Search results for 'Public health Moral and ethical aspects' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Caroline Mullen (2008). Representation or Reason: Consulting the Public on the Ethics of Health Policy. [REVIEW] Health Care Analysis 16 (4):397-409.score: 1036.0
    Consulting the public about the ethical approaches underlying health policies can seem an appealing means of addressing concerns about limited public participation in development of health policy. However ambiguity surrounds questions of whether, or how consultation can really contribute to more defensible decisions about ethical aspects of policy. This paper clarifies the role and limits of public consultation on ethics, beginning by separating different senses of defensibility in decisions on ethics. Defensibility of (...)
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  2. Alan Cribb (2005). Health and the Good Society: Setting Healthcare Ethics in Social Context. Oxford University Press.score: 1003.0
    What is health policy for? In Health and the Good Society, Alan Cribb addresses this question in a way that cuts across disciplinary boundaries. His core argument is that biomedical ethics should draw upon public health values and ethics; specifically, he argues that everybody has some share of responsibility for health, including a responsibility for promoting greater health equality. In the process, Cribb argues for a major rethink of the whole project of health (...)
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  3. Genevieve Pinet (1985). Ethical Aspects of Public Health Legislation and the Role of the State. In Spyros Doxiadis (ed.), Ethical Issues in Preventive Medicine. Distributors for United States and Canada. 32--35.score: 996.0
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  4. Richard Hull, Philosophical, Ethical, and Moral Aspects of Health Care Rationing: A Review of Daniel Callahan's Setting Limits. [REVIEW]score: 984.0
    My assigned task in today’s colloquium is to review philosophers’ perspectives on the broad question of whether health care rationing ought to target the elderly. This is a revolutionary question, particularly in a society that is so sensitive to apparent discrimination, and the question must be approached carefully if it is to be successfully dealt with. Three subordinate questions attend this one and must be addressed in the course of answering it. The first such question has to do (...)
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  5. S. R. Benatar & Gillian Brock (eds.) (2011). Global Health and Global Health Ethics. Cambridge University Press.score: 950.0
    Machine generated contents note: Preface; Introduction; Part I. Global Health, Definitions and Descriptions: 1. What is global health? Solly Benatar and Ross Upshur; 2. The state of global health in a radically unequal world: patterns and prospects Ron Labonte and Ted Schrecker; 3. Addressing the societal determinants of health: the key global health ethics imperative of our times Anne-Emmanuelle Birn; 4. Gender and global health: inequality and differences Lesley Doyal and Sarah Payne; 5. Heath (...)
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  6. Y. Farmer, Bouthillier MÈ, M. Dion-Labrie, C. Durand & H. Doucet (2010). Public Participation in National Preparedness and Response Plans for Pandemic Influenza: Towards an Ethical Contribution to Public Health Policies. Ramon Llull Journal of Applied Ethics 1 (1):9.score: 910.4
    Faced with the threat of pandemic influenza, several countries have made the decision to put a number of measures in place which have been incorporated into national plans. In view of the magnitude of the powers and responsibilities that States assume in the event of a pandemic, a review of the various national preparedness and response plans for pandemic influenza brought to light a series of extremely important ethical concerns. Nevertheless, in spite of the recent emergence of literature focusing (...)
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  7. Helena Röcklinsberg (forthcoming). Fish Consumption: Choices in the Intersection of Public Concern, Fish Welfare, Food Security, Human Health and Climate Change. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics:1-19.score: 862.0
    Future global food insecurity due to growing population as well as changing consumption demands and population growth is sometimes suggested to be met by increase in aquaculture production. This raises a range of ethical issues, seldom discussed together: fish welfare, food security, human health, climate change and environment, and public concern and legislation, which could preferably be seen as pieces in a puzzle, accepting their interdependency. A balanced decision in favour of or against aquaculture needs to take (...)
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  8. Ezekiel J. Emanuel (ed.) (2003). Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Research: Readings and Commentary. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 828.0
    All investigators funded by the National Institutes of Health are now required to receive training about the ethics of clinical research. Based on a course taught by the editors at NIH, Ethical and Regulatory Aspects of Clinical Research is the first book designed to help investigators meet this new requirement. The book begins with the history of human subjects research and guidelines instituted since World War II. It then covers various stages and components of the clinical trial (...)
