Search results for 'Publication ethics' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Addeane S. Caelleigh (2003). Roles for Scientific Societies in Promoting Integrity in Publication Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2):221-241.score: 186.0
    Scientific societies can have a powerful influence on the professional lives of scientists. Using this influence, they have a responsibility to make long-term commitments and investments in promoting integrity in publication, just as in other areas of research ethics. Concepts that can inform the thinking and activities of scientific societies with regard to publication ethics are: the “hidden curriculum” (the message of actions rather than formal statements), a fresh look at the components of acting with integrity, (...)
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  2. Berna Arda (2012). Publication Ethics From the Perspective of PhD Students of Health Sciences: A Limited Experience. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):213-222.score: 186.0
    Publication ethics, an important subtopic of science ethics, deals with determination of the misconducts of science in performing research or in the dissemination of ideas, data and products. Science, the main features of which are secure, reliable and ethically obtained data, plays a major role in shaping the society. As long as science maintains its quality by being based on reliable and ethically obtained data, it will be possible to maintain its role in shaping the society. This (...)
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  3. Jong Foo & Stephen Wilson (2012). An Analysis on the Research Ethics Cases Managed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Between 1997 and 2010. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (4):621-631.score: 186.0
    The growing emphasis on the importance of publishing scientific findings in the academic world has led to increasing prevalence of potentially significant publications in which scientific and ethical rigour may be questioned. This has not only hindered research progress, but also eroded public trust in all scientific advances. In view of the increasing concern and the complexity of research misconduct, the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) was established in 1997 to manage cases with ethical implications. In order to (...)
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  4. Mindaugas Broga, Goran Mijaljica, Marcin Waligora, Aime Keis & Ana Marusic (2013). Publication Ethics in Biomedical Journals From Countries in Central and Eastern Europe. Science and Engineering Ethics (1):1-11.score: 186.0
    Publication ethics is an important aspect of both the research and publication enterprises. It is particularly important in the field of biomedical science because published data may directly affect human health. In this article, we examine publication ethics policies in biomedical journals published in Central and Eastern Europe. We were interested in possible differences between East European countries that are members of the European Union (Eastern EU) and South-East European countries (South-East Europe) that are not (...)
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  5. Sergio Sismondo & Mathieu Doucet (2009). Publication Ethics and the Ghost Management of Medical Publication. Bioethics 24 (6):273-283.score: 180.0
    It is by now no secret that some scientific articles are ghost authored – that is, written by someone other than the person whose name appears at the top of the article. Ghost authorship, however, is only one sort of ghosting. In this article, we present evidence that pharmaceutical companies engage in the ghost management of the scientific literature, by controlling or shaping several crucial steps in the research, writing, and publication of scientific articles. Ghost management allows the pharmaceutical (...)
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  6. Francisco M. Salzano & A. Magdalena Hurtado (eds.) (2004). Lost Paradises and the Ethics of Research and Publication. Oxford University Press.score: 132.0
    In 2000, the world of anthropology was rocked by a high-profile debate over the fieldwork performed by two prominent anthropologists, Napoleon Chagnon and James V. Neel, among the Yanamamo tribe of South America. The controversy was fueled by the publication of Patrick Tierney's incendiary Darkness in El Dorado which accused Chagnon of not only misinterpreting but actually inciting some of the violence he perceived among these "fierce people". Tierney also pointed the finger at Neel as the unwitting agent of (...)
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  7. E. Wager, S. Fiack, C. Graf, A. Robinson & I. Rowlands (2009). Science Journal Editors' Views on Publication Ethics: Results of an International Survey. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (6):348-353.score: 126.0
    Background: Breaches of publication ethics such as plagiarism, data fabrication and redundant publication are recognised as forms of research misconduct that can undermine the scientific literature. We surveyed journal editors to determine their views about a range of publication ethics issues. Methods: Questionnaire sent to 524 editors-in-chief of Wiley-Blackwell science journals asking about the severity and frequency of 16 ethical issues at their journals, their confidence in handling such issues, and their awareness and use of (...)
