Search results for 'Prohibition-rule on kind-crossing' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Paola Cantù (2010). Aristotle's Prohibition Rule on Kind-Crossing and the Definition of Mathematics as a Science of Quantities. Synthese 174 (2):225 - 235.
    The article evaluates the Domain Postulate of the Classical Model of Science and the related Aristotelian prohibition rule on kind-crossing as interpretative tools in the history of the development of mathematics into a general science of quantities. Special reference is made to Proclus’ commentary to Euclid’s first book of Elements , to the sixteenth century translations of Euclid’s work into Latin and to the works of Stevin, Wallis, Viète and Descartes. The prohibition rule on kind-crossing formulated by Aristotle (...)
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  2.  10
    Paola Cantù (2010). Aristotle’s Prohibition Rule on Kind-Crossing and the Definition of Mathematics as a Science of Quantities. Synthese 174 (2):225-235.
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  3.  1
    John T. Noonan (1982). A Prohibition Without a Purpose? Laws That Are Not Norms?: A Rejoinder to Professor Boyle. American Journal of Jurisprudence 27 (1):14-16.
    Consider a familiar case. A sign reads, “No vehicles in the park.” A man in the park has a heart attack. An ambulance is needed. Does its entry violate the rule? Most people would say that the rule was not meant to apply to needed ambulances. It would not make any difference if the rule read, “No vehicles whatsoever in the park.” The purpose of any rule against vehicles would not be served by a flat prohibition of ambulances. Consider a (...)
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  4.  2
    Grzegorz Michalski (1992). On the Iterated Ω‐Rule. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 38 (1):203-208.
    Let Γn be a formula of LPA meaning “there is a proof of φ from PA-axioms, in which ω-rule is iterated no more than n times”. We examine relations over pairs of natural numbers of the kind. ≦H iff PA + RFNn' ⊩ RFNn .Where H denotes one of the hierarchies ∑ or Π and RFNn is the scheme of the reflection principle for Γn restricted to formulas from the class C implies “φ is true”, for every φ ∈ C). (...)
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  5.  97
    Charles Douglas (2009). End-of-Life Decisions and Moral Psychology: Killing, Letting Die, Intention and Foresight. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 6 (3):337-347.
    In contemplating any life and death moral dilemma, one is often struck by the possible importance of two distinctions; the distinction between killing and “letting die”, and the distinction between an intentional killing and an action aimed at some other outcome that causes death as a foreseen but unintended “side-effect”. Many feel intuitively that these distinctions are morally significant, but attempts to explain why this might be so have been unconvincing. In this paper, I explore the problem from an explicitly (...)
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  6.  4
    James Bradley & Peter Loptson, A Very Different Kind of Rule: Credal Rules, Argumentation and Community.
    In mainstream Anglo-American philosophy, the relation between cognition and community has been defined primarily in terms of the generalization of the mathematical function, especially as a model for the nature of rules, which thus come to be under-stood as algorithms. This leads to the elimination of both the reflexive, synthesizing subject, and the intrinsic communal-historical nature of argumentation and belief-formation. Against this approach, I follow R.G. Collingwood’s hitherto unrecognized strategy in his Essay on Metaphysics and argue that the relation of (...)
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  7. Henry Shue (2016). Fighting Hurt: Rule and Exception in Torture and War. Oxford University Press Uk.
    Some of our most fundamental moral rules are violated by the practices of torture and war. If one examines the concrete forms these practices take, can the exceptions to the rules necessary to either torture or war be justified? Fighting Hurt brings together key essays by Henry Shue on the issue of torture, and relatedly, the moral challenges surrounding the initiation and conduct of war, and features a new introduction outlining the argument of the essays, putting them into context, and (...)
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  8. Douglas W. Portmore (forthcoming). Parfit on Reasons and Rule Consequentialism. In Simon Kirchin (ed.), Reading Parfit. Routledge
    I argue that rule consequentialism sometimes requires us to act in ways that we lack sufficient reason to act. And this presents a dilemma for Parfit. Either Parfit should concede that we should reject rule consequentialism (and, hence, Triple Theory, which implies it) despite the putatively strong reasons that he believes we have for accepting the view or he should deny that morality has the importance he attributes to it. For if morality is such that we sometimes have decisive reason (...)
