Search results for 'Psychopathy' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Stephen J. Morse (2008). Psychopathy and Criminal Responsibility. Neuroethics 1 (3):205-212.score: 24.0
    This article considers whether psychopaths should be held criminally responsible. After describing the positive law of criminal responsibility in general and as it applies to psychopaths, it suggests that psychopaths lack moral rationality and that severe psychopaths should be excused from crimes that violate the moral rights of others. Alternative forms of social control for dangerous psychopaths, such as involuntary civil commitment, are considered, and the potential legal implications of future scientific understanding of psychopathy are addressed.
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  2. R. J. R. Blair (2008). The Cognitive Neuroscience of Psychopathy and Implications for Judgments of Responsibility. Neuroethics 1 (3):149-157.score: 24.0
    Psychopathy is a developmental disorder associated with specific forms of emotional dysfunction and an increased risk for both frustration-based reactive aggression and goal-directed instrumental antisocial behavior. While the full behavioral manifestation of the disorder is under considerable social influence, the basis of this disorder appears to be genetic. At the neural level, individuals with psychopathy show atypical responding within the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Moreover, the roles of the amygdala in stimulus-reinforcement learning and responding to emotional (...)
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  3. David O. Brink (2013). Responsibility, Incompetence, and Psychopathy. In The Lindley Lecture. University of Kansas.score: 24.0
    This essay articulates a conception of responsibility and excuse in terms of the fair opportunity to avoid wrongdoing and explores its implications for insanity, incompetence, and psychopathy. The fair opportunity conception factors responsibility into conditions of normative competence and situational control and factors normative competence into cognitive and volitional capacities. This supports a conception of incompetence that recognizes substantial impairment of either cognitive or volitional capacities as excusing, provided the agent is not substantially responsible for her own incompetence. This (...)
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  4. Marga Reimer (2008). Psychopathy Without (the Language of) Disorder. Neuroethics 1 (3):185-198.score: 24.0
    Psychopathy is often characterized in terms of what I call “the language of disorder.” I question whether such language is necessary for an accurate and precise characterization of psychopathy, and I consider the practical implications of how we characterize psychopathy—whether as a biological, or merely normative, disorder.
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  5. Gloria Ayob & Tim Thornton (2014). Psychopathy: What Apology Making Tells Us About Moral Agency. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (1):17-29.score: 24.0
    Psychopathy is often used to settle disputes about the nature of moral judgment. The “trolley problem” is a familiar scenario in which psychopathy is used as a test case. Where a convergence in response to the trolley problem is registered between psychopathic subjects and non-psychopathic (normal) subjects, it is assumed that this convergence indicates that the capacity for making moral judgments is unimpaired in psychopathy. This, in turn, is taken to have implications for the dispute between motivation (...)
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  6. Carlo Caponecchia, Andrew Y. Z. Sun & Anne Wyatt (2012). 'Psychopaths' at Work? Implications of Lay Persons' Use of Labels and Behavioural Criteria for Psychopathy. Journal of Business Ethics 107 (4):399-408.score: 24.0
    In attempting to explain or deal with negative workplace behaviours such as workplace bullying, the notion of ‘workplace psychopaths’ has recently received much attention. Focusing on individual aspects of negative workplace behaviour is at odds with more systemic approaches that recognise the contribution of individual, organisational and societal influences, without seeking to blame a person(s) for their behaviour or personality disorder. Regarding a coworker as a psychopath is highly stigmatising, and given the relatively low prevalence of psychopathy in the (...)
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  7. Inti A. Brazil, Laurence T. Hunt, Berend H. Bulten, Roy Pc Kessels, Ellen Ra de Bruijn & Rogier B. Mars (2013). Psychopathy-Related Traits and the Use of Reward and Social Information: A Computational Approach. Frontiers in Psychology 4:952.score: 24.0
    Psychopathy is often linked to disturbed reinforcement-guided adaptation of behaviour in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Recent work suggests that these disturbances might be due to a deficit in actively using information to guide changes in behaviour. However, how much information is actually used to guide behaviour is difficult to observe directly. Therefore, we used a computational model to estimate the use of information during learning. Thirty-six female subjects were recruited based on their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality (...)
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  8. Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (2014). Defending Psychopathy: An Argument From Values and Moral Responsibility. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 35 (1):7-16.score: 24.0
    How psychopaths and their capacity for moral action are viewed is not only philosophically interesting but is also important and relevant for policy. The philosophical discussion of psychopathy has focussed upon the psychological faculties that are prerequisites for moral responsibility and empirical findings regarding psychopathy that are relevant to philosophical accounts of moral understanding and motivation. However, there are legitimate worries about whether psychopathy is a robust scientific construct, and there are risks attached to reifying psychopathy (...)
