Search results for 'Propositional forms' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Shane J. Ralston, Operationalizing Propositions as Proposals: Reviving Interest in John Dewey's Theory of Propositional Form.score: 116.0
    Dewey and Russell's debate over the status of logic in the twentieth-century is, by now, well-trodden ground for scholarly inquiry. However, Dewey's novel theory of propositions, first articulated in his 1938 Logic: The Theory of Inquiry, has received comparatively less attention than the debate that touched upon it. The paucity of interest among philosophers of language is probably due to a variety of reasons, such as the theory's unorthodox character and, what at least appears to be, its naive simplicity when (...)
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  2. Eric J. Loomis (2005). Logical Form and Propositional Function in the Tractatus. Theoria 71 (3):215-240.score: 76.0
    Wittgenstein's Tractatus carefully distinguished the concept all from\nthe notion of a truth-function, and thereby from the quantifiers.\nI argue that Wittgenstein's rationale for this distinction is lost\nunless propositional functions are understood within the context\nof his picture theory of the proposition. Using a model Tractatus\nlanguage, I show how there are two distinct forms of generality implicit\nin quantified Tractatus propositions. Although the explanation given\nin the Tractatus for this distinction is ultimately flawed, the distinction\nitself is a genuine one, and the forms (...)
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  3. M. W. Bunder (1979). Alternative Forms of Propositional Calculus for a Given Deduction Theorem. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 20 (3):613-619.score: 72.0
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  4. Dolph Ulrich (1975). Review: R. Harrop, H. Arnold Schmidt, K. Schutte, H.-J. Thiele, Some Forms of Models of Propositional Calculi; Ronald Harrop, On the Equivalence for Non-Derivability Testing of Finite Smiley Models and Finite Modified Smiley Models. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 40 (2):251-251.score: 72.0
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  5. M. Dusche (1995). Interpreted Logical Forms as Objects of the Attitudes. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 4 (4):301-315.score: 68.0
    Two arguments favoring propositionalist accounts of attitude sentences are being revisited: the Church-Langford translation argument and Thomason's argument against quotational theories of indirect discourse. None of them proves to be decisive, thus leaving the option of searching for a developed quotational alternative. Such an alternative is found in an interpreted logical form theory of attitude ascription. The theory differentiates elegantly among different attitudes but it fails to account for logical dependencies among them. It is argued, however, that the concept of (...)
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  6. Kevin C. Klement, Propositional Logic. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 54.0
    Propositional logic, also known as sentential logic and statement logic, is the branch of logic that studies ways of joining and/or modifying entire propositions, statements or sentences to form more complicated propositions, statements or sentences, as well as the logical relationships and properties that are derived from these methods of combining or altering statements. In propositional logic, the simplest statements are considered as indivisible units, and hence, propositional logic does not study those logical properties and relations that (...)
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  7. William P. Bechtel & A. Abrahamson (1990). Beyond the Exclusively Propositional Era. Synthese 82 (2):223-53.score: 54.0
    Contemporary epistemology has assumed that knowledge is represented in sentences or propositions. However, a variety of extensions and alternatives to this view have been proposed in other areas of investigation. We review some of these proposals, focusing on (1) Ryle's notion of knowing how and Hanson's and Kuhn's accounts of theory-laden perception in science; (2) extensions of simple propositional representations in cognitive models and artificial intelligence; (3) the debate concerning imagistic versus propositional representations in cognitive psychology; (4) recent (...)
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  8. J. Edwards (1999). Interpreted Logical Forms and Knowing Your Own Mind. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 99 (2):169-90.score: 46.0
    An attractive semantic theory presented by Richard K. Larson and Peter Ludlow takes a report of propositional attitudes, e.g 'Tom believes Judy Garland sang', to report a believing relation between Tom and an interpreted logical form constructed from 'Judy Garland sang'. We briefly outline the semantic theory and indicate its attractions. However, the definition of interpreted logical forms given by Larson and Ludlow is shown to be faulty, and an alternative definition is offered which matches their intentions. This (...)
