Search results for 'Public relations Management' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Shannon A. Bowen (2010). An Overview of the Public Relations Function. Business Expert Press.score: 131.0
    Preface -- Part I : Mastering the basics. The importance of public relations : Case: UPS faces losses in Teamster's union strike ; What is public relations? ; Models and approaches to public relations ; Public relations as a management function -- Part II : Organizations and processes. Organizational factors contributing to excellent public relations ; How public relations contributes to organizational effectiveness ; Identifying and prioritizing stakeholders (...)
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  2. Seow Ting Lee & I. -Huei Cheng (2012). Ethics Management in Public Relations: Practitioner Conceptualizations of Ethical Leadership, Knowledge, Training and Compliance. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27 (2):80 - 96.score: 116.0
    Little is known and understood about ethics management or the development of formal, systematic, and goal-directed initiatives to improve ethics in the public relations workplace. This study found little ethics training and written guidelines in the public relations workplace. Organizational ethics initiatives are poorly communicated to practitioners and rely mostly on punitive restraints with little reward for ethical behavior. For many practitioners, ethics is not learned through workplace ethics initiatives but rather is mostly informed by (...)
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  3. Katie R. Place (2011). A Qualitative Examination of Public Relations Practitioner Ethical Decision Making and the Deontological Theory of Ethical Issues Management. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 25 (3):226-245.score: 101.0
    Public relations practitioners are uniquely positioned to promote ethical communication and practice. As Kruckeberg (2000) explained, “public relations practitioners-if they prove worthy of the task—will be called upon to be corporate—that is organizational—interpreters and ethicists and social policy-makers, charged with guiding organizational behavior as well as influencing and reconciling public perceptions within a global context (p. 37).” Public relations practitioners, however, may never take an ethics course as a student, receive on-the-job ethical training, (...)
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  4. Soo-Yeon Kim & Hyojung Park (2011). Corporate Social Responsibility as an Organizational Attractiveness for Prospective Public Relations Practitioners. Journal of Business Ethics 103 (4):639-653.score: 99.0
    This study viewed students majoring in public relations as prospective public relations practitioners and explored their perceptions about corporate social responsibility (CSR) as their job attraction condition. The results showed that the students perceived CSR to be an important ethical fit condition of a company. One of the significant findings is that CSR can be an effective reputation management strategy for prospective employees, particularly when a company’s business is suffering. In examining the effect of CSR (...)
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  5. Eyun-Jung Ki, Junghyuk Lee & Hong-Lim Choi (2012). Factors Affecting Ethical Practice of Public Relations Professionals Within Public Relations Firms. Asian Journal of Business Ethics 1 (2):123 - 141.score: 99.0
    Abstract This study was designed to investigate the factors affecting ethical practices of public relations professionals in public relations firms. In particular, the following organizational ethics factors were examined: (1) presence of ethics code, (2) top management support for ethical practice, (3) ethical climate, and (4) perception of the association between career success and ethical practice. Analysis revealed that the presence of an ethics code along with top management support and a non-egoistic ethical climate (...)
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  6. Suzanne Benn, Lindi Renier Todd & Jannet Pendleton (2010). Public Relations Leadership in Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 96 (3):403 - 423.score: 99.0
    Many of the negative connotations of corporate social responsibility (CSR) are linked to its perceived role as a public relations exercise. Following on calls for more positive engagement by public relations professionals in organisational strategic planning and given the rapidly increasing interest in CSR as a business strategy, this article addresses the question of how the theory and practice of public relations can provide direction and support for CSR. To this end, this article explores (...)
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  7. Yi-Hui Huang & Shih-Hsin Su (2009). Public Relations Autonomy, Legal Dominance, and Strategic Orientation as Predictors of Crisis Communicative Strategies. Journal of Business Ethics 86 (1):29 - 41.score: 89.3
    This article investigates the factors affecting how public relations autonomy, legal dominance, and strategic orientation affect crisis communicative response in corporate contexts. Communication managers, crisis managers, public affairs managers, and/or public relations managers were solicited from Taiwan’s top 500 companies to participate in a survey. The results revealed that, in contrast to public relations autonomy being the strongest and sole predictor of concession strategy, legal dominance could predict defensive and diversionary responses in crisis (...)