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  9.  6
    Bang Nguyen Pham, Timothy Adair, Peter S. Hill & Chalapati Rao (2012). The Impact of the Stopping Rule on Sex Ratio of Last Births in Vietnam. Journal of Biosocial Science 44 (2):181-196.
    This study examines the hypothesis that the stopping rule-a traditional postnatal sex selection method where couples decide to cease childbearing once they bear a son-plays a role in high sex ratio of last births (SRLB). The study develops a theoretical framework to demonstrate the operation of the stopping rule in a context of son preference. This framework was used to demonstrate the impact of the stopping rule on the SRLB in Vietnam, using data from the Population Change Survey 2006. The (...)
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  10.  19
    David McIlroy (2016). How Is the Rule of Law a Limit on Power? Studies in Christian Ethics 29 (1):34-50.
    A commitment to the rule of law is a commitment to the governance of a society through the use of general or generalisable rules which are binding on both the subjects and the rulers. By giving due notice of the rules and of any changes to them, those who are subject to the law are protected from violence and enabled to act as agents. This is the essential contribution the rule of law makes to important human goods including freedom. Such (...)
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  11.  22
    Andrei Khrennikov (2009). Detection Model Based on Representation of Quantum Particles by Classical Random Fields: Born's Rule and Beyond. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 39 (9):997-1022.
    Recently a new attempt to go beyond quantum mechanics (QM) was presented in the form of so called prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT). Its main experimental prediction is violation of Born’s rule which provides only an approximative description of real probabilities. We expect that it will be possible to design numerous experiments demonstrating violation of Born’s rule. Moreover, recently the first experimental evidence of violation was found in the triple slit interference experiment, see Sinha, et al. (Foundations of Probability (...)
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  12.  27
    José L. Tasset (2011). On Knaves and Rules. (An Approach to the 'Sensible Knave' Problem From a Tempered Rule Utilitarianism). Daimon: Revista de Filosofia 52:117-140.
    In the attempt of defending an interpretation of David Hume's moral and political philosophy connected to classical utilitarianism, intervenes in a key way the so called problem of the " Sensitive Knave " raised by this author at the end of his more utilitarian work, the Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals. According to the classic interpretation of this fragment, the utilitarian rationality in politics would clash with morality turning useless the latter. Therefore, in the political area the defense of (...)
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  13.  8
    P. Roger Turner (2015). Kearns on Rule A. Philosophia 43 (1):205-215.
    The so-called Direct Argument for the incompatibility of moral responsibility and causal determinism depends on a rule of inference called Rule A, a rule that says no one is even partly morally responsible for a necessary truth. While most philosophers think that Rule A is valid, Stephen Kearns has recently offered several alleged counterexamples to the rule. In the paper, I show that Kearns’ counterexamples are unsuccessful.
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  14. Nathaniel Sharadin (2013). Schroeder on the Wrong Kind of Reasons Problem for Attitudes. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 7:1-8.
    Mark Schroeder has recently offered a solution to the problem of distinguishing between the so-called " right " and " wrong " kinds of reasons for attitudes like belief and admiration. Schroeder tries out two different strategies for making his solution work: the alethic strategy and the background-facts strategy. In this paper I argue that neither of Schroeder's two strategies will do the trick. We are still left with the problem of distinguishing the right from the wrong kinds of reasons.
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  15. Robert Greenleaf Brice (2009). Recognizing Targets: Wittgenstein's Exploration of a New Kind of Foundationalism in on Certainty. Philosophical Investigations 32 (1):1-22.
    Bringing the views of Grayling, Moyal-Sharrock and Stroll together, I argue that in On Certainty, Wittgenstein explores the possibility of a new kind of foundationalism. Distinguishing propositional language-games from non-propositional, actional certainty, Wittgenstein investigates a foundationalism sui generis . Although he does not forthrightly state, defend, or endorse what I am characterizing as a "new kind of foundationalism," we must bear in mind that On Certainty was a collection of first draft notes written at the end of Wittgenstein's life. The (...)