     
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  9. David J. Rothman (2006). Trust is Not Enough: Bringing Human Rights to Medicine. New York Review Books.score: 783.0
    Addresses the issues at the heart of international medicine and social responsibility. A number of international declarations have proclaimed that health care is a fundamental human right. But if we accept this broad commitment, how should we concretely define the state’s responsibility for the health of its citizens? Although there is growing debate over this issue, there are few books for general readers that provide engaging accounts of critical incidents, practices, and ideas in the field of human rights, (...)
     
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  10. Christian de Paul de Barchifontaine & Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone Zoboli (eds.) (2007). Bioética, Vulnerabilidade E Saúde. Idéias & Letras.score: 768.0
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  11. Robert T. Hall (2008). Bioética Institucional: Problemas y Prácticas En Las Organizaciones Para El Cuidado de la Salud. Distribuciones Fontamara.score: 768.0
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  12. Alana Maurushat (2008). The Benevolent Health Worm : Comparing Western Human Rights-Based Ethics and Confucian Duty-Based Moral Philosophy. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 10 (1):11-25.score: 766.4
    Censorship in the area of public health has become increasingly important in many parts of the world for a number of reasons. Groups with vested interest in public health policy are motivated to censor material. As governments, corporations, and organizations champion competing visions of public health issues, the more incentive there may be to censor. This is true in a number of circumstances: curtailing access to information regarding the health and welfare of soldiers (...)
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  13. K. G. Fulda (2006). Ethical Issues in Predictive Genetic Testing: A Public Health Perspective. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (3):143-147.score: 764.8
    As a result of the increase in genetic testing and the fear of discrimination by insurance companies, employers, and society as a result of genetic testing, the disciplines of ethics, public health, and genetics have converged. Whether relatives of someone with a positive predictive genetic test should be notified of the results and risks is a matter urgently in need of debate. Such a debate must encompass the moral and ethical obligations of the diagnosing physician and (...)
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  14. K. Oberle & S. Tenove (2000). Ethical Issues in Public Health Nursing. Nursing Ethics 7 (5):425-439.score: 764.8
    This qualitative study was designed to explore ethical issues in public health nursing in the Canadian context, and to begin to identify strategies to support ethical practice. Twenty-two public health nurses, 11 in rural and 11 in urban settings, were asked to describe ethical problems they had experienced in the course of their work. These participants most often described situations that required a relational response rather than an active choice between options. Their goal (...)
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  15. David Badcott (2011). Professional Values in Community and Public Health Pharmacy. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):187-194.score: 721.6
    General practice (community) pharmacy as a healthcare profession is largely devoted to therapeutic treatment of individual patients whether in dispensing medically authorised prescriptions or by providing members of the public with over-the-counter advice and service for a variety of common ailments. Recently, community pharmacy has been identified as an untapped resource available to undertake important aspects of public health and in particular health promotion. In contrast to therapeutic treatment, public health primarily concerns the (...)
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  16. M. W. Ross (1989). Psychosocial Ethical Aspects of AIDS. Journal of Medical Ethics 15 (2):74-81.score: 716.0
    The psychosocial morbidity associated with HIV infection and responses to such infection may exceed morbidity associated with medical sequelae of such infection. This paper argues that negative judgements on those with HIV infection or in groups associated with such infection will cause avoidable psychological and social distress. Moral judgements made regarding HIV infection may also harm the common good by promoting conditions which may increase the spread of HIV infection. This paper examines these two lines of argument with regard (...)
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  17. Yashar Saghai (2012). The Ethics of Public Health Nudges. Dissertation, Georgetown Universityscore: 706.4
    There is growing interest in using non-coercive interventions to promote and protect public health, in particular "health nudges." Behavioral economist Richard Thaler and law scholar Cass Sunstein coined the term nudge to designate influences that steer individuals in a predetermined direction by activating their automatic cognitive processes, while preserving their freedom of choice. Proponents of nudges argue that public and private institutions are entitled to use health-promoting nudges because nudges do not close off any options. (...)