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  8. Carla Angelski, Conrad Fernandez, Charles Weijer & Jun Gao (2012). The Publication of Ethically Uncertain Research: Attitudes and Practices of Journal Editors. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):4-.score: 114.0
    Background: Publication of ethically uncertain research occurs despite well-published guidelines set forth in documents such as the Declaration of Helsinki. Such guidelines exist to aide editorial staff in making decisions regarding ethical acceptability of manuscripts submitted for publication, yet examples of ethically suspect and uncertain publication exist. Our objective was to survey journal editors regarding practices and attitudes surrounding such dilemmas. Methods: The Editor-in-chief of each of the 103 English-language journals from the 2005 Abridged Index Medicus list (...)
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  9. Muriel Bebeau & Verna Monson (2011). Authorship and Publication Practices in the Social Sciences: Historical Reflections on Current Practices. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):365-388.score: 108.0
    An historical review of authorship definitions and publication practices that are embedded in directions to authors and in the codes of ethics in the fields of psychology, sociology, and education illuminates reasonable agreement and consistency across the fields with regard to (a) originality of the work submitted, (b) data sharing, (c) human participants’ protection, and (d) conflict of interest disclosure. However, the role of the professional association in addressing violations of research or publication practices varies among these (...)
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  10. Verena Tschudin (2006). How Nursing Ethics as a Subject Changes: An Analysis of the First 11 Years of Publication of the Journal Nursing Ethics. Nursing Ethics 13 (1):65-85.score: 102.0
    By analysing the first, second, 10th and 11th years of publication (i.e. volumes 1, 2, 10, 11) of Nursing Ethics, I will show the significant visible trends in the articles and draw some conclusions. The trends are visible at various levels: from simple analysis of an issue, or a comment on a situation in the early years, to in-depth philosophical and research studies; and from short statements to much longer articles. The ethical approaches used go from either none (...)
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  11. Joseph S. Fulda (2007). The Ethics of Pseudonymous Publication. Journal of Information Ethics 16 (2):75-89.score: 102.0
    This article explores the ethics of pseudonymous publication of nonfiction by examining what and why an author might hide behind the veil of pseudonymity, when this is and is not appropriate, and when it is deemed appropriate what measures should be taken to ensure accountability despite the veil. The argument begins by assuming that the sole duty an author has qua author is to his audience and centers on issues in both ethics and philosophy of language.
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  12. David Shaw (2011). The Ethics Committee as Ghost Author. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (12):706-706.score: 96.0
    Ethics committees have a bad reputation for impeding, rather than facilitating research. Here, I argue that many committees actually improve the quality of the research proposal to such an extent that they deserve credit as authors in any resulting publications, or at least an acknowledgement of the contribution made.
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  13. Roberta Bampton & Christopher J. Cowton (2013). Taking Stock of Accounting Ethics Scholarship: A Review of the Journal Literature. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 114 (3):549-563.score: 96.0
    The proportion of business ethics literature devoted to accounting and the proportion of academic accounting literature devoted to ethical issues are both small, yet over the past two decades there has been a steady accumulation of research devoted to ethical issues in accounting. Based on a database of more than 500 articles gathered from a wide range of accounting and business ethics academic journals, this paper describes and analyses the characteristics of what has been published in the past (...)
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  14. A. Sheikh (2000). Publication Ethics and the Research Assessment Exercise: Reflections on the Troubled Question of Authorship. Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (6):422-426.score: 96.0
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  15. J. Fraser (2006). Publish and Perish: A Case Study of Publication Ethics in a Rural Community. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (9):526-529.score: 96.0
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  16. William V. Giannobile (2011). Publication Ethics of Authorship in the Oral Health Sciences. Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine 2 (2):157-159.score: 96.0
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  17. G. Van Norman & Stephen Jackson (2010). Publication Ethics: Obligations of Authors, Peer-Reviewers, and Editors. In G. A. van Norman, S. Jackson, S. H. Rosenbaum & S. K. Palmer (eds.), Clinical Ethics in Anesthesiology. Cambridge University Press.score: 96.0
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  18. Elise Smith & Bryn Williams-Jones (2012). Authorship and Responsibility in Health Sciences Research: A Review of Procedures for Fairly Allocating Authorship in Multi-Author Studies. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (2):199-212.score: 90.0
    While there has been significant discussion in the health sciences and ethics literatures about problems associated with publication practices (e.g., ghost- and gift-authorship, conflicts of interest), there has been relatively little practical guidance developed to help researchers determine how they should fairly allocate credit for multi-authored publications. Fair allocation of credit requires that participating authors be acknowledged for their contribution and responsibilities, but it is not obvious what contributions should warrant authorship, nor who should be responsible for the (...)
