Search results for 'Propositional Function' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Michael Anthony Beaney (2009). The Early Life Of Russell's Notion Of A Propositional Function. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 4 (1):200.
    In this paper I describe the birth of Russell’s notion of a propositional function on 3 May 1902 and its immediate context and implications. In particular, I consider its significance in relation to the development of his views on analysis.
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  2. Proving in Finite Many-Valued Propositional (forthcoming). An Algorithm for Axiomatizing and Theorem Proving in Finite Many-Valued Propositional Logics* Walter A. Carnielli. Logique Et Analyse.
     
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  3.  24
    Eric J. Loomis (2005). Logical Form and Propositional Function in the Tractatus. Theoria 71 (3):215-240.
    Wittgenstein's Tractatus carefully distinguished the concept all from\nthe notion of a truth-function, and thereby from the quantifiers.\nI argue that Wittgenstein's rationale for this distinction is lost\nunless propositional functions are understood within the context\nof his picture theory of the proposition. Using a model Tractatus\nlanguage, I show how there are two distinct forms of generality implicit\nin quantified Tractatus propositions. Although the explanation given\nin the Tractatus for this distinction is ultimately flawed, the distinction\nitself is a genuine one, and the forms of (...)
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  4.  16
    Edwin Mares (forthcoming). Propositional Function. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  5.  16
    Eleanor Bisbee (1933). The Parmenides in the Light of the Propositional Function. Philosophical Review 42 (6):612-617.
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  6. Michael Beaney (2008). The Early Life Of Russell’s Notion Of A Propositional Function. Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 4 (1).
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  7.  57
    William P. Bechtel & A. Abrahamson (1990). Beyond the Exclusively Propositional Era. Synthese 82 (2):223-53.
    Contemporary epistemology has assumed that knowledge is represented in sentences or propositions. However, a variety of extensions and alternatives to this view have been proposed in other areas of investigation. We review some of these proposals, focusing on (1) Ryle's notion of knowing how and Hanson's and Kuhn's accounts of theory-laden perception in science; (2) extensions of simple propositional representations in cognitive models and artificial intelligence; (3) the debate concerning imagistic versus propositional representations in cognitive psychology; (4) recent (...)
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  8.  31
    Harold T. Hodes (2015). Why Ramify? Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 56 (2):379-415.
    This paper considers two reasons that might support Russell’s choice of a ramified-type theory over a simple-type theory. The first reason is the existence of purported paradoxes that can be formulated in any simple-type language, including an argument that Russell considered in 1903. These arguments depend on certain converse-compositional principles. When we take account of Russell’s doctrine that a propositional function is not a constituent of its values, these principles turn out to be too implausible to make these (...)
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  9.  3
    João Vergilio Gallerani Cuter (2010). Como negar um nome. Philósophos - Revista de Filosofia 14 (2):33-62.
    In the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus , a name is always a propositional function. Wittgenstein makes a radical shift in the Fregean opposition between saturated and unsaturated entities. Any sentential component which is not itself a sentence is unsaturated. The proposition is therefore a synthesis of propositional functions. The name is just a limit case of propositional function, and as such it can be negated.
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  10.  39
    Kevin C. Klement, Propositional Logic. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Propositional logic, also known as sentential logic and statement logic, is the branch of logic that studies ways of joining and/or modifying entire propositions, statements or sentences to form more complicated propositions, statements or sentences, as well as the logical relationships and properties that are derived from these methods of combining or altering statements. In propositional logic, the simplest statements are considered as indivisible units, and hence, propositional logic does not study those logical properties and relations that (...)
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  11.  31
    Robert Goldblatt & Michael Kane (2010). An Admissible Semantics for Propositionally Quantified Relevant Logics. Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (1):73 - 100.
    The Routley-Meyer relational semantics for relevant logics is extended to give a sound and complete model theory for many propositionally quantified relevant logics (and some non-relevant ones). This involves a restriction on which sets of worlds are admissible as propositions, and an interpretation of propositional quantification that makes ∀ pA true when there is some true admissible proposition that entails all p -instantiations of A . It is also shown that without the admissibility qualification many of the systems considered (...)
