12. Kathie L. Pelletier & Michelle C. Bligh (2006). Rebounding From Corruption: Perceptions of Ethics Program Effectiveness in a Public Sector Organization. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 67 (4):359 - 374.score: 24.0
    We examine the perceived importance of three organizational preconditions (awareness of formal ethics codes, decision-making techniques, and availability of resources) theorized to be critical for ethics program effectiveness. In addition, we examine the importance of ethical leadership and congruence between formal ethics codes and informal ethical norms in influencing employee perceptions. Participants (n=418) from a large southern California government agency completed a survey on the perceived effectiveness of the organization’s ethics program. Results suggest that employee perceptions of organizational (...)
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  13. Gautam Bhattacharyya (2008). Genesis of an Academic Research Program. Journal of Research Practice 4 (1):Article D1.score: 24.0
    As students progress towards their PhD degrees, they will become more independent and practitioner-like; for those moving into academia, it is often assumed the programs of their PhD mentors will serve as prototypes for their own successful research programs. However, the author's research program as an Assistant Professor led him in directions never considered as a graduate student. The author had to make significant decisions in choosing a primary audience, finding an overarching theme, defining the individual problems, and developing (...)
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  14. Sheldene K. Simola (2010). Use of a "Coping-Modeling, Problem-Solving" Program in Business Ethics Education. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (3):383 - 401.score: 24.0
    During the last decade, scholars have identified a number of factors that pose significant challenges to effective business ethics education. This article offers a "coping-modeling, problem-solving" (CMPS) approach (Cunningham, 2006) as one option for addressing these concerns. A rationale supporting the use of the CMPS framework for courses on ethical decisionmaking in business is provided, following which the implementation processes for this program are described. Evaluative data collected from N = 101 undergraduate business students enrolled in a third year (...)
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  15. L. P. Steffe (2007). Radical Constructivism: A Scientific Research Program. Constructivist Foundations 2 (2-3):41-49.score: 24.0
    Purpose: In the paper, I discuss how Ernst Glasersfeld worked as a scientist on the project, Interdisciplinary Research on Number (IRON), and explain how his scientific activity fueled his development of radical constructivism. I also present IRON as a progressive research program in radical constructivism and suggest the essential components of such programs. Findings: The basic problem of Glasersfeld's radical constructivism is to explore the operations by means of which we assemble our experiential reality. Conceptual analysis is Glasersfeld's way (...)
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  16. Johann Baumgärtner & Josef Hartmann (2001). The Design and Implementation of Sustainable Plant Diversity Conservation Program for Alpine Meadows and Pastures. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (1):67-83.score: 24.0
    The paper describes the design and implementation of a plant biodiversity conservation program that was developed under funding and time constraints for diverse ecological, social, and institutional environments. The biodiversity program for alpine meadows and pastures located in the Swiss Canton of the Grisons is used as an example. The design of the sustainable program relied on existing legislation, accounted for limited ecological knowledge and expertise, and considered biodiversity as a common-pool resource. The trend to intensified cultivation (...)
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  17. Alexander P. Kreuzer (2013). Program Extraction for 2-Random Reals. Archive for Mathematical Logic 52 (5-6):659-666.score: 24.0
    Let ${2-\textsf{RAN}}$ be the statement that for each real X a real 2-random relative to X exists. We apply program extraction techniques we developed in Kreuzer and Kohlenbach (J. Symb. Log. 77(3):853–895, 2012. doi:10.2178/jsl/1344862165), Kreuzer (Notre Dame J. Formal Log. 53(2):245–265, 2012. doi:10.1215/00294527-1715716) to this principle. Let ${{\textsf{WKL}_0^\omega}}$ be the finite type extension of ${\textsf{WKL}_0}$ . We obtain that one can extract primitive recursive realizers from proofs in ${{\textsf{WKL}_0^\omega} + \Pi^0_1-{\textsf{CP}} + 2-\textsf{RAN}}$ , i.e., if ${{\textsf{WKL}_0^\omega} + \Pi^0_1-{\textsf{CP}} + (...)