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  8. Pia Lotila (2010). Corporate Responsiveness to Social Pressure: An Interaction-Based Model. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (3):395 - 409.score: 87.0
    The study introduces an interaction-based model that illustrates the iterative process of corporate responsiveness to social pressure. The model is then applied to a recent case of international relevance. The study implies that corporate management can apply three types of management approaches when managing relations with society, depending on their perception of social pressure: tactic, strategic or no action. This is then reflected in their practice of public relations (PR). Ethical leadership is considered to be (...)
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  9. Yungwook Kim & Soo-Yeon Kim (2010). The Influence of Cultural Values on Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility: Application of Hofstede's Dimensions to Korean Public Relations Practitioners. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (4):485 - 500.score: 84.0
    This study explores the relationship between Hofstede’s cultural dimensions and public relations practitioners’ perceptions of corporate social respon- sibility (CSR) in South Korea. The survey on Korean public relations practitioners revealed that, although Hofstede’s dimensions significantly affect public relations practitioners’ perceptions of CSR, social traditionalism values had more explanatory power than cultural dimensions in explaining CSR attitudes. The results suggest that practitioners’ fundamental ideas about the corporation’s role in society seem to be more important (...)
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  10. Yi-Hui Huang (2001). Should a Public Relations Code of Ethics Be Enforced? Journal of Business Ethics 31 (3):259 - 270.score: 84.0
    Whether or not a public relations code of ethics should be enforced, among others, has become one of the most widely controversial topics, especially after the Hill and Knowlton case in 1992. I take the position that ethical codes should be enforced and address this issue from eight aspects: (a) Is a code of ethics an absolute prerequisite of professionalism? (b) Should problems of rhetoric per se in a code of ethics become a rationale against code enforcement? (c) (...)
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  11. Eyun-Jung Ki & Soo-Yeon Kim (2010). Ethics Statements of Public Relations Firms: What Do They Say? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):223 - 236.score: 84.0
    This study was designed to examine the prevalence of a code of ethics and to analyze its content among public relations agencies in the United States. Of the 1,562 public relations agencies reviewed, 605 (38.7%) provided an ethical statement. Among the ethical statements provided by these public relations agencies, ‹respect to clients,’ ‹service,’ ‹strategic,’ and ‹results’ were the values most frequently emphasized. On the other hand, ‹balance,’ ‹fairness,’ ‹honor,’ ‹social responsibility,’ and ‹independence’ were the (...)
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  12. Nicola Berg & Dirk Holtbrügge (2001). Public Affairs Management Activities of German Multinational Corporations in India. Journal of Business Ethics 30 (1):105 - 119.score: 84.0
    In this paper the importance of public affairs management in multinational corporations in India will be examined. After briefly discussing the state of the art in international business and society literature, a conceptual framework for public affairs management in multinational corporations will be developed. This framework serves as the theoretical basis for an empirical study among German multinational corporations in India. In the main part of this paper the results of this study will be (...)
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  13. Yungwook Kim (2003). Ethical Standards and Ideology Among Korean Public Relations Practitioners. Journal of Business Ethics 42 (3):209 - 223.score: 84.0
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the Korean public relations practitioners'' perceptions toward ethical issues, individual practices, and ethical standards in the context of ethical ideology. The survey was conducted with the Korean public relations practitioners. A 2 (Relativism: High/Low) × 2 (Idealism: High/Low) factorial design was devised for the analysis.The MANOVA results showed that ethical ideology (idealism and relativism) had significant effects on ethical decision-making. Idealistic ideology had a main effect on ethical issues, (...)
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  14. Sherry Baker (2002). The Theoretical Ground for Public Relations Practice and Ethics: A Koehnian Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 35 (3):191 - 205.score: 84.0
    Public relations literature laments the lack of a theoretical base for the practice and ethics of public relations. Drawing primarily upon Koehn (The Ground of Professional Ethics, 1994) and Hutton (Public Relations Review, 1999), this paper proposes such a theoretical ground.The paper adopts Hutton's assertion that "the central organizing theme of public relations theory and practice" is relationships(Hutton, 1999, p. 209). It also relies upon Koehn (1994) to provide a theoretical discussion of (...)