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  12. George Bealer (1989). On the Identification of Properties and Propositional Functions. Linguistics and Philosophy 12 (1):1 - 14.
    Arguments are given against the thesis that properties and propositional functions are identical. The first shows that the familiar extensional treatment of propositional functions -- that, for all x, if f(x) = g(x), then f = g -- must be abandoned. Second, given the usual assumptions of propositional-function semantics, various propositional functions (e.g., constant functions) are shown not to be properties. Third, novel examples are given to show that, if properties were identified with propositional (...)
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  13.  42
    Geoff Georgi (2015). A Propositional Semantics for Substitutional Quantification. Philosophical Studies 172 (5):1183-1200.
    The standard truth-conditional semantics for substitutional quantification, due to Saul Kripke, does not specify what proposition is expressed by sentences containing the particular substitutional quantifier. In this paper, I propose an alternative semantics for substitutional quantification that does. The key to this semantics is identifying an appropriate propositional function to serve as the content of a bound occurrence of a formula containing a free substitutional variable. I apply this semantics to traditional philosophical reasons for interest in substitutional quantification, (...)
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  14.  74
    Richard L. Cartwright (2005). Remarks on Propositional Functions. Mind 114 (456):915-927.
    Peter Geach has said that Russell's use of ‘propositional function’ is ‘hopelessly confused and inconsistent’. Geach is right, and attempts to say what exactly a Russellian propositional function is, or is supposed to be, are bound to end in frustration. Nevertheless, it may be worthwhile to pursue an account of propositional functions that accommodates a good deal of what Russell says about them and that can provide some of what he expected of them.
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  15. A. N. Prior (1968). Intentionality and Intensionality, Part II. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 91:91-106.
  16. Friederike Moltmann (2003). Propositional Attitudes Without Propositions. Synthese 135 (1):77 - 118.
    The most common account of attitude reports is the relational analysis according towhich an attitude verb taking that-clause complements expresses a two-placerelation between agents and propositions and the that-clause acts as an expressionwhose function is to provide the propositional argument. I will argue that a closerexamination of a broader range of linguistic facts raises serious problems for thisanalysis and instead favours a Russellian `multiple relations analysis' (which hasgenerally been discarded because of its apparent obvious linguistic implausibility).The resulting account (...)
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  17.  56
    Tadeusz W. Zawidzki (2008). The Function of Folk Psychology: Mind Reading or Mind Shaping? Philosophical Explorations 11 (3):193 – 210.
    I argue for two claims. First I argue against the consensus view that accurate behavioral prediction based on accurate representation of cognitive states, i.e. mind reading , is the sustaining function of propositional attitude ascription. This practice cannot have been selected in evolution and cannot persist, in virtue of its predictive utility, because there are principled reasons why it is inadequate as a tool for behavioral prediction. Second I give reasons that favor an alternative account of the sustaining (...)
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  18. Berit Brogaard (2008). Knowledge-the and Propositional Attitude Ascriptions. Grazer Philosophische Studien 77 (1):147-190.
    Determiner phrases embedded under a propositional attitude verb have traditionally been taken to denote answers to implicit questions. For example, 'the capital of Vermont' as it occurs in 'John knows the capital of Vermont' has been thought to denote the proposition which answers the implicit question 'what is the capital of Vermont?' Thus, where 'know' is treated as a propositional attitude verb rather than an acquaintance verb, 'John knows the capital of Vermont' is true iff John knows that (...)
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  19.  92
    John Zeimbekis (2004). Propositional Attitudes in Fiction. British Journal of Aesthetics 44 (3):261-276.
    Theories that seek to explain the status of psychological states experienced in fictional contexts either claim that those states are special propositional attitudes specific to fictional contexts (make-believe attitudes), or else define them as normal propositional attitudes by stretching the concept of a propositional attitude to include ‘objectless’ states that do not imply constraints such as truth or satisfaction. I argue that the first theory is either vacuous or false, and that the second, by defining the reality (...)
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  20.  39
    Avery Andrews (2010). Propositional Glue and the Projection Architecture of LFG. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (3):141-170.