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  9. Jean Decety, Chenyi Chen, Carla Harenski & Kent A. Kiehl (2013). An fMRI Study of Affective Perspective Taking in Individuals with Psychopathy: Imagining Another in Pain Does Not Evoke Empathy. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 24.0
    While it is well established that individuals with psychopathy have a marked deficit in affective arousal, emotional empathy, and caring for the well-being of others, the extent to which perspective taking can elicit an emotional response has not yet been studied despite its potential application in rehabilitation. In healthy individuals, affective perspective taking has proven to be an effective means to elicit empathy and concern for others. To examine neural responses in individuals who vary in psychopathy during affective (...)
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  10. Liane Leedom & Linda Hartoonian Almas (2012). Is Psychopathy a Disorder or an Adaptation? Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Is psychopathy a disorder or an adaptation?
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  11. Daniel Brian Krupp, Lindsay A. Sewall, Martin L. Lalumière, Craig Sheriff & Grant T. Harris (2012). Nepotistic Patterns of Violent Psychopathy: Evidence for Adaptation? Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Psychopaths routinely disregard social norms by engaging in selfish, antisocial, often violent behavior. Commonly characterized as mentally disordered, recent evidence suggests that psychopaths are executing a well-functioning, if unscrupulous strategy that historically increased reproductive success at the expense of others. Natural selection ought to have favored strategies that spared close kin from harm, however, because actions affecting the fitness of genetic relatives contribute to an individual’s inclusive fitness. Conversely, there is evidence that mental disorders can disrupt psychological mechanisms designed to (...)
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  12. Ralf Veit, Lilian Konicar, Jens G. Klinzing, Beatrix Barth, Özge Yilmaz & Niels Birbaumer (2013). Deficient Fear Conditioning in Psychopathy as a Function of Interpersonal and Affective Disturbances. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:706.score: 24.0
    The diminished fear reactivity is one of the most valid physiological findings in psychopathy research. In a fear conditioning paradigm, with faces as conditioned stimulus (CS) and electric shock as unconditioned stimulus (US), we investigated a sample of 14 high psychopathic violent offenders. Event related potentials, skin conductance responses (SCR) as well as subjective ratings of the CSs were collected. This study assessed to which extent the different facets of the psychopathy construct contribute to the fear conditioning deficits (...)
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  13. Joana B. Vieira & Abigail A. Marsh (2013). Don't Stand so Close to Me: Psychopathy and the Regulation of Interpersonal Distance. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:907.score: 24.0
    Psychopathy is characterized by callous-unemotional traits, such as reduced empathy and remorse, and a tendency toward deviant interpersonal behaviors. It has been suggested that subtle behavioral cues in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits may betray their personality during interpersonal interactions, but little research has addressed what these clues might be. In this study, we investigated whether psychopathic traits predict interpersonal distance preferences, which have been previously linked to amygdala functioning. Forty-six healthy participants performed a behavioral task in (...)
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  14. Dan S. Chiaburu, Gonzalo J. Muñoz & Richard G. Gardner (2013). How to Spot a Careerist Early On: Psychopathy and Exchange Ideology as Predictors of Careerism. Journal of Business Ethics 118 (3):473-486.score: 24.0
    Careerism refers to an individual’s propensity to achieve their personal and career goals through nonperformance-based activities (Feldman, The Indus Org Psychol 39–44, 1985). We investigated the role of several dispositional predictors of careerism, including Five-factor model (FFM) personality traits, primary psychopathy, and exchange ideology. Based on data from 131 respondents, as expected, we observed that emotional stability was negatively correlated with careerism. Primary psychopathy and exchange ideology explained additional variance in careerism after accounting for FFM traits. Relative importance (...)
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  15. Geoff Hamilton (2008). Mythos and Mental Illness: Psychopathy, Fantasy, and Contemporary Moral Life. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 29 (4):231-242.score: 24.0
    Medical accounts of the absence of conscience are intriguing for the way they seem disposed to drift away from the ideal of scientific objectivity and towards fictional representations of the subject. I examine here several contemporary accounts of psychopathy by Robert Hare and Paul Babiak. I first note how they locate the truth about their subject in fiction, then go on to contend that their accounts ought to be thought of as a “mythos,” for they betray a telling uncertainty (...)