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  19. Harvey Marcovitch (2008). What Medical Journal Editing Means to Me. Mens Sana Monographs 6 (1):237.score: 90.0
    _Papers in medical journals are often difficult to understand and tedious to read. An editor's first loyalty should be to readers, by prioritising readability over merely producing a repository of data for the scientific community generally. The web now provides infinite repository space so there is even less excuse for journals to be unreadable. I give examples of how I attempted to improve one journal, despite external pressures and regardless of how it might affect the Impact Factor. As a postscript (...)
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  20. Udo Schüklenk (2007). More on Publication Ethics. Bioethics 21 (3):ii–ii.score: 90.0
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  21. Mark J. Cherry (2013). What Are Our Moral Duties? Critical Reflections on Clinical Equipoise and Publication Ethics, Clinical Choices, and Moral Theory. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (6):581-589.score: 90.0
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  22. Michael JG Farthing (2006). Authors and Publication Practices. Science and Engineering Ethics 12 (1):41-52.score: 86.0
    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive (...)
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  23. E. Cave & C. Nichols (2007). Clinical Audit and Reform of the UK Research Ethics Review System. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (3):181-203.score: 84.0
    There is an international consensus that medical research involving humans should only be undertaken in accordance with ethical principles. Paradoxically though, there is no consensus over the kinds of activities that constitute research and should be subject to review. In the UK and elsewhere, research requiring review is distinguished from clinical audit. Unfortunately the two activities are not always easy to differentiate from one another. Moreover, as the volume of audit increases and becomes more formal in response to the demand (...)
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  24. Flora Colledge, Bernice Elger & David Shaw (2013). “Conferring Authorship”: Biobank Stakeholders’ Experiences with Publication Credit in Collaborative Research. PLoS ONE 8:e76686.score: 84.0
    Background: Multi-collaborator research is increasingly becoming the norm in the field of biomedicine. With this trend comes the imperative to award recognition to all those who contribute to a study; however, there is a gap in the current “gold standard” in authorship guidelines with regards to the efforts of those who provide high quality biosamples and data, yet do not play a role in the intellectual development of the final publication. -/- Methods and findings: We carried out interviews with (...)
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  25. Krishna Regmi (2011). Ethical and Legal Issues in Publication and Dissemination of Scholarly Knowledge: A Summary of the Published Evidence. [REVIEW] Journal of Academic Ethics 9 (1):71-81.score: 78.0
    Research publication and dissemination of scholarly knowledge in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are among the most influential roles of many academic scholars in both industrialised and developing nations, but such experience and skills are rarely taught, transferred and shared in the real world. Dealing with issues of research misconduct might be challenging as well as learning opportunities for new academics while conducting research and scholarship teaching and publication in HEIs. In this review paper, I will discuss some concepts (...)
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  26. David A. Rier (2004). Publication Visibility of Sensitive Public Health Data: When Scientists Bury Their Results. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (4):597-613.score: 78.0
    What happens when the scientific tradition of openness clashes with potential societal risks? The work of American toxic-exposure epidemiologists can attract media coverage and lead the public to change health practices, initiate lawsuits, or take other steps a study’s authors might consider unwarranted. This paper, reporting data from 61 semi-structured interviews with U.S. toxic-exposure epidemiologists, examines whether such possibilities shaped epidemiologists’ selection of journals for potentially sensitive papers. Respondents manifested strong support for the norm of scientific openness, but a significant (...)