    Although ‘glue semantics’ is the most extensively developed theory of semantic composition for LFG, it is not very well integrated into the LFG projection architecture, due to the absence of a simple and well-explained correspondence between glue-proofs and f-structures. In this paper I will show that we can improve this situation with two steps: (1) Replace the current quantificational formulations of glue (either Girard’s system F, or first order linear logic) with strictly propositional linear logic (the quantifier, unit and (...)
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  21.  29
    Jaroslav Peregrin, Is Propositional Calculus Categorical?
    According to the standard definition, a first-order theory is categorical if all its models are isomorphic. The idea behind this definition obviously is that of capturing semantic notions in axiomatic terms: to be categorical is to be, in this respect, successful. Thus, for example, we may want to axiomatically delimit the concept of natural number, as it is given by the pre-theoretic semantic intuitions and reconstructed by the standard model. The well-known results state that this cannot be done within first-order (...)
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  22.  3
    E. López-Escobar (2008). Chateaubriand on Propositional Logic. Manuscrito 31 (1):103-113.
    In Logical Forms Part II, Chateaubriand begins the Chapter on “Propositional Logic” by considering the reading of the ‘conditional’ by ‘implies’; in fact he states that:There is a confusion, as a matter of fact, and it runs deep, but it is a confusion in propositional logic itself, and the mathematician’s reading is a rather sensible one.After a careful, erudite analysis of various philosophical viewpoints of logic, Chateaubriand comes to the conclusion that:Pure propositional logic, as just characterized, belongs (...)
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  23. Mika Oksanen, Doxastic Logic of Demonstratives; Indexical and Reflexive Pronouns in Ascriptions of Propositional Attitudes.
    In this article I will develop the first steps of a wholly general theory of how indexical and reflexive pronouns function in propositional attitude ascriptions. This will involve a theory of ascriptions of de se beliefs and de se utterances, which can probably be also generalized so as to apply to ascriptions of other attitudes. It will also involve a theory about the ascriptions of beliefs or other attitudes a person has at a time about what happens then (...)
     
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  24. Ariadna Chernavska (1980). Valuations for the Quantum Propositional Structures and Hidden Variables for Quantum Mechanics. Dissertation, The University of British Columbia (Canada)
    The final portion of the thesis surveys proposals for the introduction of hidden variables into quantum mechanics, proofs of the impossibility of such hidden-variable proposals, and criticisms of these impossibility proofs. And arguments in favour of the partial-Boolean algebra, rather than the orthomodular lattice, formalization of the quantum propositional structures are reviewed. ;As for , each quantum state-induced expectation-function on a P truth-functionally assigns 1 and 0 values to the elements in a ultrafilter and dual ultraideal of P, (...)
     
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  25. Robert J. Matthews (2007). The Measure of Mind: Propositional Attitudes and Their Attribution. Oxford University Press Uk.
    The Measure of Mind provides a sustained critique of a widely held representationalist view of propositional attitudes and their role in the production of thought and behaviour. On this view, having a propositional attitude is a matter of having an explicit representation that plays a particular causal/computational role in the production of thought and behaviour. Robert J. Matthews argues that this view does not enjoy the theoretical or the empirical support that proponents claim for it; moreover, the view (...)
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  26.  6
    Stefano Cavagnetto (2009). Some Applications of Propositional Logic to Cellular Automata. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 55 (6):605-616.
    In this paper we give a new proof of Richardson's theorem [31]: a global function G[MATHEMATICAL DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL A] of a cellular automaton [MATHEMATICAL DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL A] is injective if and only if the inverse of G[MATHEMATICAL DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL A] is a global function of a cellular automaton. Moreover, we show a way how to construct the inverse cellular automaton using the method of feasible interpolation from [20]. We also solve two problems regarding complexity of cellular automata formulated (...)
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  27.  1
    Alexander Citkin (2008). A Mind of a Non-Countable Set of Ideas. Logic and Logical Philosophy 17 (1-2):23-39.
    The paper is dedicated to the 80th birthday of the outstanding Russian logician A.V. Kuznetsov. It is addressing a history of the ideas and research conducted by him in non-classical and intermediate logics.
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  28.  27
    Kevin C. Klement (2013). PM's Circumflex, Syntax and Philosophy of Types. In Bernard Linsky & Nicholas Griffin (eds.), The Palgrave Centenary Companion to Principia Mathematica. Palgrave Macmillan 218-246.