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  16. Anandi Hattiangadi (2003). Making It Implicit: Brandom on Rule-Following. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 66 (2):419-31.
    In Making it Explicit, Brandom aims to articulate an account of conceptual content that accommodates its normativity--a requirement on theories of content that Brandom traces to Wittgenstein's rule following considerations. It is widely held that the normativity requirement cannot be met, or at least not with ease, because theories of content face an intractable dilemma. Brandom proposes to evade the dilemma by adopting a middle road--one that uses normative vocabulary, but treats norms as implicit in practices. I argue that this (...)
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  17. E. J. Lowe (2011). Locke on Real Essence and Water as a Natural Kind: A Qualified Defence. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 85 (1):1-19.
    ‘Water is H2O’ is one of the most frequently cited sentences in analytic philosophy, thanks to the seminal work of Saul Kripke and Hilary Putnam in the 1970s on the semantics of natural kind terms. Both of these philosophers owe an intellectual debt to the empiricist metaphysics of John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, while disagreeing profoundly with Locke about the reality of natural kinds. Locke employs an intriguing example involving water to support his view that kinds (or ‘species’), such (...)
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  18.  34
    Enzo Rossi (2009). The Exemption That Confirms the Rule: Reflections on Proceduralism and the Uk Hybrid Embryos Controversy. Res Publica 15 (3):237-250.
    This paper provides an interpretation of the licensing provisions envisaged under the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990 as a model for a rule and exemption-based procedural strategy for the adjudication of potential ethical controversies, and it offers an account of the liberal-democratic legitimacy of the procedure’s outcomes as well as of the legal procedure itself. Drawing on a novel articulation of the distinction between exceptions and exemptions, the paper argues that such a rule and exemption mechanism, while not devoid (...)
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  19.  1
    Martin L. Jönsson, Ulrike Hahn & Erik J. Olsson (2015). The Kind of Group You Want to Belong To: Effects of Group Structure on Group Accuracy. Cognition 142:191-204.
    There has been much interest in group judgment and the so-called 'wisdom of crowds'. In many real world contexts, members of groups not only share a dependence on external sources of information, but they also communicate with one another, thus introducing correlations among their responses that can diminish collective accuracy. This has long been known, but it has-to date-not been examined to what extent different kinds of communication networks may give rise to systematically different effects on accuracy. We argue that (...)
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  20.  5
    David Dyzenhaus (2014). Hobbes on the International Rule of Law. Ethics and International Affairs 28 (1):53-64.
    Perhaps the most influential passage on the rule of law in international law comes from chapter 13 of Thomas Hobbes's Leviathan. In the course of describing the miserable condition of mankind in the state of nature, Hobbes remarks to readers who might be skeptical that such a state ever existed that they need only look to international relations—the relations between independent states—to observe one: But though there had never been any time, wherein particular men were in a condition of warre (...)
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  21.  18
    Ulrich Kohlenbach (2001). A Note on Spector's Quantifier-Free Rule of Extensionality. Archive for Mathematical Logic 40 (2):89-92.
    In this note we show that the so-called weakly extensional arithmetic in all finite types, which is based on a quantifier-free rule of extensionality due to C. Spector and which is of significance in the context of Gödel"s functional interpretation, does not satisfy the deduction theorem for additional axioms. This holds already for Π0 1-axioms. Previously, only the failure of the stronger deduction theorem for deductions from (possibly open) assumptions (with parameters kept fixed) was known.
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  22.  48
    Michel Regenwetter, James Adams & Bernard Grofman (2002). On the (Sample) Condorcet Efficiency of Majority Rule: An Alternative View of Majority Cycles and Social Homogeneity. Theory and Decision 53 (2):153-186.
    The Condorcet efficiency of a social choice procedure is usually defined as the probability that this procedure coincides with the majority winner (or majority ordering) in random samples, given a majority winner exists (or given the majority ordering is transitive). Consequently, it is in effect a conditional probability that two sample statistics coincide, given certain side conditions. We raise a different issue of Condorcet efficiencies: What is the probability that a social choice procedure applied to a sample matches with the (...)
