Search results for 'Projection' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Adrian Bardon (2010). Time-Awareness and Projection in Mellor and Kant. Kant-Studien 101 (1):59-74.
    The theorist who denies the objective reality of non-relational temporal properties, or ‘A-series’ determinations, must explain our experience of the passage of time. D.H. Mellor, a prominent denier of the objective reality of temporal passage, draws, in part, on Kant in offering a theory according to which the experience of temporal passage is the result of the projection of change in belief. But Mellor has missed some important points Kant has to make about time-awareness. It turns out that Kant's (...)
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  2.  51
    David Beaver & Emiel Krahmer (2001). A Partial Account of Presupposition Projection. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 10 (2):147-182.
    In this paper it is shown how a partial semantics for presuppositions can be given which is empirically more satisfactory than its predecessors, and how this semantics can be integrated with a technically sound, compositional grammar in the Montagovian fashion. Additionally, it is argued that the classical objection to partial accounts of presupposition projection, namely that they lack “flexibility,” is based on a misconception. Partial logics can give rise to flexible predictions without postulating any ad hoc ambiguities. Finally, it (...)
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  3.  35
    Philippe Schlenker (2007). Anti-Dynamics: Presupposition Projection Without Dynamic Semantics. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (3):325--356.
    Heim 1983 suggested that the analysis of presupposition projection requires that the classical notion of meanings as truth conditions be replaced with a dynamic notion of meanings as Context Change Potentials. But as several researchers (including Heim herself) later noted, the dynamic framework is insufficiently predictive: although it allows one to state that, say, the dynamic effect of F and G is to first update a Context Set C with F and then with G (i.e., C[F and G] = (...)
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  4.  4
    Manuel Križ & Emmanuel Chemla (2015). Two Methods to Find Truth-Value Gaps and Their Application to the Projection Problem of Homogeneity. Natural Language Semantics 23 (3):205-248.
    Presupposition, vagueness, and oddness can lead to some sentences failing to have a clear truth value. The homogeneity property of plural predication with definite descriptions may also create truth-value gaps: The books are written in Dutch is true if all relevant books are in Dutch, false if none of them are, and neither true nor false if, say, half of the books are written in Dutch. We study the projection property of homogeneity by deploying methods of general interest to (...)
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  5.  9
    Andrew Inkpin (2016). Projection, Recognition, and Pictorial Diversity. Theoria 82 (1):32-55.
    This article focuses on the difficulty for a general theory of depiction of providing a notion of pictorial content that accommodates the full diversity of picture types. The article begins by introducing two basic models of pictorial content using paradigmatic positions that maximize the ability of the respective models to deal with pictorial diversity. Kulvicki's On Images is interpreted as a generalized projection-based model which proposes a scene-centred notion of pictorial content. By contrast, Lopes's aspect-recognition theory, in Understanding Pictures, (...)
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  6.  12
    Amaia Garcia-Odon (2016). Presupposition Projection and Conditionalization. Topoi 35 (1):145-156.
    I explain what exactly constrains presupposition projection in compound sentences and argue that the presuppositions that do not project are conditionalized, giving rise to inferable conditional presuppositions. I combine elements of and which, together with an additional, independently motivated assumption, make it possible to construct an analysis that makes correct predictions. The core of my proposal is as follows: When a speaker felicitously utters a compound sentence whose constituent clauses require presuppositions, the hearer will infer that the speaker presupposes (...)
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  7.  62
    Donald C. Ainslie (2009). Projection and Realism in Hume's Philosophy. By P. J. E. Kail. [REVIEW] Metaphilosophy 40 (2):292-296.
    Peter Kail’s comprehensive, thoughtful, and challenging book focuses on Hume’s use of projectionFthe appeal to mental phenomena to explain manifest features of the worldFin his treatments of external objects, causation, and morality. Almost all interpreters of Hume acknowledge a role for projection, but Kail is the first to unpack the metaphor, and to show the different ways in which projection works in different domains.