    Along with offering an historically-oriented interpretive reconstruction of the syntax of PM ( rst ed.), I argue for a certain understanding of its use of propositional function abstracts formed by placing a circum ex on a variable. I argue that this notation is used in PM only when de nitions are stated schematically in the metalanguage, and in argument-position when higher-type variables are involved. My aim throughout is to explain how the usage of function abstracts as “terms” (...)
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  29. Susanne Bobzien (2003). Stoic Logic. In Brad Inwood (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Stoic Philosophy. Cambridge University Press
    ABSTRACT: An introduction to Stoic logic. Stoic logic can in many respects be regarded as a fore-runner of modern propositional logic. I discuss: 1. the Stoic notion of sayables or meanings (lekta); the Stoic assertibles (axiomata) and their similarities and differences to modern propositions; the time-dependency of their truth; 2.-3. assertibles with demonstratives and quantified assertibles and their truth-conditions; truth-functionality of negations and conjunctions; non-truth-functionality of disjunctions and conditionals; language regimentation and ‘bracketing’ devices; Stoic basic principles of propositional (...)
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  30.  71
    Jochen Briesen (2015). Perceptual Justification and Assertively Representing the World. Philosophical Studies 172 (8):2239-2259.
    This paper argues that there is a problem for the justificatory significance of perceptions that has been overlooked thus far. Assuming that perceptual experiences are propositional attitudes and that only propositional attitudes which assertively represent the world can function as justifiers, the problem consists in specifying what it means for a propositional attitude to assertively represent the world without losing the justificatory significance of perceptions—a challenge that is harder to meet than might first be thought. That (...)
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  31.  98
    Kevin C. Klement (2004). Putting Form Before Function: Logical Grammar in Frege, Russell, and Wittgenstein. Philosophers' Imprint 4 (2):1-47.
    The positions of Frege, Russell and Wittgenstein on the priority of complexes over (propositional) functions are sketched, challenging those who take the "judgment centered" aspects of the Tractatus to be inherited from Frege not Russell. Frege's views on the priority of judgments are problematic, and unlike Wittgenstein's. Russell's views on these matters, and their development, are discussed in detail, and shown to be more sophisticated than usually supposed. Certain misreadings of Russell, including those regarding the relationship between propositional (...)
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  32.  90
    Joerg R. J. Schirra & Klaus Sachs-Hombach (2013). The Anthropological Function of Pictures. In Klaus SachsHombach & Joerg R. J. Schirra (eds.), Origins of Pictures. Anthropological Discourses in Image Science. Halem 132-159.
    There has been a long tradition of characterizing man as the animal that is capable of propositional language. However, the remarkable ability of using pictures also only belongs to human beings. Both faculties however depend conceptually on the ability to refer to absent situations by means of sign acts called 'context building'. The paper investigates the combined roles of quasi-pictorial sign acts and proto-assertive sign acts in the situation of initial context building, which, in the context of “concept-genetic” considerations, (...)
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  33. Harvey Friedman, Completeness of Intuitionistic Propositional Calculus.
    An assignment is a function f that assigns subsets of N to some atoms. Then f is extended to f* which sends every formula A of HPC to a subset of S(A).
     
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  34. Ned Block (1995). On a Confusion About a Function of Consciousness. Brain and Behavioral Sciences 18 (2):227-–247.
    Consciousness is a mongrel concept: there are a number of very different "consciousnesses." Phenomenal consciousness is experience; the phenomenally conscious aspect of a state is what it is like to be in that state. The mark of access-consciousness, by contrast, is availability for use in reasoning and rationally guiding speech and action. These concepts are often partly or totally conflated, with bad results. This target article uses as an example a form of reasoning about a function of "consciousness" based (...)
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  35. George Bealer (1993). A Solution to Frege's Puzzle. Philosophical Perspectives 7:17-60.
    This paper provides a new approach to a family of outstanding logical and semantical puzzles, the most famous being Frege's puzzle. The three main reductionist theories of propositions (the possible-worlds theory, the propositional-function theory, the propositional-complex theory) are shown to be vulnerable to Benacerraf-style problems, difficulties involving modality, and other problems. The nonreductionist algebraic theory avoids these problems and allows us to identify the elusive nondescriptive, non-metalinguistic, necessary propositions responsible for the indicated family of puzzles. The algebraic (...)
