Search results for 'Public relations' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Yungwook Kim & Soo-Yeon Kim (2010). The Influence of Cultural Values on Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility: Application of Hofstede's Dimensions to Korean Public Relations Practitioners. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (4):485 - 500.score: 240.0
    This study explores the relationship between Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and public relations practitioners’ perceptions of corporate social respon- sibility (CSR) in South Korea. The survey on Korean public relations practitioners revealed that, although Hofstede’s dimensions significantly affect public relations practitioners’ perceptions of CSR, social traditionalism values had more explanatory power than cultural dimensions in explaining CSR attitudes. The results suggest that practitioners’ fundamental ideas about the corporation’s role in society seem to be more important (...)
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  2. Yi-Hui Huang (2001). Should a Public Relations Code of Ethics Be Enforced? Journal of Business Ethics 31 (3):259 - 270.score: 240.0
    Whether or not a public relations code of ethics should be enforced, among others, has become one of the most widely controversial topics, especially after the Hill and Knowlton case in 1992. I take the position that ethical codes should be enforced and address this issue from eight aspects: (a) Is a code of ethics an absolute prerequisite of professionalism? (b) Should problems of rhetoric per se in a code of ethics become a rationale against code enforcement? (c) (...)
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  3. Eyun-Jung Ki & Soo-Yeon Kim (2010). Ethics Statements of Public Relations Firms: What Do They Say? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):223 - 236.score: 240.0
    This study was designed to examine the prevalence of a code of ethics and to analyze its content among public relations agencies in the United States. Of the 1,562 public relations agencies reviewed, 605 (38.7%) provided an ethical statement. Among the ethical statements provided by these public relations agencies, ‹respect to clients,’ ‹service,’ ‹strategic,’ and ‹results’ were the values most frequently emphasized. On the other hand, ‹balance,’ ‹fairness,’ ‹honor,’ ‹social responsibility,’ and ‹independence’ were the (...)
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  4. Soo-Yeon Kim & Hyojung Park (2011). Corporate Social Responsibility as an Organizational Attractiveness for Prospective Public Relations Practitioners. Journal of Business Ethics 103 (4):639-653.score: 240.0
    This study viewed students majoring in public relations as prospective public relations practitioners and explored their perceptions about corporate social responsibility (CSR) as their job attraction condition. The results showed that the students perceived CSR to be an important ethical fit condition of a company. One of the significant findings is that CSR can be an effective reputation management strategy for prospective employees, particularly when a company’s business is suffering. In examining the effect of CSR efforts (...)
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  5. Shannon A. Bowen (2010). An Overview of the Public Relations Function. Business Expert Press.score: 240.0
    Preface -- Part I : Mastering the basics. The importance of public relations : Case: UPS faces losses in Teamster's union strike ; What is public relations? ; Models and approaches to public relations ; Public relations as a management function -- Part II : Organizations and processes. Organizational factors contributing to excellent public relations ; How public relations contributes to organizational effectiveness ; Identifying and prioritizing stakeholders and (...)
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  6. Yi-Hui Huang & Shih-Hsin Su (2009). Public Relations Autonomy, Legal Dominance, and Strategic Orientation as Predictors of Crisis Communicative Strategies. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):29 - 41.score: 240.0
    This article investigates the factors affecting how public relations autonomy, legal dominance, and strategic orientation affect crisis communicative response in corporate contexts. Communication managers, crisis managers, public affairs managers, and/or public relations managers were solicited from Taiwan’s top 500 companies to participate in a survey. The results revealed that, in contrast to public relations autonomy being the strongest and sole predictor of concession strategy, legal dominance could predict defensive and diversionary responses in crisis (...)
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  7. Yungwook Kim (2003). Ethical Standards and Ideology Among Korean Public Relations Practitioners. Journal of Business Ethics 42 (3):209 - 223.score: 240.0
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Korean public relations practitioners'' perceptions toward ethical issues, individual practices, and ethical standards in the context of ethical ideology. The survey was conducted with the Korean public relations practitioners. A 2 (Relativism: High/Low) × 2 (Idealism: High/Low) factorial design was devised for the analysis.The MANOVA results showed that ethical ideology (idealism and relativism) had significant effects on ethical decision-making. Idealistic ideology had a main effect on ethical issues, (...)