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  8.  28
    P. J. E. Kail (2010). Précis of Projection and Realism in Hume's Philosophy. Hume Studies 36 (1):61-65.
    The title of my book, Projection and Realism in Hume's Philosophy, might mislead. One might protest, with some justification, that since neither "projection" nor "realism" is Hume's term and that both carry a severe threat of anachronism, discussing them in connection with Hume is misguided. Why might the readers of this journal wish to read such a work?Well, the first thing to note is that Hume's name has come to be associated with the metaphor of projection, understood (...)
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  9.  32
    Emmanuel Chemla & Philippe Schlenker (2012). Incremental Vs. Symmetric Accounts of Presupposition Projection: An Experimental Approach. Natural Language Semantics 20 (2):177-226.
    The presupposition triggered by an expression E is generally satisfied by information that comes before rather than after E in the sentence or discourse. In Heim’s classic theory (1983), this left-right asymmetry is encoded in the lexical semantics of dynamic connectives and operators. But several recent analyses offer a more nuanced approach, in which presupposition satisfaction has two separate components: a general principle (which varies from theory to theory) specifies under what conditions a presupposition triggered by an expression E is (...)
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  10.  1
    Ana Torralbo, Julio Santiago & Juan Lupiáñez (2006). Flexible Conceptual Projection of Time Onto Spatial Frames of Reference. Cognitive Science 30 (4):745-757.
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  11.  46
    L. E. Loeb (2009). Review: P. J. E. Kail: Projection and Realism in Hume's Philosophy. [REVIEW] Mind 118 (469):181-185.
  12.  13
    Christian Herrmann (2010). On the Equational Theory of Projection Lattices of Finite von Neumann Factors. Journal of Symbolic Logic 75 (3):1102-1110.
    For a finite von Neumann algebra factor M, the projections form a modular ortholattice L(M). We show that the equational theory of L(M) coincides with that of some resp. all L(ℂ n × n ) and is decidable. In contrast, the uniform word problem for the variety generated by all L(ℂ n × n ) is shown to be undecidable.
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  13.  38
    Kenneth P. Winkler (2010). P.J.E. Kail's Projection and Realism in Hume's Philosophy. [REVIEW] Philosophical Books 51 (3):144-159.
  14.  11
    Jérôme Sackur (2001). Règles de projection et règles de calcul. Archives de Philosophie 3:525-544.
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  15.  38
    Kenneth P. Winkler (2009). Signification, Intention, Projection. Philosophia 37 (3):477-501.
    Locke is what present-day aestheticians, critics, and historians call an intentionalist. He believes that when we interpret speech and writing, we aim—in large part and perhaps even for the most part—to recover the intentions, or intended meanings, of the speaker or writer. Berkeley and Hume shared Locke’s commitment to intentionalism, but it is a theme that recent philosophical interpreters of all three writers have left largely unexplored. In this paper I discuss the bearing of intentionalism on more familiar themes in (...)
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  16.  19
    Antonia LoLordo (2009). Comments on Kenneth P. Winkler's “Signification, Intention, Projection”. Philosophia 37 (3):503-505.
    These are my comments on Ken Winkler's account of Locke's philosophy of language.
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  17.  2
    Wayne Hershberger & Daniel Urban (1970). Depth Perception From Motion Parallax in One-Dimensional Polar Projections: Projection Versus Viewing Distance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):133.
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  18.  3
    Christian Delhommé (1998). Infinite Projection Properties. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 44 (4):481-492.
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  19.  2
    Wayne A. Hershberger, David L. Carpenter, James Starzec & Nellie K. Laughlin (1974). Simulation of an Object Rotating in Depth: Constant and Reversed Projection Ratios. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (5):844.
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  20.  1
    E. A. Bott & S. N. F. Chant (1925). A New Method of Projection Stereoscopy. Journal of Experimental Psychology 8 (2):133.
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  21. Dan Zahavi (2008). Simulation, Projection and Empathy. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (2):514-522.
    Simulationists have recently started to employ the term "empathy" when characterizing our most basic understanding of other minds. I agree that empathy is crucial, but I think it is being misconstrued by the simulationists. Using some ideas to be found in Scheler's classical discussion of empathy, I will argue for a different understanding of the notion. More specifically, I will argue that there are basic levels of interpersonal understanding - in particular the understanding of emotional expressions - that are not (...)
