Search results for 'Purpose' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. William R. Stoeger (2013). Ernan McMullin on Contingency, Cosmic Purpose, and the Atemporality of the Creator. Zygon 48 (2):329-337.score: 24.0
    This article reviews, and offers supportive reflections on, the main points of Ernan McMullin's provocative 1998 article, “Cosmic Purpose and the Contingency of Human Evolution,’’ reprinted in this issue of Zygon. In it he addresses the important science-theology issue of how the Creator's purpose and intention to assure the emergence of human beings is consonant with the radical contingency of the evolutionary process. After discussing cosmic and biological evolution and critically summarizing recent solutions to this question by Keith (...)
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  2. Andrew V. Abela (2001). Profit and More: Catholic Social Teaching and the Purpose of the Firm. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 31 (2):107 - 116.score: 24.0
    The empirical findings in Collins and Porras'' study of visionary companies, Built to Last, and the normative claims about the purpose of the business firm in Centesimus Annus are found to be complementary in understanding the purpose of the business firm. A summary of the methodology and findings of Built to Lastand a short overview of Catholic Social Teaching are provided. It is shown that Centesimus Annus'' claim that the purpose of the firm is broader than just (...)
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  3. Danny Frederick (2012). Critique of an Argument for the Reality of Purpose. Prolegomena 11 (1):25-34.score: 24.0
    Schueler has argued, against the eliminativist, that human purposive action cannot be an illusion because the concept of purpose is not theoretical. He argues that the concept is known directly to be instantiated, through self-awareness; and that to maintain that the concept is theoretical involves an infinite regress. I show that Schueler’s argument fails because all our concepts are theoretical in the sense that we may be mistaken in applying them to our experience. As a consequence, it is conceivable (...)
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  4. Ernan McMullin (2013). Cosmic Purpose and the Contingency of Human Evolution. Zygon 48 (2):338-363.score: 24.0
    Some understand the evolutionary process as more or less predictable; others stress its contingency. I argue that both Christian evolutionists who have assumed that the purposes of the Creator can be realized only through more or less predictable processes as well as those who infer from the contingency of the evolutionary process to the lack of purpose in the universe generally, are mistaken if the Creator escapes from the limits imposed on the creature by temporality, as the traditional Augustinian (...)
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  5. Howard Rosenbrock (1992). Science, Technology and Purpose. AI and Society 6 (1):3-17.score: 24.0
    In a recent book, ‘Machines with a Purpose’, many of the unattractive features of our technology were traced to a view of the world which has predominated in science for nearly four hundred years. This is, that nature, and everything that it contains, operates causally and without purpose. To counter this view, an alternative, purposive view was developed. The paper gives a simple account of this development, of other related work, and of the underlying motivation.
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  6. Robert C. Rowland (2008). Purpose, Argument Fields, and Theoretical Justification. Argumentation 22 (2):235-250.score: 24.0
    Twenty-five years ago, field theory was among the most contested issues in argumentation studies. Today, the situation is very different. In fact, field theory has almost disappeared from disciplinary debates, a development which might suggest that the concept is not a useful aspect of argumentation theory. In contrast, I argue that while field studies are rarely useful, field theory provides an essential underpinning to any close analysis of an argumentative controversy. I then argue that the conflicting approaches to argument fields (...)
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  7. Paul S. Agutter & Denys N. Wheatley (1999). Foundations of Biology: On the Problem of “Purpose” in Biology in Relation to Our Acceptance of the Darwinian Theory of Natural Selection. [REVIEW] Foundations of Science 4 (1):3-23.score: 22.0
    For many years, biology was largely descriptive (natural history), but with its emergence as a scientific discipline in its own right, a reductionist approach began, which has failed to be matched by adequate understanding of function of cells, organisms and species as whole entities. Every effort was made to explain biological phenomena in physico-chemical terms.It is argued that there is and always has been a clear distinction between life sciences and physical sciences, explicit in the use of the word biology. (...)
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  8. Jaegwon Kim (1989). Mechanism, Purpose, and Explanatory Exclusion. Philosophical Perspectives 3:77-108.score: 21.0
  9. Nurbay Irmak (2014). Purpose-Relativity and Ontology. Dissertation, University of Miamiscore: 21.0
  10. A. Goldman (1969). The Compatibility of Mechanism and Purpose. Philosophical Review 78 (October):468-82.score: 21.0
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  11. Daniel Silva Graça (2004). Some Recent Developments on Shannon's General Purpose Analog Computer. Mathematical Logic Quarterly 50 (4‐5):473-485.score: 21.0
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  12. John Schneider (2012). The Fall of “Augustinian Adam”: Original Fragility and Supralapsarian Purpose. Zygon 47 (4):949-969.score: 18.0
    The essay is framed by conflict between Christianity and Darwinian science over the history of the world and the nature of human personhood. Evolutionary science narrates a long prehuman geological and biological history filled with vast amounts, kinds, and distributions of apparently random brutal and pointless suffering. It also strongly suggests that the first modern humans were morally primitive. This science seems to discredit Christianity's common meta-narrative of the Fall, understood as a story of Paradise Lost. The author contends that (...)
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  13. Thaddeus Metz (2000). Could God's Purpose Be the Source of Life's Meaning? Religious Studies 36 (3):293-313.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I explore the traditional religious account of what can make a life meaningful, namely, the view that one's life acquires significance insofar as one fulfils a purpose God has assigned. Call this view ‘purpose theory’. In the literature, there are objections purporting to show that purpose theory entails the logical absurdities that God is not moral, omnipotent, or eternal. I show that there are versions of purpose theory which are not vulnerable to these (...)