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  18. Melanie Rock & Chris Degeling (2013). Public Health Ethics and a Status for Pets as Person-Things. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):485-495.score: 706.4
    Within the field of medical ethics, discussions related to public health have mainly concentrated on issues that are closely tied to research and practice involving technologies and professional services, including vaccination, screening, and insurance coverage. Broader determinants of population health have received less attention, although this situation is rapidly changing. Against this backdrop, our specific contribution to the literature on ethics and law vis-à-vis promoting population health is to open up the ubiquitous presence of pets within (...)
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  19. Angus Dawson & Marcel Verweij (eds.) (2009). Ethics, Prevention, and Public Health. OUP Oxford.score: 706.4
    Public health is an important and fast-developing area of ethical discussion. In this volume a range of issues in public health ethics are explored using the resources of moral theory, political philosophy, philosophy of science, applied ethics, law, and economics. The twelve original papers presented consider numerous ethical issues arise within public health ethics. To what extent can the public good or the public interest justify state interventions that impose (...)
     
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  20. David Shaw, Lorna Macpherson & David Conway (2009). Tackling Socially Determined Dental Inequalities: Ethical Aspects of Childsmile, the National Child Oral Health Demonstration Programme in Scotland. Bioethics 23 (2):131-139.score: 700.8
    Many ethical issues are posed by public health interventions. Although abstract theorizing about these issues can be useful, it is the application of ethical theory to real cases which will ultimately be of benefit in decision-making. To this end, this paper will analyse the ethical issues involved in Childsmile, a national oral health demonstration programme in Scotland that aims to improve the oral health of the nation's children and reduce dental inequalities through a (...)
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  21. Michiel Korthals & Cristian Timmermann (2012). Reflections on the International Networking Conference “Ethical and Social Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights – Agrifood and Health” Brussels, September 2011. Synesis 3 (1):G66-73.score: 688.0
    Public goods, as well as commercial commodities, are affected by exclusive arrangements secured by intellectual property (IP) rights. These rights serve as an incentive to invest human and material capital in research and development. Particularly in the life sciences, IP rights regulate objects such as food and medicines that are key to securing human rights, especially the right to adequate food and the right to health. Consequently, IP serves private (economic) and public interests. Part of this charge (...)
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  22. Suzanne Shale (2012). Moral Leadership in Medicine: Building Ethical Healthcare Organizations. Cambridge University Press.score: 681.6
    Machine generated contents note: Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Why medicine needs moral leaders; 2. Creating an organizational narrative; 3. Understanding normative expectations in medical moral leadership; Prologue to chapters four and five; 4. Expressing fiduciary, bureaucratic and collegial propriety; 5. Expressing inquisitorial and restorative propriety; Epilogue to chapters four and five; 6. Understanding organizational moral narrative; 7. Moral leadership for ethical organizations; Appendix 1. How the research was done; Appendix 2. Accountability for clinical performance: individuals and (...)
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  23. R. Poll (2011). Managing the Public Health Risk of a 'Sex Worker' with Hepatitis B Infection: Legal and Ethical Considerations. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (10):623-626.score: 676.0
    This paper examines the ethical issues faced by health workers managing a fictional case of a female sex worker who is hepatitis B positive with a high level of virus but is asymptomatic. According to guidelines she does not require treatment herself, but is potentially highly infectious to others. Recent legal cases in the UK show it can be criminal to pass on HIV or hepatitis B infection sexually if the risk is known and the partner has not (...)
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  24. Anna C. Mastroianni, Ruth R. Faden & Daniel D. Federman (eds.) (1994). Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies. National Academy Press.score: 669.6
    Executive Summary There is a general perception that biomedical research has not given the same attention to the health problems of women that it has given ...
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  25. John Harris (1992). Wonderwoman and Superman: The Ethics of Human Biotechnology. Oxford University Press.score: 652.0
    Since the birth of the first test-tube baby, Louise Brown, in 1977, we have seen truly remarkable advances in biotechnology. We can now screen the fetus for Down Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and a wide range of genetic disorders. We can rearrange genes in DNA chains and redirect the evolution of species. We can record an individual's genetic fingerprint. And we can potentially insert genes into human DNA that will produce physical warning signs of cancer, allowing early detection. In fact, biotechnology (...)