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  23.  70
    Åsa Wikforss (2013). Bachelors, Energy, Cats and Water: Putnam on Kinds and Kind Terms. Theoria 79 (3):242-261.
    Since Hilary Putnam and Saul Kripke's first attacks on traditional, descriptivist theories of natural kind terms, it has become customary to speak of the ‘Putnam-Kripke’ view of meaning and reference. This article argues that this is a mistake, and that Putnam's account of natural kind terms is importantly different from that of Kripke. In particular, Putnam has from the very start been sceptical of Kripke's modal claims, and in later papers he explicitly rejects the proposal that theoretical identity statements are (...)
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  24.  30
    Tom Stoneham (1999). Boghossian on Empty Natural Kind Concepts. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 99 (1):119-22.
    Paul Boghossian has argued that Externalism is incompatible with privileged self-knowledge because (i) the Externalist can cite no property to be the reference of an empty natural kind concept such as the ether; (ii) without reference there is no content; hence (iii) either we do know on the basis of introspection alone whether an apparent natural kind thought has content or not, in which case we can infer from self-knowledge and a priori knowledge of Externalism alone to the existence in (...)
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  25.  25
    Brenda R. J. Jansen, Maartje E. J. Raijmakers & Ingmar Visser (2007). Rule Transition on the Balance Scale Task: A Case Study in Belief Change. Synthese 155 (2):211 - 236.
    For various domains in proportional reasoning cognitive development is characterized as a progression through a series of increasingly complex rules. A multiplicative relationship between two task features, such as weight and distance information of blocks placed at both sides of the fulcrum of a balance scale, appears difficult to discover. During development, children change their beliefs about the balance scale several times: from a focus on the weight dimension (Rule I) to occasionally considering the distance dimension (Rule II), guessing (Rule (...)
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  26.  41
    Mathias Risse (2009). On the Philosophy of Group Decision Methods I: The Nonobviousness of Majority Rule. Philosophy Compass 4 (5):793-802.
    Majority rule is often adopted almost by default as a group decision rule. One might think, therefore, that the conditions under which it applies, and the argument on its behalf, are well understood. However, the standard arguments in support of majority rule display systematic deficiencies. This article explores these weaknesses, and assesses what can be said on behalf of majority rule.
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  27.  35
    Ned Markosian (1988). On Ockham's Supposition Theory and Karger's Rule of Inference. Franciscan Studies 48 (1):40-52.
    Elizabeth Karger has suggested an interpretation of Ockham's theory of the modes of common personal supposition ("TM") according to which the purpose of TM is to provide certain distinctions that Ockham will use in formulating a unified theory of immediate inference among certain kinds of sentences. Karger presents a single, powerful rule of inference that incorporates TM distinctions and that is meant to codify Ockham's theory of immediate inference. I raise an objection to Karger's rule, thereby calling into doubt the (...)
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  28.  28
    Mathias Risse (2009). On the Philosophy of Group Decision Methods II: Alternatives to Majority Rule. Philosophy Compass 4 (5):803-812.
    In this companion piece to 'On the Philosophy of Group Decision Methods I: The Non-Obviousness of Majority Rule', we take a closer look at some competitors of majority rule. This exploration supplements the conclusions of the other piece, as well as offers a further-reaching introduction to some of the challenges that this field currently poses to philosophers.
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  29.  1
    Keith Jenkins (2004). Ethical Responsibility and the Historian: On the Possible End of a History “of a Certain Kind”. History and Theory 43 (4):43-60.
    In this article I try to answer the question posed by History and Theory’s “call for papers”; namely, “do historians as historians have an ethical responsibility, and if so to whom and to what?” To do this I draw mainly on three texts: Alain Badiou’s Ethics: An Essay on the Understanding of Evil, J. F. Lyotard’s The Differend, and Edward Said’s Representations of the Intellectual; Jacques Derrida and Richard Rorty have a presence too, albeit a largely absent one. Together, I (...)