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  16. Daniel Brian Krupp, Lindsay A. Sewall, Martin L. Lalumière, Craig Sheriff & Grant Harris (2013). Psychopathy, Adaptation, and Disorder. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 24.0
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  17. Heidi Lene Maibom (2005). Moral Unreason: The Case of Psychopathy. Mind and Language 20 (2):237-57.score: 21.0
    Psychopaths are renowned for their immoral behavior. They are ideal candidates for testing the empirical plausibility of moral theories. Many think the source of their immorality is their emotional deficits. Psychopaths experience no guilt or remorse, feel no empathy, and appear to be perfectly rational. If this is true, sentimentalism is supported over rationalism. Here, I examine the nature of psychopathic practical reason and argue that it is impaired. The relevance to morality is discussed. I conclude that rationalists can explain (...)
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  18. Ishtiyaque Haji (2010). Psychopathy, Ethical Perception, and Moral Culpability. Neuroethics 3 (2):135-150.score: 21.0
    I argue that emotional sensitivity (or insensitivity) has a marked negative influence on ethical perception. Diminished capacities of ethical perception, in turn, mitigate what we are morally responsible for while lack of such capacities may altogether eradicate responsibility. Impairment in ethical perception affects responsibility by affecting either recognition of or reactivity to moral reasons. It follows that emotional insensitivity (together with its attendant impairment in ethical perception) bears saliently on moral responsibility. Since one distinguishing mark of the psychopath is emotional (...)
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  19. Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.) (2010). Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa.score: 21.0
    Psychopaths have emotional and rational impairments that can be expressed in persistent criminal behaviour. UK and US law has not traditionally excused disordered individuals for their crimes citing these impairments as a cause for their criminal behaviour. Until now, the discussion of whether psychopaths are morally responsible for their behaviour has usually taken place in the realm of philosophy. However, in recent years, this debate has been informed by scientific and psychiatric advancements, fundamentally so with the development of Robert Hare's (...)
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  20. Erick Ramirez (2013). Psychopathy, Moral Reasons, and Responsibility”. In Alexandra Perry C. D. Herrera (ed.), Ethics and Neurodiversity.score: 21.0
  21. Abigail A. Marsh (2013). What Can We Learn About Emotion by Studying Psychopathy? Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  22. Katie A. Ragsdale & Jeffrey S. Bedwell (2013). Relationships Between Dimensional Factors of Psychopathy and Schizotypy. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 21.0
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  23. Sina Radke, Inti A. Brazil, Inge Scheper, Berend H. Bulten & Ellen R. A. de Bruijn (2013). Unfair Offers, Unfair Offenders? Fairness Considerations in Incarcerated Individuals with and Without Psychopathy. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 21.0
  24. William Hirstein & Katrina Sifferd (2014). Ethics and the Brains of Psychopaths: The Significance of Psychopathy for Our Ethical and Legal Theories. In Charles Wolfe (ed.), Brain Theory: Essays in Critical Neurophilosophy. Springer. 149-170.score: 18.0
    The emerging neuroscience of psychopathy will have several important implications for our attempts to construct an ethical society. In this article we begin by describing the list of criteria by which psychopaths are diagnosed. We then review four competing neuropsychological theories of psychopathic cognition. The first of these models, Newman’s attentional model, locates the problem in a special type of attentional narrowing that psychopaths have shown in experiments. The second and third, Blair’s amygdala model and Kiehl’s paralimbic model represent (...)
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  25. Paul Litton (2010). Psychopathy and Responsibility Theory. Philosophy Compass 5 (8):676-688.score: 18.0
    Psychopathy presents a difficult challenge to moral and criminal responsibility theorists. Persons with the disorder have an impaired capacity for empathy and other moral emotions, and fail to feel the force of moral considerations. They have some rational impairments, but they reason adequately to manipulate, con, and exploit their victims, and otherwise to engage successfully in antisocial behavior. Is it appropriate to hold them morally responsible for their wrongdoing? Should the law hold psychopaths criminally responsible? This essay discusses philosophical (...)
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  26. Antony Duff (2010). Psychopathy and Answerability. In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. 199.score: 18.0
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  27. Daniel Moseley & Gary Gala (forthcoming). On the Nature of Psychopathy. In Fabrice Jotterand & James Giordano (eds.), The Neurobiology of Social Disruption: International Perspectives of Psychiatry, Pathology and Society. Potomic Institute Press.score: 18.0
    The primary goal of this essay is to clarify the concept of psychopathy and distinguish it from other, related, concepts. We contend that the paradigmatic trait of psychopathy is a propensity to violence that is accompanied by a lack of conscience. We also argue that conceptual clarity on this point is important for devising empirical criteria for identifying psychopaths. We also argue that a full theory of psychopathy will require one to utilize theories and assumptions that pertain (...)