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  27. Robert Holley (2006). The Ethics of Scholarly Research and the Internet: Issues of Publication, Privacy, and the Right to Speak. Journal of Information Ethics 15 (1):27-34.score: 78.0
  28. Edward J. Calabrese (2007). Elliott's Ethics of Expertise Proposal and Application: A Dangerous Precedent. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2):139-145.score: 78.0
    In a recent paper in Science and Engineering Ethics (SEE) Elliott proposed an ethics of expertise, providing its theoretical foundation along with its application in a case study devoted to the topic of hormesis. The application is based on a commentary in the journal Nature, and it includes assertions of ethical breaches. Elliott concludes that the authors of the commentary failed to promote the informed consent of decision makers by not providing representative information about alternative frequency estimates of (...)
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  29. J. Savulescu (2003). Institute of Medical Ethics Prize for the Most Innovative Web Publication. Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (1):1-1.score: 78.0
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  30. M. A. Melrose (2008). The Ethics SIG Newsletter is Produced by Members of the Ethics SIG and ONS Staff and is Not a Peer-Reviewed Publication. Ethics 19 (3).score: 78.0
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  31. Margot Iverson, Mark S. Frankel & Sanyin Siang (2003). Scientific Societies and Research Integrity: What Are They Doing and How Well Are They Doing It? Science and Engineering Ethics 9 (2):141-158.score: 72.0
    Scientific societies can play an important role in promoting ethical research practices among their members, and over the past two decades several studies have addressed how societies perform this role. This survey continues this research by examining current efforts by scientific societies to promote research integrity among their members. The data indicate that although many of the societies are working to promote research integrity through ethics codes and activities, they lack rigorous assessment methods to determine the effectiveness of their (...)
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  32. Vince Ham (1999). Tracking the Truth or Selling One's Soul? Reflections on the Ethics of a Piece of Commissioned Research. British Journal of Educational Studies 47 (3):275 - 282.score: 72.0
    This paper takes as its starting point a decision to accept a particular commission for a piece of educational research which is subject to contractual restrictions. In the light of recent debate on the contentious politics and ethics of contractual research, it then addresses the problem of what might constitute an ethical defence, or critique, of such research and such contracts.
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  33. Daniel O. Dahlstrom (2008). An Asterisk Denotes a Publication by a Member of the American Catholic Philosophical Association. The Editors Welcome Suggestions for Reviews. Bash, Anthony. Forgiveness and Christian Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007. Pp. Xi+ 208. Hard Cover $85.00, ISBN: 978-0-521-87880-7. Cary, Phillip. Inner Grace: Augustine in the Traditions of Plato and Paul. New York. [REVIEW] American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 82 (3).score: 72.0
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  34. Joseph A. Bracken, Rémi Brague, J. Budziszewski & Stratford Caldecott (2009). An Asterisk Denotes a Publication by a Member of the American Catholic Philosophical Association. The Editors Welcome Suggestions for Reviews. Bedau, Mark A., and Emily C. Parke, Eds. The Ethics of Protocells: Moral and Social Implications of Creating Life in the Laboratory. Cambridge, Mass. And London: MIT Press, 2009. Pp. X+ 368. Paper $28.00, ISBN: 978-0-262-51269-5. [REVIEW] American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 83 (3).score: 72.0
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  35. Ellen Silbergeld (2009). A Question of EthicsPublication Policy and Animals in Research. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (12):61-62.score: 72.0
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  36. Jason Borenstein (2011). Responsible Authorship in Engineering Fields: An Overview of Current Ethical Challenges. Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):355-364.score: 68.0
    The primary aim of this article is to identify ethical challenges relating to authorship in engineering fields. Professional organizations and journals do provide crucial guidance in this realm, but this cannot replace the need for frequent and diligent discussions in engineering research communities about what constitutes appropriate authorship practice. Engineering researchers should seek to identify and address issues such as who is entitled to be an author and whether publishing their research could potentially harm the public.