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  9. Peter M. Sullivan (2004). ‘The General Propositional Form is a Variable’ (Tractatus 4.53). Mind 113 (449):43-56.score: 44.0
    Wittgenstein presents in the Tractatus a variable purporting to capture the general form of proposition. One understanding of what Wittgenstein is doing there, an understanding in line with the ‘new’ reading of his work championed by Diamond, Conant and others, sees it as a deflationary or even an implosive move—a move by which a concept sometimes put by philosophers to distinctively metaphysical use is replaced, in a perspicuous notation, by an innocent device of generalization, thereby dispersing the clouds of (...)
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  10. Lloyd Humberstone (2004). Archetypal Forms of Inference. Synthese 141 (1):45 - 76.score: 42.0
    A form (or pattern) of inference, let us say, explicitlysubsumes just such particular inferences as are instances of the form, and implicitly subsumes thoseinferences with a premiss and conclusion logically equivalent to the premiss and conclusion of an instanceof the form in question. (For simplicity we restrict attention to one-premiss inferences.) A form ofinference is archetypal if it implicitly subsumes every correct inference. A precise definition (Section 1)of these concepts relativizes them to logics, since different logics classify different inferences ascorrect, (...)
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  11. Renate A. Schmidt & Dmitry Tishkovsky (2008). On Combinations of Propositional Dynamic Logic and Doxastic Modal Logics. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 17 (1):109-129.score: 42.0
    We prove completeness and decidability results for a family of combinations of propositional dynamic logic and unimodal doxastic logics in which the modalities may interact. The kind of interactions we consider include three forms of commuting axioms, namely, axioms similar to the axiom of perfect recall and the axiom of no learning from temporal logic, and a Church–Rosser axiom. We investigate the influence of the substitution rule on the properties of these logics and propose a new semantics for (...)
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  12. Robert Fiengo & Robert May, Interpreted Logical Forms: A Critique.score: 42.0
    Interpreted Logical Forms (ILFs) are objects composed of a syntactic structure annotated with the semantic values (objectual content) of each node of the structure. We criticize the view that ILFs are the objects of propositional attitude verbs such as believe, as this is developed by Larson and Ludlow (1993). Our critique arises from a tension in the way that sen-.
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  13. Mitsunori Kobayashi & Arata Ishimoto (1982). A Propositional Fragment of Leśniewski's Ontology and its Formulation by the Tableau Method. Studia Logica 41 (2-3):181 - 195.score: 42.0
    The propositional fragment L 1 of Leniewski's ontology is the smallest class (of formulas) containing besides all the instances of tautology the formulas of the forms: (a, b) (a, a), (a, b) (b,). (a, c) and (a, b) (b, c). (b, a) being closed under detachment. The purpose of this paper is to furnish another more constructive proof than that given earlier by one of us for: Theorem A is provable in L 1 iff TA is a thesis (...)
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  14. Ernest Lepore & Kirk Ludwig (2002). What is Logical Form? In Gerhard Preyer & Georg Peter (eds.), Logical Form and Language. Clarendon Press. 54--90.score: 38.0
    Bertrand Russell, in the second of his 1914 Lowell lectures, Our Knowledge of the External World, asserted famously that ‘every philosophical problem, when it is subjected to the necessary analysis and purification, is found either to be not really philosophical at all, or else to be, in the sense in which we are using the word, logical’ (Russell 1993, p. 42). He went on to characterize that portion of logic that concerned the study of forms of propositions, or, as (...)
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  15. David Sherry (2006). Formal Logic for Informal Logicians. Informal Logic 26 (2):199-220.score: 36.0
    Classical logic yields counterintuitive results for numerous propositional argument forms. The usual alternatives (modal logic, relevance logic, etc.) generate counterintuitive results of their own. The counterintuitive results create problems—especially pedagogical problems—for informal logicians who wish to use formal logic to analyze ordinary argumentation. This paper presents a system, PL– (propositional logic minus the funny business), based on the idea that paradigmatic valid argument forms arise from justificatory or explanatory discourse. PL– avoids the pedagogical difficulties without sacrificing (...)
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  16. George Graham & Terence E. Horgan (1988). How to Be Realistic About Folk Psychology. Philosophical Psychology 1 (1):69-81.score: 36.0
    Folk psychological realism is the view that folk psychology is true and that people really do have propositional attitudes, whereas anti-realism is the view that folk psychology is false and people really do not have propositional attitudes. We argue that anti-realism is not worthy of acceptance and that realism is eminently worthy of acceptance. However, it is plainly epistemically possible to favor either of two forms of folk realism: scientific or non-scientific. We argue that non-scientific realism, while (...)