     
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  26. W. Brad Johnson & Gerald P. Koocher (eds.) (2011). Ethical Conundrums, Quandaries, and Predicaments in Mental Health Practice: A Casebook From the Files of Experts. Oxford University Press.score: 645.6
    Is it ethical to treat a death row inmate only to stabilize him or her for eventual execution? What happens when a military provider receives highly sensitive intelligence from a client?
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  27. Bertram Bandman (2003). The Moral Development of Health Care Professionals: Rational Decisionmaking in Health Care Ethics. Praeger.score: 641.6
    A central challenge motivates this work: How, if at all, can philosophical ethics help in the moral development of health professionals?
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  28. P. Langat, D. Pisartchik, D. Silva, C. Bernard, K. Olsen, M. Smith, S. Sahni & R. Upshur (2011). Is There a Duty to Share? Ethics of Sharing Research Data in the Context of Public Health Emergencies. Public Health Ethics 4 (1):4-11.score: 633.6
    Making research data readily accessible during a public health emergency can have profound effects on our response capabilities. The moral milieu of this data sharing has not yet been adequately explored. This article explores the foundation and nature of a duty, if any, that researchers have to share data, specifically in the context of public health emergencies. There are three notable reasons that stand in opposition to a duty to share one’s data, relating to: (i) (...)
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  29. T. McConnell (2010). Moral Combat in An Enemy of the People: Public Health Versus Private Interests. Public Health Ethics 3 (1):80-86.score: 628.0
    Next SectionDr Thomas Stockmann, the protagonist of Ibsen's play, An Enemy of the People, discovers a serious health threat in the Baths of his Norwegian town. The Baths have been marketed as a health resort to lure visitors. Dr Stockmann alerts officials about the problem and assumes that they will close the Baths until it is corrected. He is met with fierce resistance, however. His brother, the town's mayor, favors keeping the Baths open and correcting the problem gradually. (...)
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  30. Sabina Gainotti, Nicola Moran, Carlo Petrini & Darren Shickle (2008). Ethical Models Underpinning Responses to Threats to Public Health: A Comparison of Approaches to Communicable Disease Control in Europe. Bioethics 22 (9):466-476.score: 616.8
    Increases in international travel and migratory flows have enabled infectious diseases to emerge and spread more rapidly than ever before. Hence, it is increasingly easy for local infectious diseases to become global infectious diseases (GIDs). National governments must be able to react quickly and effectively to GIDs, whether naturally occurring or intentionally instigated by bioterrorism. According to the World Health Organisation, global partnerships are necessary to gather the most up-to-date information and to mobilize resources to tackle GIDs when necessary. (...)
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  31. Donald J. Willison, Nancy Ondrusek, Angus Dawson, Claudia Emerson, Lorraine E. Ferris, Raphael Saginur, Heather Sampson & Ross Upshur (2014). What Makes Public Health Studies Ethical? Dissolving the Boundary Between Research and Practice. BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):61.score: 598.8
    The generation of evidence is integral to the work of public health and health service providers. Traditionally, ethics has been addressed differently in research projects, compared with other forms of evidence generation, such as quality improvement, program evaluation, and surveillance, with review of non-research activities falling outside the purview of the research ethics board. However, the boundaries between research and these other evaluative activities are not distinct. Efforts to delineate a boundary – whether on grounds of primary (...)
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  32. José Arimatéia da Cruz & Leigh E. Rich (2014). Competing Imperatives? Moral and Public Health Duties of Preventing and Treating Infectious Disease in Prisons. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 11 (1):105-108.score: 598.0
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  33. Robert M. Veatch (1981). Ethical Aspects of the Right to Health Care. In Marc D. Hiller (ed.), Medical Ethics and the Law: Implications for Public Policy. Ballinger Pub. Co..score: 588.0
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  34. Mary Briody Mahowald (2006). Bioethics and Women: Across the Life Span. Oxford University Press.score: 585.6
    All persons, while different from one another, have the same value: this is the author's relatively uncontroversial starting point. Her end point is not uncontroversial: an ideal of justice as human flourishing, based on each person's unique set of capabilities. Because the book's focus is women's health care, gender justice, a necessary component of justice, is central to examination of the issues. Classical pragmatists and feminist standpoint theorists are enlisted in support of a strategy by which gender justice is (...)