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  28. Neha Khetrapal (2008). The SPAARS Approach: Implications for Psychopathy. Poiesis and Praxis 6 (3-4):131-138.score: 18.0
    Schematic, propositional, analogical and associative representational Systems (SPAARS) is the integrated cognitive model of emotion proposed by Power and Dalgleish (Cognition and Emotion: from order to disorder. The Psychology Press, England, 1997). It is multi-level in nature and includes four different levels of representation. In SPAARS, emotions are described as appraisal-based according to an individual’s goals, thus making the theory functional in nature. Basic emotions possess an innate component and hence can be elicited automatically, since these emotions might already have (...)
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  29. Lei Zhong (2013). Internalism, Emotionism, and the Psychopathy Challenge. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 20 (4):329-337.score: 18.0
    The phenomenon of psychopathy has been regarded as a putative challenge to motivational internalism, which asserts a necessary connection between moral judgment and motivation. An increasingly popular internalist response to the psychopathy challenge is to argue that psychopaths do not make genuine moral judgments because they lack moral emotions (e.g., sympathy and guilt), which are alleged to be causally constitutive of moral judgments. In this paper, I attempt to reject the emotion-based internalist response by appeal to most recent (...)
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  30. Elisa Aaltola (2013). Affective Empathy as Core Moral Agency: Psychopathy, Autism and Reason Revisited. Philosophical Explorations 17 (1):76-92.score: 18.0
    Empathy has become a common point of debate in moral psychology. Recent developments in psychiatry, neurosciences and social psychology have led to the revival of sentimentalism, and the ‘empathy thesis’ has suggested that affective empathy, in particular, is a necessary criterion of moral agency. The case of psychopaths – individuals incapable of affective empathy and moral agency, yet capable of rationality – has been utilised in support of this case. Critics, however, have been vocal. They have asserted that the case (...)
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  31. Michelle Maiese (forthcoming). Moral Cognition, Affect, and Psychopathy. Philosophical Psychology:1-22.score: 18.0
    Few theorists would challenge the idea that affect and emotion directly influence decision-making and moral judgment. There is good reason to think that they also significantly assist in decision-making and judgment, and in fact are necessary for fully effective moral cognition. However, they are not sufficient. Deliberation and more reflective thought processes likewise play a crucial role, and in fact are inseparable from affective processes. I will argue that while the dual-process account of moral judgment set forth by Craigie (2011) (...)
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  32. Linda Mealey (1995). Primary Sociopathy (Psychopathy) is a Type, Secondary is Not. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):579-599.score: 18.0
    Recent studies lend support to the two-pathway model of the evolution of sociopathy with evidence that: 1) psychopathy (primary sociopathy) is a discrete type and 2) in general, sociopaths have relatively high levels of reproductive success. Hare's Psychopathy Checklist may provide a start for the revision of terminology that will be necessary to distinguish between primary and secondary trajectories.
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  33. Neil Levy (2010). Psychopathy, Responsibility and the Moral/Conventional Distinction. In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. 213--226.score: 18.0
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  34. David S. Kosson & Joseph P. Newman (1995). An Evaluation of Mealey's Hypotheses Based on Psychopathy Checklist: Identified Groups. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):562-563.score: 18.0
    Although Mealey's account provides several interesting hypotheses, her integration across disparate samples renders the value of her explanation for psychopathy ambiguous. Recent evidence on Psychopathy Checklist-identified samples (Hare, 1991) suggests primary emotional and cognitive deficits inconsistent with her model. Whereas high-anxious psychopaths display interpersonal deficits consistent with Mealey's hypotheses, low-anxious psychopaths' deficits appear more sensitive to situational parameters than predicted.
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  35. Alasdair Marshall, Denise Baden & Marco Guidi (2013). Can an Ethical Revival of Prudence Within Prudential Regulation Tackle Corporate Psychopathy? Journal of Business Ethics 117 (3):559-568.score: 18.0
    The view that corporate psychopathy played a significant role in causing the global financial crisis, although insightful, paints a reductionist picture of what we present as the broader issue. Our broader issue is the tendency for psychopathy, narcissism and Machiavellianism to cluster psychologically and culturally as ‘dark leadership’ within global financial institutions. Strong evidence for their co-intensification across society and in corporations ought to alarm financial regulators. We argue that an ‘ethical revival’ of prudence within prudential regulation ought (...)