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  17. Robert F. Hadley (1991). A Sense-Based, Process Model of Belief. Minds and Machines 1 (3):279-320.score: 36.0
    A process-oriented model of belief is presented which permits the representation of nested propositional attitudes within first-order logic. The model (NIM, for nested intensional model) is axiomatized, sense-based (via intensions), and sanctions inferences involving nested epistemic attitudes, with different agents and different times. Because NIM is grounded upon senses, it provides a framework in which agents may reason about the beliefs of another agent while remaining neutral with respect to the syntactic forms used to express the latter agent's (...)
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  18. Bo Göranzon (1987). The Practice of the Use of Computers. AI and Society 1 (1):25-36.score: 36.0
    A quotation from Shakespeare's play King Lear, ‘I will teach you differences’, encapsulates the spirit of this paper. The distinction is introduced between three different categories of knowledge: i) propositional knowledge, ii) skill or practical knowledge and iii) knowledge of familiarity. In the present debate on ‘Information Society’, there is a clear tendency to overemphasise the theoretical knowledge at the expense of practical knowledge thereby completely ignoring the knowledge of familiarity. It is argued that different forms of theoretical (...)
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  19. Howard Burdick (1982). A Logical Form for the Propositional Attitudes. Synthese 52 (2):185 - 230.score: 34.0
    The author puts forth an approach to propositional attitude contexts based upon the view that one does not have beliefs of ordinary extensional entitiessimpliciter. Rather, one has beliefs of such entities as presented in various manners. Roughly, these are treated as beliefs of ordered pairs — the first member of which is the ordinary extensional entity and the second member of which is a predicate that it satisfies. Such an approach has no difficulties with problems involving identity, such as (...)
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  20. Denis McManus (2009). The General Form of the Proposition: The Unity of Language and the Generality of Logic in the Early Wittgenstein. Philosophical Investigations 32 (4):295-318.score: 32.0
    The paper presents an interpretation of the thinking behind the early Wittgenstein's "general form of the proposition." It argues that a central role is played by the assumption that all domains of discourse are governed by the same laws of logic. The interpretation is presented partly through a comparison with ideas presented recently by Michael Potter and Peter Sullivan; the paper argues that the above assumption explains more of the key characteristics of the "general form of the proposition" than Potter (...)
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  21. L. A. Zadeh (1983). A Fuzzy-Set-Theoretic Approach to the Compositionality of Meaning: Propositions, Dispositions and Canonical Forms. Journal of Semantics 2 (3-4):253-272.score: 32.0
    In its traditional interpretation, Frege's principle of compositionality is not sufficiently flexible to have a wide applicability to natural languages. In a fuzzy-set-theoretic setting which is outlined in this paper, Frege's principle is modified and broadened by allowing the meaning of a proposition, p, to be composed not from the meaning of the constituents of p, but, more generally, from the meaning of a collection of fuzzy relations which form a so-called explanatory database that is associated with p. More specifically, (...)
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  22. Robert Audi (2009). Nationalism, Patriotism, and Cosmopolitanism in an Age of Globalization. Journal of Ethics 13 (4):365 - 381.score: 30.0
    A major issue in political philosophy is the extent to which one or another version of nationalism or, by contrast, cosmopolitanism, is morally justified. Nationalism, like cosmopolitanism, may be understood as a position on the status and responsibilities of nation states, but the terms may also be used to designate attitudes appropriate to those positions. One problem in political philosophy is to distinguish and appraise various forms of nationalism and cosmopolitanism; a related problem is how to understand the relation (...)
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  23. Steven E. Boër (2009). Propositions and the Substitution Anomaly. Journal of Philosophical Logic 38 (5):549 - 586.score: 30.0
    The Substitution Anomaly is the failure of intuitively coreferential expressions of the corresponding forms “that S” and “the proposition that S” to be intersubstitutable salva veritate under certain ‘selective’ attitudinal verbs that grammatically accept both sorts of terms as complements. The Substitution Anomaly poses a direct threat to the basic assumptions of Millianism, which predict the interchangeability of “that S” and “the proposition that S”. Jeffrey King has argued persuasively that the most plausible Millian solution is to treat the (...)