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  35. Daniel M. Hausman (2006). Economic Analysis, Moral Philosophy, and Public Policy. Cambridge University Press.score: 573.6
    This book shows through accessible argument and numerous examples how understanding moral philosophy can improve economic analysis, how moral philosophy can benefit from economists' analytical tools, and how economic analysis and moral philosophy together can inform public policy. Part I explores rationality and its connections to morality. It argues that in defending their model of rationality, mainstream economists implicitly espouse contestable moral principles. Part II concerns welfare, utilitarianism and standard welfare economics, while Part III considers (...)
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  36. Andrew Courtwright (2013). Stigmatization and Public Health Ethics. Bioethics 27 (2):74-80.score: 570.0
    Encouraged by the success of smoking denormalization strategies as a tobacco-control measure, public health institutions are adopting a similar approach to other health behaviors. For example, a recent controversial ad campaign in New York explicitly aimed to denormalize HIV/AIDS amongst gay men. Authors such as Scott Burris have argued that efforts like this are tantamount to stigmatization and that such stigmatization is unethical because it is dehumanizing. Others have offered a limited endorsement of denormalization/stigmatization campaigns as being (...)
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  37. Wendy Austin (2012). Moral Distress and the Contemporary Plight of Health Professionals. HEC Forum 24 (1):27-38.score: 568.0
    Once a term used primarily by moral philosophers, “moral distress” is increasingly used by health professionals to name experiences of frustration and failure in fulfilling moral obligations inherent to their fiduciary relationship with the public. Although such challenges have always been present, as has discord regarding the right thing to do in particular situations, there is a radical change in the degree and intensity of moral distress being expressed. Has the plight of professionals in (...)
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  38. Susan Evans (2010). Public Health and Moral Blindness: Promoting Desirable Relationships in Violence Prevention Education. Ethics and Social Welfare 4 (1):44-56.score: 568.0
    In the last decade the public health movement has bolstered efforts to prevent interpersonal violence through bringing social policy attention and needed dollars to prevention initiatives. Features in a public health approach to prevention include an evidence-based conception of the risks and so-called ?protective? factors associated with the unwanted problem and the use of sophisticated evaluation tools to monitor prevention efforts. This article critically reviews public health prevention methodology as applied to interpersonal violence prevention (...)
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  39. D. R. Buchanan & F. G. Miller (2006). A Public Health Perspective on Research Ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (12):729-733.score: 564.8
    Ethical guidelines for conducting clinical trials have historically been based on a perceived therapeutic obligation to treat and benefit the patient-participants. The origins of this ethical framework can be traced to the Hippocratic oath originally written to guide doctors in caring for their patients, where the overriding moral obligation of doctors is strictly to do what is best for the individual patient, irrespective of other social considerations. In contrast, although medicine focuses on the health of the (...)
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  40. J. -F. Menard (2010). A 'Nudge' for Public Health Ethics: Libertarian Paternalism as a Framework for Ethical Analysis of Public Health Interventions? Public Health Ethics 3 (3):229-238.score: 562.2
    Is it possible to interfere with individual decision-making while preserving freedom of choice? The purpose of this article is to assess whether ‘libertarian paternalism’, a set of political and ethical principles derived from the observations of behavioural sciences, can form the basis of a viable framework for the ethical analysis of public health interventions. First, the article situates libertarian libertarianism within the broader context of the law and economics movement. The main tenets of the approach are (...)
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  41. M. Walton & E. Mengwasser (2012). An Ethical Evaluation of Evidence: A Stewardship Approach to Public Health Policy. Public Health Ethics 5 (1):16-21.score: 562.2
    This article aims to contribute to the application of ethical frameworks to public health policy. In particular, the article considers the use of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics stewardship model, as an applied framework for the evaluation of evidence within public health policymaking. The ‘Stewardship framework’ was applied to a policy proposal to restrict marketing of food and beverages to children. Reflections on applying the stewardship model as a framework are provided. The article concludes that (...)