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  36.  44
    Kevin C. Klement (2010). The Functions of Russell's No Class Theory. Review of Symbolic Logic 3 (4):633-664.
    §1. Introduction. Although Whitehead and Russell’s Principia Mathematica (hereafter, PM ), published almost precisely a century ago, is widely heralded as a watershed moment in the history of mathematical logic, in many ways it is still not well understood. Complaints abound to the effect that the presentation is imprecise and obscure, especially with regard to the precise details of the ramified theory of types, and the philosophical explanation and motivation underlying it, all of which was primarily Russell’s responsibility. This has (...)
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  37. Ernest Lepore & Kirk Ludwig (2002). What is Logical Form? In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.), Logical Form and Language. Clarendon Press 54--90.
    Bertrand Russell, in the second of his 1914 Lowell lectures, Our Knowledge of the External World, asserted famously that ‘every philosophical problem, when it is subjected to the necessary analysis and purification, is found either to be not really philosophical at all, or else to be, in the sense in which we are using the word, logical’ (Russell 1993, p. 42). He went on to characterize that portion of logic that concerned the study of forms of propositions, or, as (...)
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  38.  18
    Nino Cocchiarella (1980). The Development of the Theory of Logical Types and the Notion of a Logical Subject in Russell's Early Philosophy. Synthese 45 (1):71 - 115.
    Russell's involuted path in the development of his theory of logical types from 1903 to 1910-13 is examined and explained in terms of the development in his early philosophy of the notion of a logical subject vis-a-vis the problem of the one and many; i.e., the problem for russell, first, of a class-as-one as a logical subject as opposed to a class as many, and, secondly, of a propositional function as a single and separate logical subject as opposed (...)
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  39.  55
    Frank A. Lewis (2011). “Predication, Things, and Kinds in Aristotle's Metaphysics”. Phronesis 56 (4):350-387.
    What in Aristotle corresponds, in whole or (more likely) in part, to our contemporary notion of predication? This paper sketches counterparts in Aristotle's text to our theories of expression and of truth, and on this basis inquires into his treatment of sentences assigning an individual to its kinds. In some recent accounts, the Metaphysics offers a fresh look at such sentences in terms of matter and form, in contrast to the simpler theory on offer in the Categories . I argue (...)
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  40.  7
    Silvio Valentini (1996). Decidability in Intuitionistic Type Theory is Functionally Decidable. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 42 (1):300-304.
    In this paper we show that the usual intuitionistic characterization of the decidability of the propositional function B prop [x : A], i. e. to require that the predicate ∨ ¬ B) is provable, is equivalent, when working within the framework of Martin-Löf's Intuitionistic Type Theory, to require that there exists a decision function ψ: A → Boole such that = Booletrue) ↔ B). Since we will also show that the proposition x = Booletrue [x: Boole] is (...)
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  41.  18
    M. Randall Holmes, Polymorphic Type Checking for the Type Theory of the Principia Mathematica of Russell and Whitehead.
    This is a brief report on results reported at length in our paper [2], made for the purpose of a presentation at the workshop to be held in November 2011 in Cambridge on the Principia Mathematica of Russell and Whitehead ([?], hereinafter referred to briefly as PM ). That paper grew out of a reading of the paper [3] of Kamareddine, Nederpelt, and Laan. We refereed this paper and found it useful for checking their examples to write our own independent (...)
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  42. Tomasz Jarmużek & Andrzej Pietruszczak (2004). Completeness of Minimal Positional Calculus. Logic and Logical Philosophy 13:147-162.
    In the article "Podstawy analizy metodologicznej kanonów Milla" [2] Jerzy Łoś proposed an operator that refered sentences to temporal moments. Let us look, for example, at a sentence ‘It is raining in Toruń’. From a logical point of view it is a propositional function, which does not have any logical value, unless we point at a temporal context from a fixed set of such contexts. If the sentence was considered today as a description of a state of affairs, (...)