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  15. Eyun-Jung Ki, Hong-Lim Choi & Junghyuk Lee (2012). Does Ethics Statement of a Public Relations Firm Make a Difference? Yes It Does!! Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):267-276.score: 84.0
    Attempting to determine solutions for unethical practices in the field, this research was designed to assess the effectiveness of public relations firms’ ethics statements in decreasing the incidence of malpractice. This study revealed an encouraging finding that practitioners working in firms with ethical parameters were significantly more likely to engage in ethical practices. Moreover, educating public relations practitioners about the content of ethics statement could positively influence their ethical practices. At the same time, this study’s findings (...)
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  16. Calvin L. Troup (2009). Ordinary People Can Reason: A Rhetorical Case for Including Vernacular Voices in Ethical Public Relations Practice. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 87 (4):441 - 453.score: 84.0
    Modern public relations practices have been dominated by appeals to impulses, desires, and images that affect publics defined predominantly in demographic terms. This paper argues that abandoning basic rhetorical assumptions about the ability of ordinary people to engage in practical reason has serious ethical implications for the marketplace as well as for society in general. The study applies recent rhetorical scholarship on issues of public discourse and rhetorical culture to public relations practices, considering how rhetoric (...)
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  17. Ji Yeon Han, Hyun Soon Park & Hyeonju Jeong (2013). Individual and Organizational Antecedents of Professional Ethics of Public Relations Practitioners in Korea. Journal of Business Ethics 116 (3):553-566.score: 73.0
    This study examines the effects of individual ethical values and organizational factors on the professional ethics of PR practitioners in Korea by considering a person–situation interactionist model. Individual ethical values are used as individual factors, and organizational factors consist of an organization’s reward and punishment for ethical/unethical behavior, the behavior of peers, and the ethical integrity of the chief ethics officer. The professional ethics of PR practitioners (the dependent variable) are classified into the following three dimensions: professional ethics for the (...)
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  18. D. Barnard-Wills & D. Ashenden (2010). Public Sector Engagement with Online Identity Management. Identity in the Information Society 3 (3):657-674.score: 72.0
    The individual management of online identity, as part of a wider politics of personal information, privacy, and dataveillance, is an area where public policy is developing and where the public sector attempts to intervene. This paper attempts to understand the strategies and methods through which the UK government and public sector is engaging in online identity management. The analysis is framed by the analytics of government (Dean 2010) and governmentality (Miller and Rose 2008). This approach (...)
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  19. Marsha A. Dickson & Molly Eckman (2008). Media Portrayal of Voluntary Public Reporting About Corporate Social Responsibility Performance: Does Coverage Encourage or Discourage Ethical Management? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 83 (4):725 - 743.score: 72.0
    Drawing on constructionist theory, this study examines how the media portrayed five public reporting events initiated by the Fair Labor Association (FLA), considering whether the coverage encourages or discourages companies from undertaking a reporting initiative as part of their ethical management. Media coverage was limited but generally favorable across all five events. Coverage frequently included claims made by FLA spokespersons and provided basic facts about the organization and its activities. Extensive detail about labor violations found by monitors was (...)
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  20. Rutaichanok Jingjit & Marianna Fotaki (2010). Confucian Ethics and the Limited Impact of the New Public Management Reform in Thailand. Journal of Business Ethics 97 (S1):61-73.score: 72.0
    The diffusion of New Public Management reforms across the globe is based on the assumption of the universal applicability of managerialism, driven by instrumental rationality, individualism, independence and competition. The aim of this article is to challenge this conception and to fill a significant gap in the existing research by analysing potential problems arising from the implementation of the NPM philosophy in non-Western public organisations. In-depth interviews and a large-scale survey were conducted across six public organisations (...)
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  21. Cornelius B. Pratt (1991). Public Relations: The Empirical Research on Practitioner Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 10 (3):229 - 236.score: 71.0
    An examination of the empirical literature on public relations ethics indicates serious doubts and concerns about the ethics of the public relations practice. Practitioners tend to perceive the ethics of their top management as higher than their own ethics, suggesting that top management (of which practitioners are a part) should be in the forefront of improving organizational and practitioner ethics.This article also discusses public relations practitioners' suggestions on how ethics in public (...)