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  30. Rodrigo Jungmann de Castro (2010). "Kripke´s Near Miss" and Some Other Considerations On Rule Following. Princípios 15 (23):135-151.
    In his 1982 book Wittgenstein On Rules and Private Language, Saul Kripke maintains that Wittgenstein´s rule following considerations land us with a skeptical argument about meaning. This essay contains a short exposition of Kripke´s argument. In addition, I hold, both on textual grounds and by an appeal to some select secondary literature, that Wittgenstein offered no such skeptical argument in the Philosophical Investigations . Although Wittgenstein certainly repudiates a view of meaning based on temporally located mental states, it does not (...)
     
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  31.  30
    Sue Barker (2013). The Road to Eternal Life: Reflections on the Prologue of Benedict's Rule [Book Review]. The Australasian Catholic Record 90 (1):122.
    Barker, Sue Review(s) of: The road to eternal life: Reflections on the prologue of Benedict's rule, by Michael Casey OCSO, (Mulgrave VIC: John Garratt Publishing, 2011), pp.182, $29.95.
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  32.  19
    Elisabetta Lalumera (2010). Concepts Are a Functional Kind. Comment on Machery's Doing Without Concepts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):217-18.
    This commentary focuses on Machery's eliminativist claim, that ought to be eliminated from the theoretical vocabulary of psychology because it fails to denote a natural kind. I argue for the more traditional view that concepts are a functional kind, which provides the simplest account of the empirical evidence discussed by Machery.
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  33.  27
    Diane E. Hoffmann, J. Dennis Fortenberry & Jacques Ravel (2013). Are Changes to the Common Rule Necessary to Address Evolving Areas of Research? A Case Study Focusing on the Human Microbiome Project. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 41 (2):454-469.
    This article examines ways in which research conducted under the Human Microbiome Project, an effort to establish a “reference catalogue” of the micro-organisms present in the human body and determine how changes in those micro-organisms affect health and disease, raise challenging issues for regulation of human subject research. The article focuses on issues related to subject selection and recruitment, group stigma, and informational risks, and explores whether: (1) the Common Rule or proposed changes to the Rule adequately address these issues (...)
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  34.  1
    Jennifer Hendry & Colin King (forthcoming). Expediency, Legitimacy, and the Rule of Law: A Systems Perspective on Civil/Criminal Procedural Hybrids. Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-25.
    In recent years an increasing quantity of UK legislation has introduced blended or ‘hybridised’ procedures that blur the previously clear demarcation between civil and criminal legal processes, typically on the grounds of normatively-motivated political expediency. This paper provides a critical perspective on instances of procedural hybridisation in order to illustrate that, first, the reliance upon civil law measures to remedy criminal law infractions can raise human rights issues and, second, that such instrumental criminal justice strategies deliberately circumvent the enhanced procedural (...)
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  35.  24
    Michał Głowala (2012). What Kind of Power is Virtue? John of St. Thomas OP on Causality of Virtues and Vices. Studia Neoaristotelica 9 (1):25-57.
    The following paper discusses John of St. Thomas’ study of the way in which a habit (moral or epistemic virtue or vice) is a cause of an action it prompts. I begin with contrasting the question of causality of habits with the general question of the causal relevance of dispositions (2). I argue that habits constitute a very peculiar kind of dispositions marked by the connection with the properties of being difficult and being easy, and there are some special reasons (...)
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  36. Rodrigo Jungmann de Castro (2008). 'Kripke's Near Miss' and Some Other Considerations On Rule Following. Princípios 15 (23):135-151.
    In his 1982 book Wittgenstein On Rules and Private Language, Saul Kripke maintains that Wittgenstein´s rule following considerations land us with a skeptical argument about meaning. This essay contains a short exposition of Kripke´s argument. In addition, I hold, both on textual grounds and by an appeal to some select secondary literature, that Wittgenstein offered no such skeptical argument in the Philosophical Investigations . Although Wittgenstein certainly repudiates a view of meaning based on temporally located mental states, it does not (...)