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  24. Jeff Stickney (2008). Wittgenstein's 'Relativity': Training in Language-Games and Agreement in Forms of Life. Educational Philosophy and Theory 40 (5):621-637.score: 30.0
    Taking Wittgenstein's love of music as my impetus, I approach aporetic problems of epistemic relativity through a round of three overlapping (canonical) inquiries delivered in contrapuntal (higher and lower) registers. I first take up the question of scepticism surrounding 'groundless knowledge' and contending paradigms in On Certainty (physics versus oracular divination, or realism versus idealism) with attention given to the role of 'bedrock' certainties in providing stability amidst the Heraclitean flux. I then look into the formation of sedimented bedrock knowledge, (...)
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  25. Reinhardt Grossmann (1972). Russell's Paradox and Complex Properties. Noûs 6 (2):153-164.score: 30.0
    The author argues that the primary lesson of the so-Called logical and semantical paradoxes is that certain entities do not exist, Entities of which we mistakenly but firmly believe that they must exist. In particular, Russell's paradox teaches us that there is no such thing as the property which every property has if and only if it does not have itself. Why should anyone think that such a property must exist and, Hence, Conceive of russell's argument as a paradox rather (...)
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  26. Michael W. Pelczar (2007). Forms and Objects of Thought. Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (1):97-122.score: 30.0
    It is generally assumed that if it is possible to believe that p without believing that q, then there is some difference between the object of the thought that p and the object of the thought that q. This assumption is challenged in the present paper, opening the way to an account of epistemic opacity that improves on existing accounts, not least because it casts doubt on various arguments that attempt to derive startling ontological conclusions from seemingly innocent epistemic premises.
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  27. Chris J. Mitchell, Jan De Houwer & Peter F. Lovibond (2009). The Propositional Nature of Human Associative Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):183-198.score: 30.0
    The past 50 years have seen an accumulation of evidence suggesting that associative learning depends on high-level cognitive processes that give rise to propositional knowledge. Yet, many learning theorists maintain a belief in a learning mechanism in which links between mental representations are formed automatically. We characterize and highlight the differences between the propositional and link approaches, and review the relevant empirical evidence. We conclude that learning is the consequence of propositional reasoning processes that cooperate with the (...)
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  28. Joe Lau, Belief Reports and Interpreted-Logical Forms.score: 30.0
    One major obstacle in providing a compositional semantics for natural languages is that it is not clear how we should deal with propositional attitude contexts. In this paper I will discuss the Interpreted Logical Form proposal , focusing on the case of belief. This proposal has been developed in different ways by authors such as Harman (1972), Higginbotham (1986,1991), Segal (1989) and Larson and Ludlow (1993). On this approach, the that-clause of a belief report is treated as a singular (...)
     
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  29. Anne Bezuidenhout, VP-Ellipsis and the Case for Representationalism in Semantics.score: 30.0
    The debate between representationalists and anti-representationalists as I construe it in this chapter is a debate about whether truth-conditions are or should be assigned directly to natural language sentences (NLSs) – the anti-representationalist view – or whether they are or should be assigned instead to mental representations (MRs) that are related in some appropriate way to these NLSs. On the representationalist view, these MRs are related to NLSs in virtue of the fact that the MRs are the output of an (...)
     
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  30. John Venn (1880). On the Forms of Logical Proposition. Mind 5 (19):336-349.score: 30.0
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  31. Brice Halimi (2011). The Versatility of Universality inPrincipia Mathematica. History and Philosophy of Logic 32 (3):241-264.score: 30.0
    In this article, I examine the ramified-type theory set out in the first edition of Russell and Whitehead's Principia Mathematica. My starting point is the ?no loss of generality? problem: Russell, in the Introduction (Russell, B. and Whitehead, A. N. 1910. Principia Mathematica, Volume I, 1st ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 53?54), says that one can account for all propositional functions using predicative variables only, that is, dismissing non-predicative variables. That claim is not self-evident at all, hence a (...)