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  37. Jessica S. Ancker & Annette Flanagin (2007). A Comparison of Conflict of Interest Policies at Peer-Reviewed Journals in Different Scientific Disciplines. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (2):147-157.score: 66.0
    Scientific journals can promote ethical publication practices through policies on conflicts of interest. However, the prevalence of conflict of interest policies and the definition of conflict of interest appear to vary across scientific disciplines. This survey of high-impact, peer-reviewed journals in 12 different scientific disciplines was conducted to assess these variations. The survey identified published conflict of interest policies in 28 of 84 journals (33%). However, when representatives of 49 of the 84 journals (58%) completed a Web-based survey about (...)
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  38. Willa M. Bruce (ed.) (2001). Classics of Administrative Ethics. Westview Press.score: 66.0
    This anthology will be appropriate for administrative ethics classes and professional thinking in public administration at both the masters and doctoral levels. It is a collection of administrative ethics articles published in journals of the American Society for Public Administration (ASPA) from 1941 (the earliest publication) through 1983 (the year that the first ASPA Code of Ethics was established). The articles are organized by themes of enduring importance to the field in order to provide graduate students (...)
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  39. Renate Eigenbrod (2006). Who Wants These Stories? Reflections on Ethical Implications of the Re-Publication of a Missionary Work. Journal of Academic Ethics 4 (1-4):221-243.score: 66.0
    This paper discusses ethics in the context of Aboriginal Studies. Taking the example of a late-nineteenth century missionary work, a collection of out-of-print Mi’kmaq stories, it examines the ethical implications of the potential re-publication of such a text. It is argued that the Baptist missionary Silas T. Rand, who translated and transcribed the narratives, did his work from a Eurocentric perspective. The biases of a colonial ideology built into his translations/interpretations which are often quoted as authoritative would be (...)
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  40. Anne Victoria Neale, Justin Northrup, Rhonda Dailey, Ellen Marks & Judith Abrams (2007). Correction and Use of Biomedical Literature Affected by Scientific Misconduct. Science and Engineering Ethics 13 (1):5-24.score: 66.0
    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe published research articles that were named in official findings of scientific misconduct and to investigate compliance with the administrative actions contained in these reports for corrections and retractions, as represented in PubMed. Between 1993 and 2001, 102 articles were named in either the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts (“Findings of Scientific Misconduct”) or the U.S. Office of Research Integrity annual reports as needing retraction or correction. In 2002, 98 of (...)
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  41. Charisse R. Madlock-Brown & David Eichmann (forthcoming). The (Lack of) Impact of Retraction on Citation Networks. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-11.score: 66.0
    Article retraction in research is rising, yet retracted articles continue to be cited at a disturbing rate. This paper presents an analysis of recent retraction patterns, with a unique emphasis on the role author self-cites play, to assist the scientific community in creating counter-strategies. This was accomplished by examining the following: (1) A categorization of retracted articles more complete than previously published work. (2) The relationship between citation counts and after-retraction self-cites from the authors of the work, and the distribution (...)
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  42. S. Hahn, P. R. Williamson & J. L. Hutton (2002). Investigation of Within‐Study Selective Reporting in Clinical Research: Follow‐Up of Applications Submitted to a Local Research Ethics Committee. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 8 (3):353-359.score: 66.0
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  43. Robert Baker (2014). Against Anonymity. Bioethics 28 (4):166-169.score: 66.0
    In ‘New Threats to Academic Freedom’ Francesca Minerva argues that anonymity for the authors of controversial articles is a prerequisite for academic freedom in the Internet age. This argument draws its intellectual and emotional power from the author's account of the reaction to the on-line publication of ‘ After-birth abortion: why should the baby live?’ – an article that provoked cascades of hostile postings and e-mails. Reflecting on these events, Minerva proposes that publishers should offer the authors of controversial (...)
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  44. E. Langdon-Neuner (2008). Medical Ghost-Writing. Mens Sana Monographs 6 (1):257.score: 66.0
    _Any assistance an author receives with writing a scientific article that is not acknowledged in the article is described as ghost-writing. Articles ghost-written by medical writers engaged by pharmaceutical companies who have a vested interest in the content have caused concern after scandals revealed misleading content in some articles. A key criterion of authorship in medical journals is final approval of the article submitted for publication. Authors are responsible for the content of their articles and for acknowledging any assistance (...)