     
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  37.  34
    Bernard Linsky (1977). Putnam on the Meaning of Natural Kind Terms. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 7 (4):819 - 828.
    In "the meaning of 'meaning'," hilary putnam uses three "twin earth" examples to argue that natural kind terms do not have a sense. I argue that the first two only show that kind terms are like indexicals and that they are rigid designators but that this is compatible with having a sense. The third argument relies on a theory about the epistemological role of kind terms and the claim that there are no analytic truths about kinds that could arise from (...)
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  38.  13
    Juliet Williams (1997). On the Road Again: Hayek and the Rule of Law. Critical Review 11 (1):101-120.
    Abstract In his political writings, F. A. Hayek faces a classic liberal dilemma: he opposes coercion but recognizes that sometimes the state can help to minimize it. Hayek attempts to resolve the dilemma of the limits of state power by offering a definition of the rule of law that does not depend on a controversial conception of rights. However, his effort to formalize the rule of law fails. Not only does Hayek implicitly rely on an undefended theory of rights, but (...)
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  39.  18
    Asta Dambrauskaitė (2009). Influence of Impossibility of Performance on the Validity of Legal Transactions – Application of the Rule “impossibilium nulla obligatio est” in Modern Law. Jurisprudence 117 (3):313-337.
    The article deals with the issue of initial impossibility of performance of an obligation and the influence of such impossibility of performance on the validity of the legal transaction that establishes such an obligation. The legal doctrine convincingly demonstrates that for Roman lawyers the rule Impossitionbilium nulla obligatio est merely meant that nobody can be obliged to perform something that cannot be performed; however, it did not necessarily follow that a contract establishing such an obligation was void. Modern civil codifications (...)
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  40.  28
    Aurelio Perez Fustegueras (1996). Sobre semantica de los terminos de genero natural (On the Semantics of Natural-kind Words). Theoria 11 (1):143-159.
    EI artículo comienza con un análisis de la estructura de la teoría semántica de Kripke y Putnam para términos de génera natural. A continuación, se someten a crítica algunos principios de esta teoría. Tomando pie en lo anterior, la segunda mitad del artículo esta dedicada a una reflexión sobre la relación entre intension y extensión. Tras constatar que los conceptos asociados con términos de genera natural están sujetos a evolución, se concluye que la intensión determina o no determina la extensión (...)
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  41.  13
    George Englebretsen (1971). On the Nature of Sommers' Rule. Mind 80 (320):608-611.
    I argue here that recent discussions of f. sommers' "rule for enforcing ambiguity" have been mistaken on one of two grounds. either they misrepresent the sense of the rule or they misunderstand its intent. the rule is neither a sense rule nor a categorial rule, but a 'translation' rule relating senses of terms to categories of individuals. rather than a test for term ambiguity the rule is a test for theory coherence. finally, i show that there are many possible ways (...)
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  42.  35
    Brian Barry (2003). Capitalists Rule. Ok? A Commentary on Keith Dowding. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 2 (3):323-341.
    In response to criticisms made by Keith Dowding (hereafter KD) of `Capitalists Rule OK', this article argues (1) that there is a genuine structural conflict of interest between consumers and producers, voters and politicians, and capitalists and governments, and (2) that only by ad hoc and arbitrary limitations on the scope of the concept of power can it be denied that consumers collectively have power over producers and capitalists (collectively) have power over government. KD accepts that voters (collectively) have power (...)
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  43.  14
    Gene Callahan (2012). Winch on Following a Rule: A Wittgensteinian Critique of Oakeshott. Collingwood and British Idealism Studies 18 (2):167-175.
    Peter Winch famously critiqued Michael Oakeshott's view of human conduct. He argued that Oakeshott had missed the fact that truly human conduct is conduct that 'follows a rule.' This paper argues that, as is sometimes the case with Oakeshott, what seems, on the surface, to be a disagreement with another, somewhat compatible thinker about a matter of detail in some social theory in fact turns out to point to a deeper philosophical divide. In particular, I contend, Winch, as typical of (...)