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  22. Justin Tan & Anna E. Tan (2009). Managing Public Relations in an Emerging Economy: The Case of Mercedes in China. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 86 (2):257 - 266.score: 71.0
    This case study documents a high-profile incident involving the world-famous auto maker Daimler Benz with its customers in China. On the one hand, angry customers felt victimized by the auto maker's lack of willingness to take responsibility and its double standard between industrialized markets and emerging economies in dealing with customer complaints; on the other hand, the auto maker also felt frustrated at how this product warranty matter quickly escalated into a public relations nightmare. The case illustrates the (...)
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  23. Jeremy B. Fox, Joan M. Donohue & Jinpei Wu (2005). Beyond the Image of Foreign Direct Investment in China: Where Ethics Meets Public Relations. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 56 (4):317 - 324.score: 71.0
    While there had still been an increasing flow of foreign direct investment (FDI) into China during the 2002 downturn in FDI globally, such investments have historically been only sporadically successful. Much writing has detailed and discussed problems associated with China FDI but several costs remain dangerously overlooked. One such cost is that of micro-monitoring plants for work conditions and employee treatment in violation of local Chinese laws and possible home country ethics. Further, a more personal cost is presented – the (...)
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  24. Lee Anne Peck & Nancy J. Matchett (2010). An Online Ethics Training Module for Public Relations Professionals. Public Relations Journal 4 (4).score: 70.0
    Researchers developed and tested an online training module with both experienced public relations professionals and newcomers to the field with the hopes of helping them sharpen and refine their ethical decision-making skills. The study found that although most testers reported the Web site was difficult to navigate and/or found the ethical content to be complex, the majority believed their ethical decision-making abilities were improved.
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  25. Elspeth Tilley (2005). The Ethics Pyramid: Making Ethics Unavoidable in the Public Relations Process. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4):305 – 320.score: 61.0
    To move from the realm of good intent to verifiable practice, ethics needs to be approached in the same way as any other desired outcome of the public relations process: that is, operationalized and evaluated at each stage of a public relations campaign. A pyramid model - the "ethics pyramid" - is useful for incorporating ethical reflection and evaluation processes into the standard structure of a typical public relations plan. Practitioners can use it to (...)
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  26. Lars Kristian Hansen and Shegaw Anagaw Mengiste (2012). IT Project Portfolio Management: Modularity Problems in a Public Organization. Iris 35.score: 60.0
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  27. Shannon Bowen (2004). Organizational Factors Encouraging Ethical Decision Making: An Exploration Into the Case of an Exemplar. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 52 (4):311 - 324.score: 58.0
    What factors in the organizational culture of an ethically exemplary corporation are responsible for encouraging ethical decision making? This question was analyzed through an exploratory case study of a top pharmaceutical company that is a global leader in ethics. The participating organization is renowned in public opinion polls of ethics, credibility, and trust. This research explored organizational culture, communication in issues management and public relations, management theory, and deontological or utilitarian moral philosophy as factors that (...)
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  28. Yi-Hui Huang (2004). Is Symmetrical Communication Ethical and Effective? Journal of Business Ethics 53 (4):333-352.score: 57.0
    The purpose of this paper is to explore two questions:(1) Is symmetrical communication in public relations practice inherently ethical?(2) Does symmetrical communication contribute to public relations effectiveness and organizational effectiveness? Three surveys are undertaken to test seven research hypotheses for the purpose of cross-validating research findings. The results suggest that symmetrical communication is inherently ethical. Moreover, symmetrical communication indeed contributes to several performance measures, which include positive market performance, overall organizational effectiveness, conflict resolution, crisis management, (...)
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  29. Jacquie L'Etang (1994). Public Relations and Corporate Social Responsibility: Some Issues Arising. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 13 (2):111 - 123.score: 56.0
    The paper questions current assumptions about the benefits of corporate social responsibility and the claims that corporations make on behalf of their corporate social responsibility programmes. In particular, the paper suggests that the use of corporate social responsibility for public relations ends raises moral problems over the motivation of corporations. The paper cautions that the justifications which corporations employ may either be immoral or inaccurate with regard to the empirical evidence gained from a small-scale qualitative study carried out (...)