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  8. Eyun-Jung Ki, Junghyuk Lee & Hong-Lim Choi (2012). Factors Affecting Ethical Practice of Public Relations Professionals Within Public Relations Firms. Asian Journal of Business Ethics 1 (2):123 - 141.score: 240.0
    Abstract This study was designed to investigate the factors affecting ethical practices of public relations professionals in public relations firms. In particular, the following organizational ethics factors were examined: (1) presence of ethics code, (2) top management support for ethical practice, (3) ethical climate, and (4) perception of the association between career success and ethical practice. Analysis revealed that the presence of an ethics code along with top management support and a non-egoistic ethical climate within (...) relations firms significantly influenced public relations professionals' ethical practices. Content Type Journal Article Category Original Paper Pages 1-19 DOI 10.1007/s13520-011-0013-1 Authors Eyun-Jung Ki, Department of Advertising and Public Relations, College of Communication and Information Sciences, The University of Alabama, Box 870172, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0172, USA Junghyuk Lee, Division of Communication Arts, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, South Korea Hong-Lim Choi, School of Communication, Sun Moon University, 100, Kalsan-ri, Tangjeong-myeon, Asan-si, Chungnam 336-708, South Korea Journal Asian Journal of Business Ethics Online ISSN 2210-6731 Print ISSN 2210-6723. (shrink)
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  9. Eyun-Jung Ki, Hong-Lim Choi & Junghyuk Lee (2012). Does Ethics Statement of a Public Relations Firm Make a Difference? Yes It Does!! Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):267-276.score: 240.0
    Attempting to determine solutions for unethical practices in the field, this research was designed to assess the effectiveness of public relations firms’ ethics statements in decreasing the incidence of malpractice. This study revealed an encouraging finding that practitioners working in firms with ethical parameters were significantly more likely to engage in ethical practices. Moreover, educating public relations practitioners about the content of ethics statement could positively influence their ethical practices. At the same time, this study’s findings (...)
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  10. Sherry Baker (2002). The Theoretical Ground for Public Relations Practice and Ethics: A Koehnian Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 35 (3):191 - 205.score: 240.0
    Public relations literature laments the lack of a theoretical base for the practice and ethics of public relations. Drawing primarily upon Koehn (The Ground of Professional Ethics, 1994) and Hutton (Public Relations Review, 1999), this paper proposes such a theoretical ground.The paper adopts Hutton's assertion that "the central organizing theme of public relations theory and practice" is relationships(Hutton, 1999, p. 209). It also relies upon Koehn (1994) to provide a theoretical discussion of (...)
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  11. Suzanne Benn, Lindi Renier Todd & Jannet Pendleton (2010). Public Relations Leadership in Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (3):403 - 423.score: 240.0
    Many of the negative connotations of corporate social responsibility (CSR) are linked to its perceived role as a public relations exercise. Following on calls for more positive engagement by public relations professionals in organisational strategic planning and given the rapidly increasing interest in CSR as a business strategy, this article addresses the question of how the theory and practice of public relations can provide direction and support for CSR. To this end, this article explores (...)
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  12. Calvin L. Troup (2009). Ordinary People Can Reason: A Rhetorical Case for Including Vernacular Voices in Ethical Public Relations Practice. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 87 (4):441 - 453.score: 240.0
    Modern public relations practices have been dominated by appeals to impulses, desires, and images that affect publics defined predominantly in demographic terms. This paper argues that abandoning basic rhetorical assumptions about the ability of ordinary people to engage in practical reason has serious ethical implications for the marketplace as well as for society in general. The study applies recent rhetorical scholarship on issues of public discourse and rhetorical culture to public relations practices, considering how rhetoric (...)