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  32. Charles J. Kelly (2002). S4 and Aristotle on Three Syllogisms with Contingent Premisses. Journal of Philosophical Research 27:405-431.score: 30.0
    Aristotle assesses as valid three first figure syllogisms, each of which contains at least one premiss expressing a de re contingency. In fact, all three of these moods (namely, Barbara-QQQ, Barbara-XQM, and Barbara-LQM) are invalid. Utilizing the concept of ampliation, this paper shows how the mood Barbara-QQQ must be refined if it is to be deemed valid. It can then become clear as to how Barbara-XQM and Barbara-LQM can be disambiguated and ultimately validated. In treating all three moods, some theses (...)
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  33. George Englebretsen (1980). On Propositional Form. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 21 (1):101-110.score: 30.0
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  34. Kjell S. Johannessen (1988). Rule Following and Tacit Knowledge. AI and Society 2 (4):287-301.score: 30.0
    This paper discusses the interrelationship between wisdom, science and craft from the perspective of the Wittgenstein concept of tacit knowledge. It challenges the notion of the ‘rules-model’ as put forward by Logical Positivists, and shows the limitation of this model for describing the tacit dimension of knowledge. The paper demonstrates the crucial role of practice in ‘rule-following’ in the real world. It is held that ‘to follow a rule’ is to practice a custom, a usage or an institutional practice. Hence, (...)
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  35. Russell Wahl (1995). Impossible Propositions and the Forms of Objects in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Philosophical Quarterly 45 (179):190-198.score: 30.0
  36. Haridimos Tsoukas (2004). Complex Knowledge: Studies in Organizational Epistemology. OUP Oxford.score: 30.0
    In this book Haridimos Tsoukas, one of the most imaginative organization theorists of our time, examines the nature of knowledge in organizations, and how individuals and scholars approach the concept of knowledge. -/- Tsoukas firstly looks at organizational knowledge and its embeddedness in social contexts and forms of life. He shows that knowledge is not just a collection of free floating representations of the world to be used at will, but an activity constitutive of the world. On the one (...)
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  37. Cora Diamond (2012). General Propositional Form? In Jl Zalabardo (ed.), Wittgenstein's Early Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 151.score: 30.0
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  38. Jan Krajiček (1994). Lower Bounds to the Size of Constant-Depth Propositional Proofs. Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (1):73-86.score: 30.0
    LK is a natural modification of Gentzen sequent calculus for propositional logic with connectives ¬ and $\bigwedge, \bigvee$ (both of bounded arity). Then for every d ≥ 0 and n ≥ 2, there is a set Td n of depth d sequents of total size O(n3 + d) which are refutable in LK by depth d + 1 proof of size exp(O(log2 n)) but such that every depth d refutation must have the size at least exp(nΩ(1)). The sets Td (...)
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  39. Jennifer Smalligan Marušić (2014). Propositions and Judgments in Locke and Arnauld: A Monstrous and Unholy Union? Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (2):255-280.score: 30.0
    Philosophers have accused locke of holding a view about propositions that simply conflates the formation of a propositional thought with the judgment that a proposition is true, and charged that this has obviously absurd consequences.1 Worse, this account appears not to be unique to Locke: it bears a striking resemblance to one found in both the Port-Royal Logic (the Logic, for short) and the Port-Royal Grammar. In the Logic, this account forms part of the backbone of the traditional (...)
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  40. William W. Gustason (1972). Miss Anscombe on the 'General Propositional Form'. Analysis 32 (6):195 - 196.score: 30.0
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  41. Jaap Hage (2011). A Model of Juridical Acts: Part 2: The Operation of Juridical Acts. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 19 (1):49-73.score: 30.0
    This paper aims at providing an account of juridical acts that forms a suitable starting point for the creation of computational systems that deal with juridical acts. The paper is divided into two parts. This second part of the paper deals in some detail with the operation of juridical acts. Topics dealt with include: power and competence, capacity, form requirements, partial validity, avoidance and representation.