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  30. Thomas H. Bivins (1987). Applying Ethical Theory to Public Relations. Journal of Business Ethics 6 (3):195 - 200.score: 56.0
    There seems to be a prevailing belief among public relations professionals that ethical problems can easily be solved by either reference to a simplified code or citation of a few well-worn platitudes. However, the route to a more complete understanding of questions of ethics is circuitous and often painstaking. By applying a number of ethical theories to a public relations problem, both the skilled public relations technician and the public relations professional may (...)
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  31. Kathy Fitzpatrick & Candace Gauthier (2001). Toward a Professional Responsibility Theory of Public Relations Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (2 & 3):193 – 212.score: 56.0
    This article contributes to the development of a professional responsibility theory of public relations ethics. Toward that end, we examine the roles of a public relations practitioner as a professional, an institutional advocate, and the public conscience of institutions served. In the article, we review previously suggested theories of public relations ethics and propose a new theory based on the public relations professional's dual obligations to serve client organizations and the (...) interest. (shrink)
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  32. John J. Pauly & Liese L. Hutchison (2005). Moral Fables of Public Relations Practice: The Tylenol and Exxon Valdez Cases. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4):231 – 249.score: 56.0
    Discussions of the Tylenol and Exxon Valdez cases found in textbooks, public relations scholarship, and news coverage are assessed to understand the meanings that practitioners, educators, critics, and journalists have attributed to those events. The essay objects to a central claim made by critics who say these cases set standards for ethical behavior in public relations. This claim, according to us, mistakes moral drama for ethical deliberation.
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  33. Thomas H. Bivins (1993). Public Relations, Professionalism, and the Public Interest. Journal of Business Ethics 12 (2):117 - 126.score: 56.0
    The public interest statement contained in the PRSA Code of Professional Standards is unduly vague and provides neither a working definition of public interest nor any guidance for the performance of what most professions consider to be a primary value. This paper addresses the question of what might constitute public relations service in the public interest, and calls for more stringent guidelines to be developed whereby the profession may advance its service goals more clearly.
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  34. Paul S. Lieber (2005). Ethical Considerations of Public Relations Practitioners: An Empirical Analysis of the Tares Test. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4):288 – 304.score: 56.0
    This study conducted the first empirical testing of Baker and Martinson's (2001) TARES test of ethical consideration factors for public relations practitioners. The TARES test is composed of 5 interconnected parts: truthfulness of the message, authenticity of the persuader, respect for the persuadee, equity of the appeal, and social responsibility for the common good. Results of an online exploratory survey indicate that the TARES test is better suited for a 3-factor configuration based on Day's (2003) (...)
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  35. David L. Martinson (1995). Ethical Public Relations Practitioners Must Not Ignore 'Public Interest'. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 10 (4):210 – 222.score: 56.0
    In this study the author argues that public relations practitioners must not ignore the public interest even though the term has been the subject of vigorous debate within both academic and professional circles. The author maintains - not-withstanding the controversy - that the public interest is intrinsic to the very definition of what it is public relations people do. He suggests the solution to the definitional problem rests in first formulating an abstract (general) definition, (...)
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  36. Sally M. Alvarez (2000). The Global Economy and Kathie Lee: Public Relations and Media. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 15 (2):77 – 88.score: 56.0
    In a congressional hearing in the spring of 1996, talk show host Kathie Lee Gifford was charged with endorsing clothing made in Honduran sweatshops by exploited children. Resulting media coverage focused public attention on a seamy underside of the "global economy." Redemption strategies used by Gifford and her public relations consultant, and repeated and promoted through the mass media, fed a larger controversy over the meaning of the concept of the global economy and its ethical implications for (...)