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  22. Saul A. Kripke (2009). Presupposition and Anaphora: Remarks on the Formulation of the Projection Problem. Linguistic Inquiry 40 (3):367-386.
    Writers on presupposition, and on the ‘‘projection problem’’ of determining the presuppositions of compound sentences from their component clauses, traditionally assign presuppositions to each clause in isolation. I argue that many presuppositional elements are anaphoric to previous discourse or contextual elements. In compound sentences, these can be other clauses of the sentence. We thus need a theory of presuppositional anaphora, analogous to the corresponding pronominal theory.
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  23. Philippe Schlenker (2008). Be Articulate: A Pragmatic Theory of Presupposition Projection. Theoretical Linguistics 34 (3):157-212.
    : In the 1980s, the analysis of presupposition projection contributed to a ‘dynamic turn’ in semantics: the classical notion of meanings as truth conditions was replaced with a dynamic notion of meanings as Context Change Potentials. We argue that this move was misguided, and we offer an alternative in which presupposition projection follows from the combination of a fully classical semantics and a new pragmatic principle, which we call Be Articulate. This principle requires that a meaning pp’ conceptualized (...)
     
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  24. Rob A. van Der Sandt (1992). Presupposition Projection as Anaphora Resolution. Journal of Semantics 9 (4):333-377.
    The present paper presents an anaphoric account of presupposition. It is argued that presuppositional expressions should not be seen as referring expressions, nor is presupposition to be explicated in terms of some non-standard logic. The notion of presupposition should not be relegated to a pragmatic theory either. Instead presuppositional expressions are claimed to be anaphoric expressions which have internal structure and semantic content. In fact they only differ from pronouns and other semantically less loaded anaphors in that they have more (...)
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  25. Irene Heim (1992). Presupposition Projection and the Semantics of Attitude Verbs. Journal of Semantics 9 (3):183-221.
    Karttunen observed that, if the complement of an attitude sentence presupposes p, then that sentence as a whole presupposes that the attitude–holder believes p. I attempt to derive some representative instances of this generalization from suitable assumptions about the lexical semantics of attitude predicates. The enterprise is carried out in a framework of context change semantics, which incorporates Stalnaker's suggestion that presupposition projection results from the stepwise fashion in which information is updated in response to complex utterances. The empirical (...)
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  26. David Kirsh (2009). Projection, Problem Space and Anchoring. Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society:2310-2315.
    When people make sense of situations, illustrations, instructions and problems they do more than just think with their heads. They gesture, talk, point, annotate, make notes and so on. What extra do they get from interacting with their environment in this way? To study this fundamental problem, I looked at how people project structure onto geometric drawings, visual proofs, and games like tic tac toe. Two experiments were run to learn more about projection. Projection is a special capacity, (...)
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  27. Eric Schliesser (2010). Philosophical Relations, Natural Relations, and Philosophic Decisionism in Belief in the External World: Comments on P. J. E. Kail, Projection and Realism in Hume's Philosophy. [REVIEW] Hume Studies 36 (1):67-76.
    My critical comments on Part I of P. J. E. Kail's Projection and Realism in Hume's Philosophy are divided into two parts. First, I challenge the exegetical details of Kail's take on Hume's important distinction between natural and philosophical relations. I show that Kail misreads Hume in a subtle fashion. If I am right, then much of the machinery that Kail puts into place for his main argument does different work in Hume than Kail thinks. Second, I offer a (...)
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  28. Wesley Buckwalter (2014). Factive Verbs and Protagonist Projection. Episteme 11 (4):391-409.
    Nearly all philosophers agree that only true things can be known. But does this principle reflect actual patterns of ordinary usage? Several examples in ordinary language seem to show that ‘know’ is literally used non-factively. By contrast, this paper reports five experiments utilizing explicit paraphrasing tasks, which suggest that non-factive uses are actually not literal. Instead, they are better explained by a phenomenon known as protagonist projection. It is argued that armchair philosophical orthodoxy regarding the truth requirement for knowledge (...)