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  36. Matt Matravers (2010). Policies, Law, and Psychopathy: A Critical Stance From Political Philosophy. In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. 63.score: 18.0
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  37. Stephen J. Morse (2010). Psychopathy and the Law: The United States Experience. In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. 41.score: 18.0
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  38. Tony Ward (2010). Psychopathy and Criminal Responsibility in Historical Perspective. In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. 7.score: 18.0
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  39. C. Harenski, Robert D. Hare & Kent A. Kiehl (2010). Neuroimaging, Genetics, and Psychopathy: Implications for the Legal System. In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. 125.score: 18.0
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  40. Griffith Empathy Measure & Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (2012). Antisocial Process Screening Device, 56 Antisocial Tendencies, Self-Report Psychopathy Scale, 101 Antisociality, 123 Appeal to Nature Questionnaire, 184–187. [REVIEW] In Robyn Langdon & Catriona Mackenzie (eds.), Emotions, Imagination, and Moral Reasoning. Psychology Press. 357.score: 18.0
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  41. James Rp Ogloff & Melisa Wood (2010). The Treatment of Psychopathy: Clinical Nihilism or Steps in the Right Direction. In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa.score: 18.0
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  42. Robert D. Hare & Craig S. Neumann (2010). Psychopathy: Assessment and Forensic Implications. In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. 93--123.score: 18.0
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  43. Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (2010). Conclusions: Psychopathy and Responsibility, a Rejoinder. In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. 319.score: 18.0
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  44. Vernon L. Quinsey & Martin L. Lalumière (1995). Psychopathy is a Nonarbitrary Class. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):571-571.score: 18.0
    Recent evidence that psychopathy is a nonarbitrary population, such that the trait may be categorical rather than continuous, is consistent with Mealey's distinction between primary and secondary psychopaths. Thus, there are likely to be at least two routes to criminality, and psychopathic and nonpsychopathic criminals are likely to respond differently to interventions.
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  45. Adrian Raine (1995). Psychopathy and Violence: Arousal, Temperament, Birth Complications, Maternal Rejection, and Prefrontal Dysfunction. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):571-573.score: 18.0
    The key questions arising from Mealey's analysis are: Do environmental factors such as early maternal rejection also contribute to the emotional deficits observed in psychopaths? Are there psychophysiological protective factors for antisocial behavior that have clinical implications? Does a disinhibited temperament and low arousal predispose to primary psychopathy? Would primary or secondary psychopaths be most characterized by prefrontal dysfunction?
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  46. Peter Bartlett (2010). Stabbing in the Dark: English Law Relating to Psychopathy. In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry, and Philosophy. Oxford University Press, Usa. 25.score: 18.0
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  47. Carla Harenski, Robert D. Hare & Kent A. Kiehl (2010). Neurodevelopmental Bases of Psychopathy: A Review of Brain Imaging Studies. [REVIEW] In Luca Malatesti & John McMillan (eds.), Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry and Philosophy. Oup Oxford.score: 18.0
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  48. Jeffrey White (forthcoming). Without Conscience – An Information Processing Model of Psychopathy and Anti-Social Personality Disorders. In Moral Psychology. Nova Publications.score: 18.0
    Psychopathy is best regarded as a complex family of disorders. The upside is that this family can be tightly related along identifiable common dimensions. Characteristic marks of psychopaths include a lack of guilt and remorse for paradigm case immoral actions, leading to the common conception of psychopathy rooted in affective disfunctions. An adequate portrait of psychopathy is much more complicated, however. Though some neural regions and corresponding functions are commonly indicated, they range across those responsible for action (...)
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  49. David W. Shoemaker (2011). Psychopathy, Responsibility, and the Moral/Conventional Distinction. Southern Journal of Philosophy 49 (s1):99-124.score: 15.0
    In this paper, I attempt to show that the moral/conventional distinction simply cannot bear the sort of weight many theorists have placed on it for determining the moral and criminal responsibility of psychopaths. After revealing the fractured nature of the distinction, I go on to suggest how one aspect of it may remain relevant—in a way that has previously been unappreciated—to discussions of the responsibility of psychopaths. In particular, after offering an alternative explanation of the available data on psychopaths and (...)
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  50. Jeffrie G. Murphy (1972). Moral Death: A Kantian Essay on Psychopathy. Ethics 82 (4):284-298.score: 15.0
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