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  37. Sherry Baker (2008). The Model of the Principled Advocate and the Pathological Partisan: A Virtue Ethics Construct of Opposing Archetypes of Public Relations and Advertising Practitioners. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (3):235 – 253.score: 56.0
    Drawing upon contemporary virtue ethics theory, The Model of The Principled Advocate and The Pathological Partisan is introduced. Profiles are developed of diametrically opposed archetypes of public relations and advertising practitioners. The Principled Advocate represents the advocacy virtues of humility, truth, transparency, respect, care, authenticity, equity, and social responsibility. The Pathological Partisan represents the opposing vices of arrogance, deceit, secrecy, manipulation, disregard, artifice, injustice, and raw self-interest. One becomes either a Principled Advocate or a Pathological Partisan by habitually (...)
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  38. Kevin Stoker (2005). Loyalty in Public Relations: When Does It Cross the Line Between Virtue and Vice? Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4):269 – 287.score: 56.0
    Public relations practitioners place a premium on loyalty - particularly in terms of cultivating relationships. However, little scholarly research has been done on the subject. This essay analyzes loyalty in terms of organizational deterioration and decline. The ethical dimensions of Hirschman's concept of "exit, voice, and loyalty, " and Royce's notion about loyalty, are explored, as is the concept of "loyalty to loyalty. " The essay concludes with a 7-step model intended to help practitioners determine the demands of (...)
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  39. Hyo-Sook Kim (2005). Universalism Versus Relativism in Public Relations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 20 (4):333 – 344.score: 56.0
    Choosing for whom to work is one of the most difficult ethical questions public relations practitioners have to address. This article attempts to examine the issue of client choice in the philosophical context of universalism versus ethical relativism. In this article, while acknowledging that differences between cultures exist, I argue public relations practitioners should take a universalistic approach in choosing their clients because ethical relativism itself is seriously flawed.
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  40. Kevin Stoker & Megan Stoker (2012). The Paradox of Public Interest: How Serving Individual Superior Interests Fulfill Public Relations' Obligation to the Public Interest. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27 (1):31-45.score: 56.0
    Since the early 20th century, advocates of public relations professionalism have mandated that practitioners serve the public interest making it an ethical standard for evaluating the morality of public relations practice. However, the field has devoted little research to determining just what it means for practitioners to serve the public interest. Most research suggests practice-oriented solutions. This article focuses what practitioners must do to serve the public interest. It reviews theories of the social (...)
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  41. David L. Martinson (1994). Enlightened Self-Interest Fails as an Ethical Baseline in Public Relations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 9 (2):100 – 108.score: 56.0
    Some in public relations have suggested that practitioners adopt a philosophy of enlightened self-interest as an ethical baseline. The author contends that such a theory must be rejected because even the enlightened variety does not adequately weigh the needs of significant others - a central consideration in any effort to define ethical behavior. The author maintains that genuine sacrifice - at times required of those desiring to do the right thing - clearly can conflict with any theory espousing (...)
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  42. Steven R. Thomsen (1998). Public Relations and the Tobacco Industry: Examining the Debate on Practictioner Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 13 (3):152 – 164.score: 56.0
    This study examines the moral and ethical arguments presented by public relations practitioners in online debate on the appropriateness of representing the tobacco industry or tobacco interests. It is a descriptive and inferential analysis of 21 e-mail messages posted during a 14-month debate on the PRForum, an online newsgroup for public relations professionals, applying Kohlberg's cognitive-development theory of moralization. Debate focused on the right of an organization to promote a legal product versus a practitioner's obligation to (...)
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  43. Charles Marsh (2001). Public Relations Ethics: Contrasting Models From the Rhetorics of Plato, Aristotle, and Isocrates. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (2-3):78-98.score: 56.0
    As a relatively young profession, public relations seeks a realistic ethics foundation. A continuing debate in public relations has pitted journalistic/objectivity ethics against the advocacy ethics that may be more appropriate in an adversarial society. As the journalistic/objectivity influence has waned, the debate has evolved, pitting the advocacy/adversarial foundation against the two-way symmetrical model of public relations, which seeks to build consensus and holds that an organization itself, not an opposing public, sometimes may (...)