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  29.  40
    P. J. E. Kail (2007). Projection and Realism in Hume's Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Religion and the external world -- Projection, religion, and the external world -- The senses, reason and the imagination -- Realism, meaning and justification : the external world and religious belief -- Modality, projection and realism -- 'Our profound ignorance' : causal realism, and the failure to detect necessity -- Spreading the mind : projection, necessity and realism -- Into the labyrinth : persons, modality, and Hume's undoing -- Value, projection, and realism -- Gilding : (...), value and secondary qualities -- The gold : good, evil, belief and desire -- The golden : relational values, realism and a moral sense. (shrink)
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  30.  47
    Daniel Rothschild (2011). Explaining Presupposition Projection with Dynamic Semantics. Semantics and Pragmatics 4 (3):1-43.
    Presents a version of dynamic semantics for a language with presuppositions that predicts basic facts about presupposition projection in a non-stipulative way.
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  31.  10
    Andreas Stokke (2013). Protagonist Projection. Mind and Language 28 (2):204-232.
    This article provides a semantic analysis of Protagonist Projection, the phenomenon by which things are described from a point of view different from that of the speaker. Against what has been argued by some, the account vindicates the intuitive idea that Protagonist Projection does not give rise to counterexamples to factivity, and similar plausible principles. A pragmatics is sketched that explains the attitude attributions generated by Protagonist Projection. Further, the phenomenon is compared to Free Indirect Discourse, and (...)
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  32. Benjamin Schnieder (2006). Troubles with Truth-Making: Necessitation and Projection. Erkenntnis 64 (1):61-74.
    The main question of this paper is how to understand the notion of a truth-maker. In section 1, I show that the identification of truth-making with necessitation cannot capture the pretheoretic understanding of notions such as ‘x makes something true’. In section 2, I examine Barry Smith’s reaction to this problem: he defines truth-making as the combination of necessitation and projection. I focus on the formal part of Smith’s account, which is shown to yield undesired results. However, in section (...)
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  33.  58
    L. E. Ballentine (1990). Limitations of the Projection Postulate. Foundations of Physics 20 (11):1329-1343.
    The projection postulate, which prescribes “collapse of the state vector” upon measurement, is not an essential part of quantum mechanics. Rather it is only an optional discarding of certain branches of the state vector that are expected to be irrelevant for the purpose at hand. However, its use is hazardous, and there are examples of repeated measurements for which the conventional application of the projection postulate leads to incorrect results.
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  34.  85
    Christopher Gauker (2008). Against Accommodation: Heim, van der Sandt, and the Presupposition Projection Problem. Noûs 42 (1):171 - 205.
    This paper criticizes the dominant approaches to presupposition projection and proposes an alternative. Both the update semantics of Heim and the discourse representation theory of van der Sandt have problems in explicating the presuppositions of disjunctions. Moreover, Heim's approach is committed to a conception of accommodation that founders on the problem of informative presuppositions, and van der Sandt's approach is committed to a conception of accommodation that generates over-interpretations of utterances. The present approach borrows Karttunen's idea that instead of (...)
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  35.  51
    Michela Ippolito (2006). Semantic Composition and Presupposition Projection in Subjunctive Conditionals. Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (6):631 - 672.
    The goal of this paper is to offer a compositional semantics for subjunctive and indicative will conditionals, and to derive the projection properties of the types of conditionals we consider and in particular those of counterfactual conditionals. It is argued that subjunctive conditionals are "bare" conditional embedded under temporal and aspectural operators, which constrain the interpretation of the modal operators in the embedded conditional. Furthermore, it is argued that a theory of presupposition projection à la Heim together with (...)
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  36.  25
    P. J. E. Kail (2001). Projection and Necessity in Hume. European Journal of Philosophy 9 (1):24–54.
    This paper discusses the metaphor of projection in relation to Hume’s treatment of causal necessity. I argue that the best understanding of projection shows it to be compatible with taking Hume to be a ‘sceptical realist’ about causal necessity, albeit an agnostic one.
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  37.  3
    Benjamin R. George (2014). Some Remarks on Certain Trivalent Accounts of Presupposition Projection. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 24 (1-2):86-117.