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  42. J. Rossi & M. Yudell (2012). The Use of Persuasion in Public Health Communication: An Ethical Critique. Public Health Ethics 5 (2):192-205.score: 562.2
    Public health communications often attempt to persuade their audience to adopt a particular belief or pursue a particular course of action. To a large extent, the ethical defensibility of persuasion appears to be assumed by public health practitioners; however, a handful of academic treatments have called into question the ethical defensibility of persuasive risk- and health communication. In addition, the widespread use of persuasive tactics in public health communications warrants a close (...)
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  43. Philip J. Barker (ed.) (2011). Mental Health Ethics: The Human Context. Routledge.score: 561.6
    This work provides an overview of traditional and contemporary ethical perspectives and critically examines a range of ethical and moral challenges present in ...
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  44. Dario Sacchini, Andrea Virdis, Pietro Refolo, Maddalena Pennacchini & Ignacio Carrasco de Paula (2009). Health Technology Assessment (HTA): Ethical Aspects. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 12 (4):453-457.score: 552.6
    “HTA is a multidisciplinary process that summarizes information about the medical, social, economic and ethical issues related to the use of a health technology in a systematic, transparent, unbiased, robust manner. Its aim is to inform the formulation of safe, effective, health policies that are patient focused, and seek to achieve best value” (EUnetHTA 2007). Even though the assessment of ethical aspects of a health technology is listed as one of the objectives of a (...)
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  45. John Z. Sadler (2005). Values and Psychiatric Diagnosis. Oxford University Press.score: 552.0
    The public, mental health consumers, as well as mental health practitioners wonder about what kinds of values mental health professionals hold, and what kinds of values influence psychiatric diagnosis. Are mental disorders socio-political, practical, or scientific concepts? Is psychiatric diagnosis value-neutral? What role does the fundamental philosophical question "How should I live?" play in mental health care? In his carefully nuanced and exhaustively referenced monograph, psychiatrist and philosopher of psychiatry John Z. Sadler describes the manifold (...)
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  46. Andrew Jameton (2002). Outline of the Ethical Implications of Earth's Limits for Health Care. Journal of Medical Humanities 23 (1):43-59.score: 542.4
    In addition to good medical services, all aspects of an economy must work together to ensure a high level of public health. However, the abundant economies of the North are contributing heavily to global environmental disaster, with increasing concomitant damage to human health. Environmental health problems result from toxicity (i.e., pollution), scarcity (i.e., poverty), and energy degradation (i.e., entropy). Common to these three factors in environmental demise are the limits of the Earth. Production has evolved (...)
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  47. Jessica Pierce (2004). The Ethics of Environmentally Responsible Health Care. Oxford University Press.score: 537.6
    This book shows how environmental decline relates to human health and to health care practices in the U.S. and other industrialized countries. It outlines the environmental trends that will strongly affect health, and challenges us to see the connections between ways of practicing medicine and the very environmental problems that damage ecosystems and make people sick. In addition to philosophical analysis of the converging values of bioethics and envrionmental ethics, the book offers case studies as well as (...)
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  48. M. Boylan (2004). Introduction: The Moral Imperative to Maintain Public Health. In Michael Boylan (ed.), Public Health Policy and Ethics. Kluwer.score: 534.0
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  49. Bruce Jennings (2009). Public Health and Liberty: Beyond the Millian Paradigm. Public Health Ethics 2 (2):123-134.score: 533.6
    Center for Humans and Nature, 109 West 77th Street, Suite 2, New York, NY 10024, USA. Tel.: 212 362 7170; Fax: 212 362 9592; Email: brucejennings{at}humansandnature.org ' + u + '@' + d + ' '//--> . Abstract A fundamental question for the ethical foundations of public health concerns the moral justification for limiting or overriding individual liberty. What might justify overriding the individual moral claim to non-interference or to self-realization? This paper argues that the (...)
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  50. Marie-Eve Lemoine & Vardit Ravitsky (2013). Toward a Public Health Approach to Infertility: The Ethical Dimensions of Infertility Prevention. Public Health Ethics 6 (3):pht026.score: 532.8
    While many experts and organizations have recognized infertility as a public health issue, most governments have not yet adopted a public health approach to infertility. This article argues in favor of such an approach by discussing the various implications of infertility for public health. We use a conceptual framework that focuses on the dual meaning of the term ‘public’ in this context: the health of the public, as opposed to that of (...)
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