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  13. Ji Yeon Han, Hyun Soon Park & Hyeonju Jeong (2013). Individual and Organizational Antecedents of Professional Ethics of Public Relations Practitioners in Korea. Journal of Business Ethics 116 (3):553-566.score: 216.0
    This study examines the effects of individual ethical values and organizational factors on the professional ethics of PR practitioners in Korea by considering a person–situation interactionist model. Individual ethical values are used as individual factors, and organizational factors consist of an organization’s reward and punishment for ethical/unethical behavior, the behavior of peers, and the ethical integrity of the chief ethics officer. The professional ethics of PR practitioners (the dependent variable) are classified into the following three dimensions: professional ethics for the (...)
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  14. Jeremy B. Fox, Joan M. Donohue & Jinpei Wu (2005). Beyond the Image of Foreign Direct Investment in China: Where Ethics Meets Public Relations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 56 (4):317 - 324.score: 212.0
    While there had still been an increasing flow of foreign direct investment (FDI) into China during the 2002 downturn in FDI globally, such investments have historically been only sporadically successful. Much writing has detailed and discussed problems associated with China FDI but several costs remain dangerously overlooked. One such cost is that of micro-monitoring plants for work conditions and employee treatment in violation of local Chinese laws and possible home country ethics. Further, a more personal cost is presented – the (...)
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  15. Lee Anne Peck & Nancy J. Matchett (2010). An Online Ethics Training Module for Public Relations Professionals. Public Relations Journal 4 (4).score: 210.0
    Researchers developed and tested an online training module with both experienced public relations professionals and newcomers to the field with the hopes of helping them sharpen and refine their ethical decision-making skills. The study found that although most testers reported the Web site was difficult to navigate and/or found the ethical content to be complex, the majority believed their ethical decision-making abilities were improved.
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  16. Jacquie L'Etang (1994). Public Relations and Corporate Social Responsibility: Some Issues Arising. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 13 (2):111 - 123.score: 180.0
    The paper questions current assumptions about the benefits of corporate social responsibility and the claims that corporations make on behalf of their corporate social responsibility programmes. In particular, the paper suggests that the use of corporate social responsibility for public relations ends raises moral problems over the motivation of corporations. The paper cautions that the justifications which corporations employ may either be immoral or inaccurate with regard to the empirical evidence gained from a small-scale qualitative study carried out (...)
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  17. Thomas H. Bivins (1987). Applying Ethical Theory to Public Relations. Journal of Business Ethics 6 (3):195 - 200.score: 180.0
    There seems to be a prevailing belief among public relations professionals that ethical problems can easily be solved by either reference to a simplified code or citation of a few well-worn platitudes. However, the route to a more complete understanding of questions of ethics is circuitous and often painstaking. By applying a number of ethical theories to a public relations problem, both the skilled public relations technician and the public relations professional may (...)
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  18. Kathy Fitzpatrick & Candace Gauthier (2001). Toward a Professional Responsibility Theory of Public Relations Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (2 & 3):193 – 212.score: 180.0
    This article contributes to the development of a professional responsibility theory of public relations ethics. Toward that end, we examine the roles of a public relations practitioner as a professional, an institutional advocate, and the public conscience of institutions served. In the article, we review previously suggested theories of public relations ethics and propose a new theory based on the public relations professional's dual obligations to serve client organizations and the (...) interest. (shrink)
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  19. John J. Pauly & Liese L. Hutchison (2005). Moral Fables of Public Relations Practice: The Tylenol and Exxon Valdez Cases. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4):231 – 249.score: 180.0
    Discussions of the Tylenol and Exxon Valdez cases found in textbooks, public relations scholarship, and news coverage are assessed to understand the meanings that practitioners, educators, critics, and journalists have attributed to those events. The essay objects to a central claim made by critics who say these cases set standards for ethical behavior in public relations. This claim, according to us, mistakes moral drama for ethical deliberation.
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  20. Thomas H. Bivins (1993). Public Relations, Professionalism, and the Public Interest. Journal of Business Ethics 12 (2):117 - 126.score: 180.0
    The public interest statement contained in the PRSA Code of Professional Standards is unduly vague and provides neither a working definition of public interest nor any guidance for the performance of what most professions consider to be a primary value. This paper addresses the question of what might constitute public relations service in the public interest, and calls for more stringent guidelines to be developed whereby the profession may advance its service goals more clearly.