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  42. Cora Diamond (2012). What Can You Do with the General Propositional Form? In Jl Zalabardo (ed.), Wittgenstein's Early Philosophy. Oxford University Press.score: 30.0
     
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  43. Jan Krajicek (1994). Lower Bounds to the Size of Constant-Depth Propositional Proofs. Journal of Symbolic Logic 59 (1):73 - 86.score: 30.0
    LK is a natural modification of Gentzen sequent calculus for propositional logic with connectives ¬ and $\bigwedge, \bigvee$ (both of bounded arity). Then for every d ≥ 0 and n ≥ 2, there is a set Td n of depth d sequents of total size O(n3 + d) which are refutable in LK by depth d + 1 proof of size exp(O(log2 n)) but such that every depth d refutation must have the size at least exp(nΩ(1)). The sets Td (...)
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  44. J. M. Mill (1986). Some Comments on Dr Iglesias's Paper, 'In Vitro Fertilisation: The Major Issues'. Journal of Medical Ethics 12 (1):32-35.score: 30.0
    In an article in an earlier edition of the Journal of Medical Ethics (1) Dr Iglesias bases her analysis upon the mediaeval interpretation of Platonic metaphysics and Aristotelian logic as given by Aquinas. Propositional forms are applied to the analysis of experience. This results in a very abstract analysis. The essential connection of events and their changing temporal relationships are ignored. The dichotomy between body and soul is a central concept. The unchanging elements in experience are assumed to (...)
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  45. Peter Carruthers (2002). The Cognitive Functions of Language. Behavioral And Brain Sciences 25 (6):657-674.score: 28.0
    This paper explores a variety of different versions of the thesis that natural language is involved in human thinking. It distinguishes amongst strong and weak forms of this thesis, dismissing some as implausibly strong and others as uninterestingly weak. Strong forms dismissed include the view that language is conceptually necessary for thought (endorsed by many philosophers) and the view that language is _de facto_ the medium of all human conceptual thinking (endorsed by many philosophers and social scientists). Weak (...)
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  46. Barry Hartley Slater (2004). Ramseying Liars. Logic and Logical Philosophy 13:57-70.score: 28.0
    Despite the volume of discussion on the Liar Paradox recently, there is one stream of largely British thought on the matter which is hardly represented in the wider literature. This paper points out salient aspects of the history of this tradition, from its origin in forms of propositional quantification found in Ramsey, through to more precise symbolisations which have emerged more recently. But its purpose is to exposit, with respect to a number of contested cases, the ensuing results. (...)
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  47. Hanoch Ben-Yami (1997). Against Characterizing Mental States as Propositional Attitudes. Philosophical Quarterly 47 (186):84-89.score: 26.0
    The reason for characterizing mental states as propositional attitudes is sentence form: ‘S Vs that p’. However, many mental states are not ascribed by means of such sentences, and the sentences that ascribe them cannot be appropriately paraphrased. Moreover, even if a paraphrase were always available, that in itself would not establish the characterization. And the mental states that are ascribable by appropriate senses do not form any natural subset of mental states. A reason for the characterization relying on (...)
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  48. Lenny Clapp & Robert J. Stainton (2002). `Obviously Propositions Are Nothing': Russell and the Logical Form of Belief Reports. In Georg Peter & Gerhard Preyer (eds.), Logical Form and Language. Oxford University Press. 409--420.score: 26.0
  49. Davis Baird (1994). Meaning in a Material Medium. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:441 - 451.score: 26.0
    Recently we have learned how experiment can have a life of its own. However, experiment remains epistemologically disadvantaged. Scientific knowledge must have a theoretical/propositional form. To begin to redress this situation, I discuss three ways in which instruments carry meaning: 1. Scientific instruments can carry tremendous loads of meaning through association, analogy and metaphor. 2. Instrumental models of complicated phenomena work representationally in much the same way as theories. 3. Instruments which create new phenomena establish a new field of (...)
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  50. Sjur Dyrkolbotn & Michał Walicki (2013). Propositional Discourse Logic. Synthese:1-37.score: 26.0
    A novel normal form for propositional theories underlies the logic pdl, which captures some essential features of natural discourse, independent from any particular subject matter and related only to its referential structure. In particular, pdlallows to distinguish vicious circularity from the innocent one, and to reason in the presence of inconsistency using a minimal number of extraneous assumptions, beyond the classical ones. Several, formally equivalent decision problems are identified as potential applications: non-paradoxical character of discourses, admissibility of arguments in (...)
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