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  18. Ver�Nica Becher, Santiago Figueira, Andr� Nies & Silvana Picchi (2005). Program Size Complexity for Possibly Infinite Computations. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 46 (1):51-64.score: 24.0
    We define a program size complexity function as a variant of the prefix-free Kolmogorov complexity, based on Turing monotone machines performing possibly unending computations. We consider definitions of randomness and triviality for sequences in relative to the complexity. We prove that the classes of Martin-Löf random sequences and -random sequences coincide and that the -trivial sequences are exactly the recursive ones. We also study some properties of and compare it with other complexity functions. In particular, is different from , (...)
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  19. Steven G. Crowell (2002). Is There a Phenomenological Research Program? Synthese 131 (3):419-444.score: 21.0
  20. Tamara Olive (2008). Desire for Higher Education in First-Generation Hispanic College Students Enrolled in an Academic Support Program: A Phenomenological Analysis. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 39 (1):81-110.score: 21.0
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  21. L. Anderson-Shaw, M. L. Schmidt, J. Elkin, W. Chamberlin, E. Benedetti & G. Testa (2005). Evolution of a Living Donor Liver Transplantation Advocacy Program. Journal of Clinical Ethics 16 (1):46.score: 21.0
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  22. Mark Vincent (2012). Cancer: A de‐Repression of a Default Survival Program Common to All Cells? Bioessays 34 (1):72-82.score: 21.0
  23. Carole L. Hahn (1985). The Diffusion Of An Innovation: A Case Study Of One Social Studies Program. Journal of Social Studies Research 9 (2):26-39.score: 21.0
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  24. Stephen B. Kennedy, Sherry Nolen, Zhenfeng Pan, Betty Smith, Jeffrey Applewhite & Kenneth J. Vanderhoff (2013). Effectiveness of a Brief Condom Promotion Program in Reducing Risky Sexual Behaviours Among African American Men. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (2):408-413.score: 21.0
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  25. Jamie S. Dollahite, Janet A. Nelson, Edward A. Frongillo & Matthew R. Griffin (2005). Building Community Capacity Through Enhanced Collaboration in the Farmers Market Nutrition Program. Agriculture and Human Values 22 (3):339-354.score: 21.0
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  26. Stuart W. Shulman (2003). An Experiment in Digital Government at the United States National Organic Program. Agriculture and Human Values 20 (3):253-265.score: 21.0
    Digital communications technology isreconfiguring democratic governance. Federalagencies increasingly rely on Internet-basedapplications to improve citizen-governmentinteraction. Early efforts in the area ofdigital government have created newparticipatory opportunities as well asformidable governance challenges. Federalagencies are working within and across theirboundaries to find an e-rulemaking format thatis cost-effective, legally appropriate,user-friendly, and well suited to diverse modesof rulemaking activities. One of the overridingissues emerging from this process is thedefinition of meaningful public participationin rulemaking. An examination of an early caseinvolving the USDA's National Organic Programproposed rule (...)
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  27. [deleted]C. Wondrusch & C. Schuster-Amft (2013). A Standardized Motor Imagery Introduction Program (MIIP) for Neuro-Rehabilitation: Development and Evaluation. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  28. John M. Zych (1999). Integrating Ethical Issues with Managerial Decision Making in the Classroom: Product Support Program Decisions. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 18 (3):255 - 266.score: 21.0
    Literature on the teaching of ethics points to the need for realistic business problems in which students deal with ethical dilemmas. This paper presents the results of an experiment in which students take on the role of a Brand Manager who must decide on the level of support to allocate to four distinct business problems. The problems were presented as business problems including realistic profit and cost considerations, rather than being posed as "ethics cases". Students were able to select from (...)