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  44. Charles W. Marsh Jr (2001). Public Relations Ethics: Contrasting Models From the Rhetorics of Plato, Aristotle, and Isocrates. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 16 (2 & 3):78 – 98.score: 56.0
    As a relatively young profession, public relations seeks a realistic ethics foundation. A continuing debate in public relations has pitted journalistic/objectivity ethics against the advocacy ethics that may be more appropriate in an adversarial society. As the journalistic/objectivity influence has waned, the debate has evolved, pitting the advocacy/adversarial foundation against the two-way symmetrical model of public relations, which seeks to build consensus and holds that an organization itself, not an opposing public, sometimes may (...)
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  45. Kathy R. Fitzpatrick (2002). Evolving Standards in Public Relations: A Historical Examination of Prsa's Codes of Ethics. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 17 (2):89 – 110.score: 56.0
    The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) adopted its first code of ethics in 1950, 2 years after PRSA was formed. During the next 50 years, the code was revised and updated several times to keep pace with industry practices and increased expectations for ethical performance. In 2000 a new code was adopted to heighten awareness of ethical issues and address concerns regarding code enforcement. In this article I trace the 50-year evolution of PRSA's codes of ethics and (...)
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  46. David L. Martinson (1998). A Question of Distributive and Social Justice: Public Relations Practitioners and the Marketplace of Ideas. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 13 (3):141 – 151.score: 56.0
    The marketplace of ideas theoy has been utilized as one means to justify,from a societal perspective, contempora y public relations practice. Proponents confend that practitioners serve society in true Miltonian fashion by helping clients inject their views into that marketplace. One must question, however, whether afunctional marketplace of ideas exists relative to the public relations process. Further, by focusing ethical questions on individualistic practitioner behavior relative to that marketplace, practitioners may not be paying sulyicient attention to (...)
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  47. Genevieve McBride (1989). Ethical Thought in Public Relations History: Seeking a Relevant Perspective. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4 (1):5 – 20.score: 56.0
    A serious retardant to development of a specifically public relations (PR) ethical philosophy is the tendency to retain a commitment uniquely journalistic? objectivity. Ivy Lee and Edward Bernays offered two ethical options or imperatives, based on objectivity or on advocacy. Public relations must accept a commitment to the ethics of persuasion in order to reduce a crippling inferiority complex and advance understanding of the profession by its practitioners as well as the public.
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  48. Kati Tusinski Berg (2012). The Ethics of Lobbying: Testing an Ethical Framework for Advocacy in Public Relations. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27 (2):97 - 114.score: 56.0
    This study evaluates the ethical criteria lobbyists consider in their professional activities using Ruth Edgett's model for ethically desirable public relations advocacy. Data were collected from self-administered surveys of 222 registered lobbyists in Oregon. A factor analysis reduced 18 ethical criteria to seven underlying factors describing lobbyists' ethical approaches to their work. Results indicate that lobbyists consider the following factors in their day-to-day professional activities: situation, strategy, argument, procedure, nature of lobbying, priority, and accuracy. This framework, derived from (...)
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  49. Thomas H. Bivins (1989). Are Public Relations Texts Covering Ethics Adequately? Journal of Mass Media Ethics 4 (1):39 – 52.score: 56.0
    As the public relations (PR) field becomes more and more concerned about ethics, attention turns to ethics instruction in university public relations programs. Analysis of six leading public relations texts shows a wide disparity in coverage of the topic, ranging from sparse philosophical to primarily anecdotal. According to the author, no basic conceptual framework has emerged to suggest common ground for studying public relations ethics and the default position seems to be to (...)
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  50. Kevin L. Stoker & Kati A. Tusinski (2006). Reconsidering Public Relations' Infatuation with Dialogue: Why Engagement and Reconciliation Can Be More Ethical Than Symmetry and Reciprocity. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 21 (2 & 3):156 – 176.score: 56.0
    Advocates of dialogic communication have promoted two-way symmetrical communication as the most effective and ethical model for public relations. This article uses John Durham Peters's critique of dialogic communication to reconsider this infatuation with dialogue. In this article, we argue that dialogue's potential for selectivity and tyranny poses moral problems for public relations. Dialogue's emphasis on reciprocal communication also saddles public relations with ethically questionable quid pro quo relationships. We contend that dissemination can be (...)
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