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  44.  12
    Aurelio Perez Fustegueras (1996). Sobre Semantica de Los Terminos de Genero Natural (on the Semantics of Natural-Kind Words). Theoria 11 (1):143-159.
    EI artículo comienza con un análisis de la estructura de la teoría semántica de Kripke y Putnam para términos de génera natural. A continuación, se someten a crítica algunos principios de esta teoría. Tomando pie en lo anterior, la segunda mitad del artículo esta dedicada a una reflexión sobre la relación entre intension y extensión. Tras constatar que los conceptos asociados con términos de genera natural están sujetos a evolución, se concluye que la intensión determina o no determina la extensión (...)
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  45.  9
    Max Kistler (1996). On the Content of Natural Kind Concepts. Acta Analytica 16:55-79.
    The search for a nomological account of what determines the content of concepts as they are represented in cognitive systems, is an important part of the general project of explaining intentional phenomena in naturalistic terms. I examine Fodor's "Theory of Content" and criticize his strategy of combining constraints in nomological terms with contraints in terms of actual causal relations. The paper focuses on the problem of the indeterminacy of the content of natural kind concepts. A concept like water can pick (...)
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  46.  4
    C. Kilpatrick (2015). On the Rule of Law and Economic Emergency: The Degradation of Basic Legal Values in Europe's Bailouts. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 35 (2):325-353.
    The norms governing EU sovereign debt conditionality in ‘debtor states’ significantly trouble the Rule of Law. My analysis addresses this central, yet to date ignored, Rule of Law challenge created by the EU economic crisis. I contrast my specific approach with two other Rule of Law strands in current EU scholarship and develop it by placing it within relevant broader literatures on rule of law and emergency. Drawing particularly on Fuller and Waldron, this produces a formal and procedural Rule of (...)
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  47.  8
    Frank Chaten (2014). The Dead Donor Rule: Effect on the Virtuous Practice of Medicine. Journal of Medical Ethics 40 (7):496-500.
    Objective The President's Council on Bioethics in 2008 reaffirmed the necessity of the dead donor rule and the legitimacy of the current criteria for diagnosing both neurological and cardiac death. In spite of this report, many have continued to express concerns about the ethics of donation after circulatory death, the validity of determining death using neurological criteria and the necessity for maintaining the dead donor rule for organ donation. I analysed the dead donor rule for its effect on the virtuous (...)
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  48.  7
    Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu, Stephen Cranefield, Maryam A. Purvis & Martin K. Purvis (2013). Identifying Prohibition Norms in Agent Societies. Artificial Intelligence and Law 21 (1):1 - 46.
    In normative multi-agent systems, the question of “how an agent identifies norms in an open agent society” has not received much attention. This paper aims at addressing this question. To this end, this paper proposes an architecture for norm identification for an agent. The architecture is based on observation of interactions between agents. This architecture enables an autonomous agent to identify prohibition norms in a society using the prohibition norm identification (PNI) algorithm. The PNI algorithm uses association rule mining, a (...)
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  49.  20
    Alec Walen (2008). Crossing a Moral Line: Long-Term Preventive Detention in the War on Terror. Philosophy and Public Policy Quarterly 28 (3/4):15-21.
    It is often argued that suspected terrorists captured in the war on terror can be detained just the same way captured enemy soldiers can: until the relevant war is over. But there is a deep disanalogy between suspected terrorists and captured enemy soldiers. Soldiers cannot be held accountable for the use of force , whereas terrorists normally can. Detaining people who can be held accountable as if they cannot is crossing an important moral line, sacrificing the rights of the individual (...)
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  50.  10
    P. Alderson (1999). Commentary on the "Family Rule". Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (6):497-498.
    The “family rule” paper by Dr Foreman proposes a way of resolving the present uncertainty about medical law on children's consent and refusal. This commentary reviews how doctors' decisions are already well protected by English law and respected by the courts. The “family rule” appears to be likely only to complicate the already diffuse law on parental consent, and to weaken further the competent minor's position in cases of uncertainty and disagreement. It leaves the difficult questions about defining and assessing (...)
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