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  29. Li‐Sheng Chen, Ming‐Fang Yen, Hui‐Min Wu, Chao‐Sheng Liao, Der‐Ming Liou, Hsu‐Sung Kuo & Tony Hsiu‐Hsi Chen (2005). Predictive Survival Model with Time‐Dependent Prognostic Factors: Development of Computer‐Aided SAS Macro Program. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 11 (2):181-193.score: 21.0
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  30. Carlos A. Estrada, Mary A. Dolansky, Mamta K. Singh, Brant J. Oliver, Carol Callaway‐Lane, Mark Splaine, Stuart Gilman & Patricia A. Patrician (2012). Mastering Improvement Science Skills in the New Era of Quality and Safety: The Veterans Affairs National Quality Scholars Program. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (2):508-514.score: 21.0
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  31. Ann Mills & Mary Rorty (2010). The Pre-Conditions for “Building Capacity” in an Ethics Program. HEC Forum 22 (4):287-297.score: 20.0
    Most organizations and/or their sub-units like ethics programs want to acquire the knowledge, skills and other resources needed to achieve their goals efficiently and effectively. Thus, they want to acquire or develop needed capacity. But there are pre-conditions to building capacity that are often overlooked or forgotten, but which nevertheless, must be in place before capacity can be developed. This essay identifies these pre-conditions and discusses why they are necessary before attempts are made to enhance the capacity of any ethics (...)
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  32. Eugene Matusov & Mark Philip Smith (2011). An Ecological Model of Inter-Institutional Sustainability of an After-School Program: The La Red Mágica Community-University Partnership in Delaware. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 13 (1):19-45.score: 20.0
    The purpose of the paper is to introduce a recursive model of ecological discursive sustainability, as it applies to and emerges from the history of an after-school program partnership between the School of Education at the University of Delaware, USA and the Latin American Community Center in Wilmington, Delaware, USA. This model is characterized by the development of shared ownership and collaboration between the institutional partners, the co-evolution and crossfertilization of the partners’ practices and the negotiation of institutional boundaries (...)
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  33. David Morrison, Sharinaz Hassan, Rosanna Mary Rooney, Robert Kane, Clare Roberts & Vincent Mancini (2013). Prevention of Internalising Disorders in 9-10 Year Old Children: Efficacy of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program at 30-Month Follow-Up. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Psychology 4:988.score: 20.0
    The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOP-PTS) is an innovative curriculum-based mental health promotion program based on cognitive and behavioural strategies. The program is aimed at preventing depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders in middle primary school children aged 9-10 years. Students from 22 low SES primary schools (N = 910) were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group and assessed at the 30-month follow-up. The intervention group received the program implemented by teachers (...)
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  34. Massimo Pigliucci (2006). Genetic Variance–Covariance Matrices: A Critique of the Evolutionary Quantitative Genetics Research Program. Biology and Philosophy 21 (1):1-23.score: 18.0
    This paper outlines a critique of the use of the genetic variance–covariance matrix (G), one of the central concepts in the modern study of natural selection and evolution. Specifically, I argue that for both conceptual and empirical reasons, studies of G cannot be used to elucidate so-called constraints on natural selection, nor can they be employed to detect or to measure past selection in natural populations – contrary to what assumed by most practicing biologists. I suggest that the search for (...)
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  35. Erik C. Banks (2013). Extension and Measurement: A Constructivist Program From Leibniz to Grassmann. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (1):20-31.score: 18.0
    Extension is probably the most general natural property. Is it a fundamental property? Leibniz claimed the answer was no, and that the structureless intuition of extension concealed more fundamental properties and relations. This paper follows Leibniz's program through Herbart and Riemann to Grassmann and uses Grassmann's algebra of points to build up levels of extensions algebraically. Finally, the connection between extension and measurement is considered.