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  45. Yi-Hui Huang (2001). Should a Public Relations Code of Ethics Be Enforced? Journal of Business Ethics 31 (3):259 - 270.score: 64.0
    Whether or not a public relations code of ethics should be enforced, among others, has become one of the most widely controversial topics, especially after the Hill and Knowlton case in 1992. I take the position that ethical codes should be enforced and address this issue from eight aspects: (a) Is a code of ethics an absolute prerequisite of professionalism? (b) Should problems of rhetoric per se in a code of ethics become a rationale against code enforcement? (...)
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  46. Eyun-Jung Ki & Soo-Yeon Kim (2010). Ethics Statements of Public Relations Firms: What Do They Say? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 91 (2):223 - 236.score: 64.0
    This study was designed to examine the prevalence of a code of ethics and to analyze its content among public relations agencies in the United States. Of the 1,562 public relations agencies reviewed, 605 (38.7%) provided an ethical statement. Among the ethical statements provided by these public relations agencies, ‹respect to clients,’ ‹service,’ ‹strategic,’ and ‹results’ were the values most frequently emphasized. On the other hand, ‹balance,’ ‹fairness,’ ‹honor,’ ‹social responsibility,’ and ‹independence’ were the least frequently mentioned in the (...)
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  47. Sherry Baker (2002). The Theoretical Ground for Public Relations Practice and Ethics: A Koehnian Analysis. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 35 (3):191 - 205.score: 64.0
    Public relations literature laments the lack of a theoretical base for the practice and ethics of public relations. Drawing primarily upon Koehn (The Ground of Professional Ethics, 1994) and Hutton (Public Relations Review, 1999), this paper proposes such a theoretical ground.The paper adopts Hutton's assertion that "the central organizing theme of public relations theory and practice" is relationships(Hutton, 1999, p. 209). It also relies upon Koehn (1994) to provide a theoretical discussion of the nature of professions, and the (...)
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  48. Eyun-Jung Ki, Hong-Lim Choi & Junghyuk Lee (2012). Does Ethics Statement of a Public Relations Firm Make a Difference? Yes It Does!! Journal of Business Ethics 105 (2):267-276.score: 64.0
    Attempting to determine solutions for unethical practices in the field, this research was designed to assess the effectiveness of public relations firms’ ethics statements in decreasing the incidence of malpractice. This study revealed an encouraging finding that practitioners working in firms with ethical parameters were significantly more likely to engage in ethical practices. Moreover, educating public relations practitioners about the content of ethics statement could positively influence their ethical practices. At the same time, this study’s findings suggest further (...)
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  49. Mirjam de Groot, Martin Drenthen & Wouter T. de Groot (2011). Public Visions of the Human/Nature Relationship and Their Implications for Environmental Ethics. Environmental Ethics 33 (1):25-44.score: 64.0
    A social scientific survey on visions of human/nature relationships in western Europe shows that the public clearly distinguishes not only between anthropocentrism and ecocentrism, but also between two nonanthropocentric types of thought, which may be called “partnership with nature” and “participation in nature.” In addition, the respondents distinguish a form of human/nature relationship that is allied to traditional stewardship but has a more ecocentric content, labeled here as “guardianship of nature.” Further analysis shows that the general public does not subscribe (...)
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  50. G. Kent (1997). The Views of Members of Local Research Ethics Committees, Researchers and Members of the Public Towards the Roles and Functions of LRECs. Journal of Medical Ethics 23 (3):186-190.score: 64.0
    BACKGROUND: It can be argued that the ethical conduct of research involves achieving a balance between the rights and needs of three parties-potential research participants, society, and researchers. Local Research Ethics Committees (LRECs) have a number of roles and functions in the research enterprise, but there have been some indications that LREC members, researchers and the public can have different views about these responsibilities. Any such differences are potential sources of disagreement and misunderstanding. OBJECTIVES: To compare the views of (...)
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