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  21. Cornelius B. Pratt (1991). Public Relations: The Empirical Research on Practitioner Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 10 (3):229 - 236.score: 180.0
    An examination of the empirical literature on public relations ethics indicates serious doubts and concerns about the ethics of the public relations practice. Practitioners tend to perceive the ethics of their top management as higher than their own ethics, suggesting that top management (of which practitioners are a part) should be in the forefront of improving organizational and practitioner ethics.This article also discusses public relations practitioners' suggestions on how ethics in public relations (...)
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  22. Paul S. Lieber (2005). Ethical Considerations of Public Relations Practitioners: An Empirical Analysis of the Tares Test. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4):288 – 304.score: 180.0
    This study conducted the first empirical testing of Baker and Martinson's (2001) TARES test of ethical consideration factors for public relations practitioners. The TARES test is composed of 5 interconnected parts: truthfulness of the message, authenticity of the persuader, respect for the persuadee, equity of the appeal, and social responsibility for the common good. Results of an online exploratory survey indicate that the TARES test is better suited for a 3-factor configuration based on Day's (2003) (...)
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  23. David L. Martinson (1995). Ethical Public Relations Practitioners Must Not Ignore 'Public Interest'. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 10 (4):210 – 222.score: 180.0
    In this study the author argues that public relations practitioners must not ignore the public interest even though the term has been the subject of vigorous debate within both academic and professional circles. The author maintains - not-withstanding the controversy - that the public interest is intrinsic to the very definition of what it is public relations people do. He suggests the solution to the definitional problem rests in first formulating an abstract (general) definition, (...)
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  24. Elspeth Tilley (2005). The Ethics Pyramid: Making Ethics Unavoidable in the Public Relations Process. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4):305 – 320.score: 180.0
    To move from the realm of good intent to verifiable practice, ethics needs to be approached in the same way as any other desired outcome of the public relations process: that is, operationalized and evaluated at each stage of a public relations campaign. A pyramid model - the "ethics pyramid" - is useful for incorporating ethical reflection and evaluation processes into the standard structure of a typical public relations plan. Practitioners can use it to (...)
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  25. Sally M. Alvarez (2000). The Global Economy and Kathie Lee: Public Relations and Media. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 15 (2):77 – 88.score: 180.0
    In a congressional hearing in the spring of 1996, talk show host Kathie Lee Gifford was charged with endorsing clothing made in Honduran sweatshops by exploited children. Resulting media coverage focused public attention on a seamy underside of the "global economy." Redemption strategies used by Gifford and her public relations consultant, and repeated and promoted through the mass media, fed a larger controversy over the meaning of the concept of the global economy and its ethical implications for (...)
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  26. Sherry Baker (2008). The Model of the Principled Advocate and the Pathological Partisan: A Virtue Ethics Construct of Opposing Archetypes of Public Relations and Advertising Practitioners. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (3):235 – 253.score: 180.0
    Drawing upon contemporary virtue ethics theory, The Model of The Principled Advocate and The Pathological Partisan is introduced. Profiles are developed of diametrically opposed archetypes of public relations and advertising practitioners. The Principled Advocate represents the advocacy virtues of humility, truth, transparency, respect, care, authenticity, equity, and social responsibility. The Pathological Partisan represents the opposing vices of arrogance, deceit, secrecy, manipulation, disregard, artifice, injustice, and raw self-interest. One becomes either a Principled Advocate or a Pathological Partisan by habitually (...)
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  27. Kevin Stoker (2005). Loyalty in Public Relations: When Does It Cross the Line Between Virtue and Vice? Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4):269 – 287.score: 180.0
    Public relations practitioners place a premium on loyalty - particularly in terms of cultivating relationships. However, little scholarly research has been done on the subject. This essay analyzes loyalty in terms of organizational deterioration and decline. The ethical dimensions of Hirschman's concept of "exit, voice, and loyalty, " and Royce's notion about loyalty, are explored, as is the concept of "loyalty to loyalty. " The essay concludes with a 7-step model intended to help practitioners determine the demands of (...)