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  36. Uriah Kriegel (2013). The Phenomenal Intentionality Research Program. In U. Kriegel (ed.), Phenomenal Intentionality. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    We review some of the work already done around the notion of phenomenal intentionality and propose a way of turning this body of work into a self-conscious research program for understanding intentionality.
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  37. Uri D. Leibowitz (2009). A Defense of a Particularist Research Program. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 12 (2):181 - 199.score: 18.0
    What makes some acts morally right and others morally wrong? Traditionally, philosophers have thought that in order to answer this question we must find and formulate exceptionless moral principles—principles that capture all and only morally right actions. Utilitarianism and Kantianism are paradigmatic examples of such attempts. In recent years, however, there has been a growing interest in a novel approach—Particularism—although its precise content is still a matter of controversy. In this paper I develop and motivate a new formulation of particularism (...)
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  38. Frank Jackson & Philip Pettit (1990). Program Explanation: A General Perspective. Analysis 50 (2):107-17.score: 18.0
    Some properties are causally relevant for a certain effect, others are not. In this paper we describe a problem for our understanding of this notion and then offer a solution in terms of the notion of a program explanation.
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  39. Uriah Kriegel (forthcoming). Brentano's Philosophical Program. In U. Kriegel (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Brentano and the Brentano School. Routledge.score: 18.0
    Franz Brentano was not a systematic writer, but he was very much a systematic thinker. Through his manuscripts, lecture notes, letters, dictations, and occasional published writings, one can discern a systematic, unified approach to the true, the good, and the beautiful. My goal here is to articulate explicitly this approach, and the philosophical program it reflects. The exercise requires going over big stretches of terrain with some efficiency, so I will be unable to go very deeply into the motivation (...)
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  40. Nikolay Milkov (2013). The Joint Philosophical Program of Russell and Wittgenstein and Its Demise. Nordic Wittgenstein Review 2 (2):81-105.score: 18.0
    Between April and November 1912, Bertrand Russell and Ludwig Wittgenstein were engaged in a joint philosophical program. Wittgenstein‘s meeting with Gottlob Frege in December 1912 led, however, to its dissolution – the joint program was abandoned. Section 2 of this paper outlines the key points of that program, identifying what Russell and Wittgenstein each contributed to it. The third section determines precisely those features of their collaborative work that Frege criticized. Finally, building upon the evidence developed in (...)
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  41. Juha Saatsi (2012). Mathematics and Program Explanations. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (3):579-584.score: 18.0
    Aidan Lyon has recently argued that some mathematical explanations of empirical facts can be understood as program explanations. I present three objections to his argument.
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  42. Guy Axtell, (2011) Responsibilism: A Proposed Shared Research Program.score: 18.0
    Originally titled “Institutional, Group, and Individual Virtue,” this was my paper for an Invited Symposium on "Intersections between Social, Feminist, and Virtue Epistemologies," APA Pacific Division Meeting, April 2011, San Diego. -/- Abstract: This paper examines recent research on individual, social, and institutional virtues and vices; the aim is to explore and make proposals concerning their inter-relationships, as well as to highlight central questions for future research with the study of each. More specifically, the paper will focus on how these (...)
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  43. James H. Fetzer (1988). Program Verification: The Very Idea. Communications of the Acm 31 (9):1048--1063.score: 18.0
    The notion of program verification appears to trade upon an equivocation. Algorithms, as logical structures, are appropriate subjects for deductive verification. Programs, as causal models of those structures, are not. The success of program verification as a generally applicable and completely reliable method for guaranteeing program performance is not even a theoretical possibility.
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  44. Mark T. Nelson (2006). Moral Realism and Program Explanation. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 84 (3):417 – 428.score: 18.0
    Alexander Miller has recently considered an ingenious extension of Frank Jackson and Philip Pettit's account of 'program explanation' as a way of defending non-reductive naturalist versions of moral realism against Harman's explanatory criticism. Despite the ingenuity of this extension, Miller concludes that program explanation cannot help such moral realists in their attempt to defend moral properties. Specifically, he argues that such moral program explanations are dispensable from an epistemically unlimited point of view. I show that Miller's argument (...)