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  43. Karl R. Popper (2009/2012). The Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge. Routledge.
    A brief historical comment on scientific knowledge as Socratic ignorance -- Some critical comments on the text of this book, particularly on the theory of truth Exposition [1933] -- Problem of Induction (Experience and Hypothesis) -- Two Fundamental Problems of the Theory of Knowledge -- Formulation of the Problem -- The problem of induction and the problem of demarcation -- Deductivtsm and Inductivism -- Comments on how the solutions are reached and preliminary presentation of the solutions -- Rationalism and empiricism-deductivism (...)
     
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  44. Steven Pinker & Paul Bloom (1990). Natural Language and Natural Selection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):707-27.
    Many people have argued that the evolution of the human language faculty cannot be explained by Darwinian natural selection. Chomsky and Gould have suggested that language may have evolved as the by-product of selection for other abilities or as a consequence of as-yet unknown laws of growth and form. Others have argued that a biological specialization for grammar is incompatible with every tenet of Darwinian theory – that it shows no genetic variation, could not exist in any intermediate forms, confers (...)
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  45.  67
    Alyssa Ney, Finding the World in the Wave Function: Some Strategies for Solving the Macro-Object Problem.
    We look at some strategies for solving the macro-object problem for wave function realism. This is the problem of finding an account of the existence of macroscopic objects assuming a metaphysics in which objects in space-time are not fundamental; rather what is fundamental is the quantum wave function, a field characterized by an assignment of values to points in a much different kind of space, one adequate to realizing the full range of possible quantum pure states. -/- .
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  46. J. Adam Carter & Jesper Kallestrup (2015). Extended Cognition and Propositional Memory. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 92 (2):n/a-n/a.
    The philosophical case for extended cognition is often made with reference to ‘extended-memory cases’ ; though, unfortunately, proponents of the hypothesis of extended cognition as well as their adversaries have failed to appreciate the kinds of epistemological problems extended-memory cases pose for mainstream thinking in the epistemology of memory. It is time to give these problems a closer look. Our plan is as follows: in §1, we argue that an epistemological theory remains compatible with HEC only if its epistemic assessments (...)
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  47. Peter Carruthers (2002). The Cognitive Functions of Language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):657-674.
    This paper explores a variety of different versions of the thesis that natural language is involved in human thinking. It distinguishes amongst strong and weak forms of this thesis, dismissing some as implausibly strong and others as uninterestingly weak. Strong forms dismissed include the view that language is conceptually necessary for thought (endorsed by many philosophers) and the view that language is _de facto_ the medium of all human conceptual thinking (endorsed by many philosophers and social scientists). Weak forms include (...)
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  48.  27
    Chris J. Mitchell, Jan De Houwer & Peter F. Lovibond (2009). The Propositional Nature of Human Associative Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):183-198.
    The past 50 years have seen an accumulation of evidence suggesting that associative learning depends on high-level cognitive processes that give rise to propositional knowledge. Yet, many learning theorists maintain a belief in a learning mechanism in which links between mental representations are formed automatically. We characterize and highlight the differences between the propositional and link approaches, and review the relevant empirical evidence. We conclude that learning is the consequence of propositional reasoning processes that cooperate with the (...)
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  49. Mark E. Richard (1990). Propositional Attitudes: An Essay on Thoughts and How We Ascribe Them. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    This book makes a stimulating contribution to the philosophy of language and philosophy of mind. It begins with a spirited defense of the view that propositions are structured and that propositional structure is "psychologically real." The author then develops a subtle view of propositions and attitude ascription. The view is worked out in detail with attention to such topics as the semantics of conversations, iterated attitude ascriptions, and the role of propositions as bearers of truth. Along the way important (...)
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  50. Robert Arp & Barry Smith, Function, Role and Disposition in Basic Formal Ontology. Nature Precedings.
    Numerous research groups are now utilizing Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) as an upper-level framework to assist in the organization and integration of biomedical information. This paper provides elucidation of the three existing BFO subcategories of realizable entity, namely function, role, and disposition. It proposes one further sub-category of tendency, and considers the merits of recognizing two sub-categories of function for domain ontologies, namely, artifactual and biological function. The motivation is to help advance the (...)
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