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  28. Katie R. Place (2011). A Qualitative Examination of Public Relations Practitioner Ethical Decision Making and the Deontological Theory of Ethical Issues Management. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 25 (3):226-245.score: 180.0
    Public relations practitioners are uniquely positioned to promote ethical communication and practice. As Kruckeberg (2000) explained, “public relations practitioners-if they prove worthy of the task—will be called upon to be corporate—that is organizational—interpreters and ethicists and social policy-makers, charged with guiding organizational behavior as well as influencing and reconciling public perceptions within a global context (p. 37).” Public relations practitioners, however, may never take an ethics course as a student, receive on-the-job ethical training, (...)
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  29. Justin Tan & Anna E. Tan (2009). Managing Public Relations in an Emerging Economy: The Case of Mercedes in China. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 86 (2):257 - 266.score: 180.0
    This case study documents a high-profile incident involving the world-famous auto maker Daimler Benz with its customers in China. On the one hand, angry customers felt victimized by the auto maker's lack of willingness to take responsibility and its double standard between industrialized markets and emerging economies in dealing with customer complaints; on the other hand, the auto maker also felt frustrated at how this product warranty matter quickly escalated into a public relations nightmare. The case illustrates the (...)
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  30. Hyo-Sook Kim (2005). Universalism Versus Relativism in Public Relations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4):333 – 344.score: 180.0
    Choosing for whom to work is one of the most difficult ethical questions public relations practitioners have to address. This article attempts to examine the issue of client choice in the philosophical context of universalism versus ethical relativism. In this article, while acknowledging that differences between cultures exist, I argue public relations practitioners should take a universalistic approach in choosing their clients because ethical relativism itself is seriously flawed.
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  31. David L. Martinson (1994). Enlightened Self-Interest Fails as an Ethical Baseline in Public Relations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9 (2):100 – 108.score: 180.0
    Some in public relations have suggested that practitioners adopt a philosophy of enlightened self-interest as an ethical baseline. The author contends that such a theory must be rejected because even the enlightened variety does not adequately weigh the needs of significant others - a central consideration in any effort to define ethical behavior. The author maintains that genuine sacrifice - at times required of those desiring to do the right thing - clearly can conflict with any theory espousing (...)
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  32. Kevin Stoker & Megan Stoker (2012). The Paradox of Public Interest: How Serving Individual Superior Interests Fulfill Public Relations' Obligation to the Public Interest. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27 (1):31-45.score: 180.0
    Since the early 20th century, advocates of public relations professionalism have mandated that practitioners serve the public interest making it an ethical standard for evaluating the morality of public relations practice. However, the field has devoted little research to determining just what it means for practitioners to serve the public interest. Most research suggests practice-oriented solutions. This article focuses what practitioners must do to serve the public interest. It reviews theories of the social (...)
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  33. Steven R. Thomsen (1998). Public Relations and the Tobacco Industry: Examining the Debate on Practictioner Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 13 (3):152 – 164.score: 180.0
    This study examines the moral and ethical arguments presented by public relations practitioners in online debate on the appropriateness of representing the tobacco industry or tobacco interests. It is a descriptive and inferential analysis of 21 e-mail messages posted during a 14-month debate on the PRForum, an online newsgroup for public relations professionals, applying Kohlberg's cognitive-development theory of moralization. Debate focused on the right of an organization to promote a legal product versus a practitioner's obligation to (...)
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  34. Charles Marsh (2001). Public Relations Ethics: Contrasting Models From the Rhetorics of Plato, Aristotle, and Isocrates. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (2-3):78-98.score: 180.0
    As a relatively young profession, public relations seeks a realistic ethics foundation. A continuing debate in public relations has pitted journalistic/objectivity ethics against the advocacy ethics that may be more appropriate in an adversarial society. As the journalistic/objectivity influence has waned, the debate has evolved, pitting the advocacy/adversarial foundation against the two-way symmetrical model of public relations, which seeks to build consensus and holds that an organization itself, not an opposing public, sometimes may (...)