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  45. Charles H. Pence & Lara Buchak (2012). Oyun: A New, Free Program for Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma Tournaments in the Classroom. Evolution Education and Outreach 5 (3):467-476.score: 18.0
    Evolutionary applications of game theory present one of the most pedagogically accessible varieties of genuine, contemporary theoretical biology. We present here Oyun (OY-oon, http://charlespence.net/oyun), a program designed to run iterated prisoner’s dilemma tournaments, competitions between prisoner’s dilemma strategies developed by the students themselves. Using this software, students are able to readily design and tweak their own strategies, and to see how they fare both in round-robin tournaments and in “evolutionary” tournaments, where the scores in a given “generation” directly determine (...)
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  46. Bill Wringe (2002). Is Folk Psychology a Lakatosian Research Program? Philosophical Psychology 15 (3):343-358.score: 18.0
    It has often been argued, by philosophers and more recently by developmental psychologists, that our common-sense conception of the mind should be regarded as a scientific theory. However, those who advance this view rarely say much about what they take a scientific theory to be. In this paper, I look at one specific proposal as to how we should interpret the theory view of folk psychology--namely, by seeing it as having a structure analogous to that of a Lakatosian research (...). I argue that although the Lakatosian model may seem promising--particularly to those who are interested in studying the development of children's understanding of the mind--the analogy between Lakatosian research programs and folk psychology cannot be made good because folk psychology does not possess anything analogous to the positive heuristic of a Lakatosian research program. I also argue that Lakatos' account of theories may not be the best one for developmental psychologists to adopt because of the emphasis which Lakatos places on the social embeddedness of scientific theorising. (shrink)
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  47. Sven Walter (2005). Program Explanations and Causal Relevance. Acta Analytica 20 (36):32-47.score: 18.0
    Frank Jackson and Philip Pettit have defended a non-reductive account of causal relevance known as the ‘program explanation account’. Allegedly, irreducible mental properties can be causally relevant in virtue of figuring in non-redundant program explanations which convey information not conveyed by explanations in terms of the physical properties that actually do the ‘causal work’. I argue that none of the possible ways to spell out the intuitively plausible idea of a program explanation serves its purpose, viz., defends (...)
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  48. Lawrence A. Shapiro, The Embodied Cognition Research Program.score: 18.0
    Unifying traditional cognitive science is the idea that thinking is a process of symbol manipulation, where symbols lead both a syntactic and a semantic life. The syntax of a symbol comprises those properties in virtue of which the symbol undergoes rule-dictated transformations. The semantics of a symbol constitute the symbolsÕ meaning or representational content. Thought consists in the syntactically determined manipulation of symbols, but in a way that respects their semantics. Thus, for instance, a calculating computer sensitive only to the (...)
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  49. Mark Andrew Schroeder (2008/2010). Being For: Evaluating the Semantic Program of Expressivism. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    Expressivism - the sophisticated contemporary incarnation of the noncognitivist research program of Ayer, Stevenson, and Hare - is no longer the province of metaethicists alone. Its comprehensive view about the nature of both normative language and normative thought has also recently been applied to many topics elsewhere in philosophy - including logic, probability, mental and linguistic content, knowledge, epistemic modals, belief, the a priori, and even quantifiers. Yet the semantic commitments of expressivism are still poorly understood and have not (...)
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  50. Robert French (1996). The Inverted Turing Test: How a Mindless Program Could Pass It. Psycoloquy 7 (39).score: 18.0
    This commentary attempts to show that the inverted Turing Test (Watt 1996) could be simulated by a standard Turing test and, most importantly, claims that a very simple program with no intelligence whatsoever could be written that would pass the inverted Turing test. For this reason, the inverted Turing test in its present form must be rejected.
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