    This paper discusses some formal properties of trivalent approaches to presupposition projection, and in particular of the middle Kleene system of Peters (1977) and Krahmer (1998). After exploring the relationship between trivalent truth-functional accounts and dynamic accounts in the tradition of Heim (1983), I show how the middle Kleene trivalent account can be formulated in a way which shows that it meets the explanatory challenge of Schlenker (2006, 2008a,b), and provide some results relating to the application of the middle (...)
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  38.  52
    Mandy Simons, Craige Roberts, Judith Tonhauser & David I. Beaver (2009). Presuppositions, Conventional Implicature, and Beyond: A Unified Account of Projection. In Nathan Klinedist & Daniel Rothschild (eds.), Proceedings of Workshop on New Directions in the Theory of Presuppositions. Essli 2009
    We define a notion of projective meaning which encompasses both classical presuppositions and phenomena which are usually regarded as non-presuppositional but which also display projection behavior—Horn’s assertorically inert entailments, conventional implicatures (both Grice’s and Potts’) and some conversational implicatures. We argue that the central feature of all projective meanings is that they are not-at-issue, defined as a relation to the question under discussion. Other properties differentiate various sub-classes of projective meanings, one of them the class of presuppositions according to (...)
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  39.  39
    Jan van Eijck & Christina Unger (2007). The Epistemics of Presupposition Projection. In Dekker Aloni (ed.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth Amsterdam Colloquium. 235-240.
    We carry out the Karttunen-Stalnaker pragmatic account of presupposition projection within a state-of-the art version of dynamic epistemic logic. It turns out that the basic projection facts can all be derived from a Gricean maxim ‘be informative’. This sheds light on a recent controversy on the appropriateness of dynamic semantics as a tool for analysing presupposition.
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  40.  7
    Jeffrey Bub (1992). Quantum Mechanics Without the Projection Postulate. Foundations of Physics 22 (5):737-754.
    I show that the quantum state ω can be interpreted as defining a probability measure on a subalgebra of the algebra of projection operators that is not fixed (as in classical statistical mechanics) but changes with ω and appropriate boundary conditions, hence with the dynamics of the theory. This subalgebra, while not embeddable into a Boolean algebra, will always admit two-valued homomorphisms, which correspond to the different possible ways in which a set of “determinate” quantities (selected by ω and (...)
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  41.  10
    Szabolcs Mikulás, Ildikó Sain & Andras Simon (1992). Complexity of Equational Theory of Relational Algebras with Projection Elements. Bulletin of the Section of Logic 21 (3):103-111.
    The class \ of t rue p airing a lgebras is defined to be the class of relation algebras expanded with concrete set theoretical projection functions. The main results of the present paper is that neither the equational theory of \ nor the first order theory of \ are decidable. Moreover, we show that the set of all equations valid in \ is exactly on the \ level. We consider the class \ of the relation algebra reducts of \ (...)
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  42.  79
    Frederick M. Kronz (1991). Quantum Entanglement and Nonideal Measurements: A Critique of Margenau's Objections to the Projection Postulate. Synthese 89 (2):229 - 251.
    I defend the projection postulate against two of Margenau's criticisms. One involves two types of nonideal measurements, measurements that disturb and measurements that annihilate. Such measurements cannot be characterized using the original version of the projection postulate. This is one of the most interesting and powerful objections to the projection postulate since most realistic measurements are nonideal, in Margenau's sense. I show that a straightforward generalization of the projection postulate is capable of handling the more realistic (...)
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  43.  4
    D. Dieks (1989). Quantum Mechanics Without the Projection Postulate and its Realistic Interpretation. Foundations of Physics 19 (11):1397-1423.
    It is widely held that quantum mechanics is the first scientific theory to present scientifically internal, fundamental difficulties for a realistic interpretation (in the philosophical sense). The standard (Copenhagen) interpretation of the quantum theory is often described as the inevitable instrumentalistic response. It is the purpose of the present article to argue that quantum theory doesnot present fundamental new problems to a realistic interpretation. The formalism of quantum theory has the same states—it will be argued—as the formalisms of older physical (...)