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  35. Charles W. Marsh Jr (2001). Public Relations Ethics: Contrasting Models From the Rhetorics of Plato, Aristotle, and Isocrates. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (2 & 3):78 – 98.score: 180.0
    As a relatively young profession, public relations seeks a realistic ethics foundation. A continuing debate in public relations has pitted journalistic/objectivity ethics against the advocacy ethics that may be more appropriate in an adversarial society. As the journalistic/objectivity influence has waned, the debate has evolved, pitting the advocacy/adversarial foundation against the two-way symmetrical model of public relations, which seeks to build consensus and holds that an organization itself, not an opposing public, sometimes may (...)
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  36. Genevieve McBride (1989). Ethical Thought in Public Relations History: Seeking a Relevant Perspective. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4 (1):5 – 20.score: 180.0
    A serious retardant to development of a specifically public relations (PR) ethical philosophy is the tendency to retain a commitment uniquely journalistic? objectivity. Ivy Lee and Edward Bernays offered two ethical options or imperatives, based on objectivity or on advocacy. Public relations must accept a commitment to the ethics of persuasion in order to reduce a crippling inferiority complex and advance understanding of the profession by its practitioners as well as the public.
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  37. Kathy R. Fitzpatrick (2002). Evolving Standards in Public Relations: A Historical Examination of Prsa's Codes of Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 17 (2):89 – 110.score: 180.0
    The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) adopted its first code of ethics in 1950, 2 years after PRSA was formed. During the next 50 years, the code was revised and updated several times to keep pace with industry practices and increased expectations for ethical performance. In 2000 a new code was adopted to heighten awareness of ethical issues and address concerns regarding code enforcement. In this article I trace the 50-year evolution of PRSA's codes of ethics and (...)
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  38. David L. Martinson (1998). A Question of Distributive and Social Justice: Public Relations Practitioners and the Marketplace of Ideas. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 13 (3):141 – 151.score: 180.0
    The marketplace of ideas theoy has been utilized as one means to justify,from a societal perspective, contempora y public relations practice. Proponents confend that practitioners serve society in true Miltonian fashion by helping clients inject their views into that marketplace. One must question, however, whether afunctional marketplace of ideas exists relative to the public relations process. Further, by focusing ethical questions on individualistic practitioner behavior relative to that marketplace, practitioners may not be paying sulyicient attention to (...)
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  39. Kevin L. Stoker & Kati A. Tusinski (2006). Reconsidering Public Relations' Infatuation with Dialogue: Why Engagement and Reconciliation Can Be More Ethical Than Symmetry and Reciprocity. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 21 (2 & 3):156 – 176.score: 180.0
    Advocates of dialogic communication have promoted two-way symmetrical communication as the most effective and ethical model for public relations. This article uses John Durham Peters's critique of dialogic communication to reconsider this infatuation with dialogue. In this article, we argue that dialogue's potential for selectivity and tyranny poses moral problems for public relations. Dialogue's emphasis on reciprocal communication also saddles public relations with ethically questionable quid pro quo relationships. We contend that dissemination can be (...)
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  40. Kati Tusinski Berg (2012). The Ethics of Lobbying: Testing an Ethical Framework for Advocacy in Public Relations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27 (2):97 - 114.score: 180.0
    This study evaluates the ethical criteria lobbyists consider in their professional activities using Ruth Edgett's model for ethically desirable public relations advocacy. Data were collected from self-administered surveys of 222 registered lobbyists in Oregon. A factor analysis reduced 18 ethical criteria to seven underlying factors describing lobbyists' ethical approaches to their work. Results indicate that lobbyists consider the following factors in their day-to-day professional activities: situation, strategy, argument, procedure, nature of lobbying, priority, and accuracy. This framework, derived from (...)
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  41. Thomas H. Bivins (1989). Are Public Relations Texts Covering Ethics Adequately? Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4 (1):39 – 52.score: 180.0
    As the public relations (PR) field becomes more and more concerned about ethics, attention turns to ethics instruction in university public relations programs. Analysis of six leading public relations texts shows a wide disparity in coverage of the topic, ranging from sparse philosophical to primarily anecdotal. According to the author, no basic conceptual framework has emerged to suggest common ground for studying public relations ethics and the default position seems to be to (...)
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  42. S. L. Harrison (1990). Pedagogical Ethics for Public Relations and Advertising. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 5 (4):256 – 262.score: 180.0
    Ethics, of increasing concern to college educators, is being given more attention in public relations and advertising courses. A vast number of respondents to a survey assessing this issue agreed that ethics is important and nearly all (93%) asserted that it is included in course work. Few educational institutions, however, include a separate course for ethics and fewer than half require it. In ethics texts and courses the emphasis is on the journalism aspect, and it is evident that (...)
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  43. Cornelius B. Pratt & Gerald W. McLaughlin (1989). Ethical Inclinations of Public Relations Majors. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4 (1):68 – 91.score: 180.0
    Four primary ethical behaviors are explored in five situations among 258 undergraduate students, mostly in public relations (PR), in two mid?Atlantic public universities. Student self?reported ethical beliefs are found to be multidimensional, with data suggesting interpretations based on theories of reasoned action.
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  44. Chris Roberts (2012). Public Relations and Rawls: An Ill-Fitting Veil to Wear. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27 (3):163-176.score: 180.0
    John Rawls's ?veil of ignorance? approach to ethical decision making is a staple in mass media ethics literature, but Rawls's overarching theory of distributive justice receives less consideration in public relations ethics than in other communication disciplines. Public relations ethicists who describe the veil often divorce it from Rawls's original intention. This paper describes Rawls's theory; its uses and misuses in contemporary discussions of public relations ethics; six reasons why the veil seems to be (...)
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  45. Don Stacks (2001). A Look at Tourism Through a Multi-Dimensional Model of Public Relations. World Futures 57 (5):481-493.score: 180.0
    Tourism is examined from a public relations perspective aimed at focusing on multiple publics and multiple messages. Advancing upon an earlier proposed model for tourism proposed by Stacks (1995; Tilson and Stacks, 1997), this paper explores how public relations enters the ?integrated communications? mix by looking at American Airlines? penetration into the South American travel market as a case example of excellence in public relations in the travel industry.
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  46. James H. Bissland & Terry Lynn Rentner (1989). Education's Role in Professionalizing Public Relations: A Progress Report. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4 (1):92 – 105.score: 180.0
    Public relations (PR) is trying to gain professional status by stressing specialized education for the field. Results are mixed, at best. Most practitioners have had educations in some aspects of communication, but so far only a small (though growing) number acknowledge it as being in public relations per se. Furthermore, when certain key attributes of professionalism are measured, practitioners with formal educations in public relations differ little from those without such educations.
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  47. Marvin N. Olasky (1985). Ministers or Panderers: Issues Raised by the Public Relations Society Code of Standards. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 1 (1):43 – 49.score: 180.0
    A review of the PRSA Code of Professional Standards reveals that despite the messianic strains of its originators, the code has become in part a public relations device to allow claims of adherence to virtue and in part a matter of constraining free competition. The author maintains that to date the code has not even helped the public relations of public relations. ?Responsibility to the public?; remains undefinable, but trust in individual ethical judgment (...)
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  48. Don W. Stacks & Donald K. Wright (1989). A Quantitative Examination of Ethical Dilemmas in Public Relations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4 (1):53 – 67.score: 180.0
    This research examined ethical responses of public relations preprofessionals to dilemmas they may face later in their careers. Subjects were required to respond to a request for information ordered suppressed by their employer. Results support earlier findings that students expect personal moral?ethical values to override organizational concerns. Implications of the findings are discussed.
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  49. Soo-Yeon Kim & Eyun-Jung Ki (2014). An Exploratory Study of Ethics Codes of Professional Public Relations Associations: Proposing Modified Universal Codes of Ethics in Public Relations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 29 (4):238-257.score: 180.0
    Public relations scholars have demonstrated contradictory views regarding the application of universal versus culture-specific approaches for understanding global public relations ethics. However, few comparative studies have empirically explored public relations ethics on a global scale. To that end, this study represents an exploratory attempt to provide a descriptive picture of public relations professional associations and their codes of ethics across 107 countries. In conclusion, we argue that honesty, safeguarding of confidences of clients, (...)
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