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  44.  59
    W. Michael Dickson (1995). Is There Really No Projection Postulate in the Modal Interpretation? British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 46 (2):197-218.
    Modal interpretations of quantum mechanics admit two kinds of state: physical states, which specify the values of observables on a system, and theoretical states, which specify a probability distribution over possible physical states. They appear to use this distinction to deny the projection postulate, claiming that collapse corresponds only to a change from discussing the theoretical state to discussing the physical state. I argue that modal interpretations should adopt a projection postulate at the level of the theoretical state. (...)
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  45.  27
    Gilles Fauconnier & Mark Turner, Conceptual Projection and Middle Spaces.
    Conceptual projection from one mental space to another always involves projection to "middle" spaces-abstract "generic" middle spaces or richer "blended" middle spaces. Projection to a middle space is a general cognitive process, operating uniformly at different levels of abstraction and under superficially divergent contextual circumstances. Middle spaces are indispensable sites for central mental and linguistic work. The process of blending is in particular a fundamental and general cognitive process, running over many (conceivably all) cognitive phenomena, including categorization, (...)
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  46.  26
    Kerry Trentelman & Barry Smith (2010). An Axiomatisation of Basic Formal Ontology with Projection Functions. In Kerry Taylor (ed.), Advances in Ontologies, Proceedings of the Sixth Australasian Ontology Workshop. University of Adelaide
    This paper proposes a reformulation of the treatment of boundaries, at parts and aggregates of entities in Basic Formal Ontology. These are currently treated as mutually exclusive, which is inadequate for biological representation since some entities may simultaneously be at parts, boundaries and/or aggregates. We introduce functions which map entities to their boundaries, at parts or aggregations. We make use of time, space and spacetime projection functions which, along the way, allow us to develop a simple temporal theory.
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  47.  37
    Daniel Rothschild, Making Dynamics Semantics Explanatory: Presupposition Projection.
    Understanding the pattern by which complex sentences inherit the presuppositions of their parts (presupposition projection) has been a major topic in formal pragmatics since the 1970s. Heim’s classic paper “On the Projection Problem for Presuppositions” (1983) proposed a replacement of truth-conditional semantics with a dynamic semantics that treats meanings as instructions to update the common ground. Heim’s system predicts the basic pattern of presupposition projection quite accurately. The classic objection to this program (including other versions of dynamic (...)
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  48.  37
    Wolfgang Spohn, Chance and Necessity : From Humean Supervenience to Humean Projection.
    From Humean Supervenience to Humean Projection": This paper attempts to develop a projectivistic understanding of chance or objective probability or partial determination. It does so by critically examining David Lewis’ philosophy of probability and his defense of Humean Supervenience, building thereupon the constructive projectivistic alternative, which will basically be a suitable reinterpretation of de Finetti’s position. Any treatment of the topic must show how it extends to natural necessity or deterministic laws or full determination in perfect parallel. The paper (...)
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  49.  25
    Nani L. Ranken (1987). Corporations as Persons: Objections to Goodpaster's 'Principle of Moral Projection'. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 6 (8):633 - 637.
    Goodpaster's principle of moral projection is intended to support a program of corporate moral improvement based on an analogy between persons and corporations. In this paper I try to show that the analogy breaks down at a crucial point — namely at the search for amotive for moral improvement. Further, the analogy may foster a tendency to suppose that corporations, like persons, have intrinsic value. I conclude that the analogy does more harm than good for the following reasons: (a) (...)
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  50.  21
    Lawrence Wilets (1986). Momentum Projection of Solitons Including Quantum Corrections. Foundations of Physics 16 (2):171-185.
    The method of projection is applied to a relativistic field theory of fermions interacting with a nonlinear scalar field, specifically the Friedberg-Lee soliton model. Projection is effected by operating on a localized “bag” state with the translation operator exp (iP·Z), and integrating overZ. The resulting state is an eigenstate of zero momentum. The energy and the expectation value of other physical operators can be expressed as Gaussian moments of the Hamiltonian or the physical operator times powers of the (...)
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