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  14. Wendy S. Parker (2009). Confirmation and Adequacy-for-Purpose in Climate Modelling. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 83 (1):233-249.score: 18.0
    Lloyd (2009) contends that climate models are confirmed by various instances of fit between their output and observational data. The present paper argues that what these instances of fit might confirm are not climate models themselves, but rather hypotheses about the adequacy of climate models for particular purposes. This required shift in thinking—from confirming climate models to confirming their adequacy-for-purpose—may sound trivial, but it is shown to complicate the evaluation of climate models considerably, both in principle and in practice.
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  15. Ron Amundson & George V. Lauder (1994). Function Without Purpose. Biology and Philosophy 9 (4):443-469.score: 18.0
    Philosophers of evolutionary biology favor the so-called etiological concept of function according to which the function of a trait is its evolutionary purpose, defined as the effect for which that trait was favored by natural selection. We term this the selected effect (SE) analysis of function. An alternative account of function was introduced by Robert Cummins in a non-evolutionary and non-purposive context. Cummins''s account has received attention but little support from philosophers of biology. This paper will show that a (...)
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  16. Thaddeus Metz (2007). God's Purpose as Irrelevant to Life's Meaning: Reply to Affolter. Religious Studies 43 (4):457-464.score: 18.0
    Elsewhere I have contended that if a God-centred account of meaning in life were true, it would not be because meaning comes from fulfilling God’s purpose for us. Specifically, I have argued that this ‘purpose theory’ of life’s meaning cannot be the correct God-based view since God would have to be atemporal, immutable, and simple for meaning to logically depend on His existence, and since such a being lacking extension could not be purposive. Jacob Affolter has developed a (...)
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  17. Jacob Affolter (2007). Human Nature as God's Purpose. Religious Studies 43 (4):443-455.score: 18.0
    This article responds to one of Thaddeus Metz's criticisms of the theory that the meaning of life is to fulfil a purpose assigned by God. In particular, it addresses the argument that only an atemporal God could ground meaning but that an atemporal God could not assign a purpose. In order to do this, the article first argues that Metz's criticisms misread the relevant sense of purpose. It then argues that on a more plausible reading of ' (...)', we can see that it is in fact the kind of thing that an atemporal God could assign. (shrink)
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  18. Julian Reiss (2009). Causation in the Social Sciences: Evidence, Inference, and Purpose. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (1):20-40.score: 18.0
    All univocal analyses of causation face counterexamples. An attractive response to this situation is to become a pluralist about causal relationships. "Causal pluralism" is itself, however, a pluralistic notion. In this article, I argue in favor of pluralism about concepts of cause in the social sciences. The article will show that evidence for, inference from, and the purpose of causal claims are very closely linked. Key Words: causation • pluralism • evidence • methodology.
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  19. Philippe Huneman (ed.) (2007). Understanding Purpose: Kant and the Philosophy of Biology. University of Rochester Press.score: 18.0
    A collection of essays investigating key historical and scientific questions relating to the concept of natural purpose in Kant's philosophy of biology.
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  20. Joan Tronto (2010). Creating Caring Institutions: Politics, Plurality, and Purpose. Ethics and Social Welfare 4 (2):158-171.score: 18.0
    How do we know which institutions provide good care? Some scholars argue that the best way to think about care institutions is to model them upon the family or the market. This paper argues, on the contrary, that when we make explicit some background conditions of good family care, we can apply what we know to better institutionalized caring. After considering elements of bad and good care, from an institutional perspective, the paper argues that good care in an institutional context (...)
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  21. Thaddeus Metz (2013). How God Could Assign Us a Purpose Without Disrespect: Reply to Salles. Quadranti - Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia Contemporanea 1 (1):99-112.score: 18.0
    In one of the most widely read texts on what makes a life meaningful, composed more than 50 years ago, Kurt Baier presents an intriguing argument against the view that meaning in life would come by fulfilling a purpose God has assigned us. Baier contends that God could not avoid degrading us were He to assign us a purpose, which would mean that God, as a morally ideal being by definition, would not do so. Defenders of God-centred accounts (...)
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  22. Danny Priel (2008). The Boundaries of Law and the Purpose of Legal Philosophy. Law and Philosophy 27 (6):643 - 695.score: 18.0
    Many of the current debates in jurisprudence focus on articulating the boundaries of law. In this essay I challenge this approach on two separate grounds. I first argue that if such debates are to be about law, their purported subject, they ought to pay closer attention to the practice. When such attention is taken it turns out that most of the debates on the boundaries of law are probably indeterminate. I show this in particular with regard to the debate between (...)
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  23. Richard Taylor (1969). Thought and Purpose. Inquiry 12 (1-4):149 – 169.score: 18.0
    The concepts of (i) being, (ii) change, (iii) causation, (iv) action, and (v) purpose are concepts of decreasing generality, in this sense: (a) each can be understood only in terms of its predecessor on the list, and (b) while the first applies to everything, the others, in order, have an increasingly narrow scope. Much Western philosophy has amounted to an attempt to reduce one or more of these to those that precede them, and thus eliminate them as concepts necessary (...)
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  24. Hanna Pickard (2012). The Purpose in Chronic Addiction. AJOB Neuroscience 3 (2):40-49.score: 18.0
    I argue that addiction is not a chronic, relapsing, neurobiological disease characterized by compulsive use of drugs or alcohol. Large-scale national survey data demonstrate that rates of substance dependence peak in adolescence and early adulthood and then decline steeply; addicts tend to “mature out” in their late twenties or early thirties. The exceptions are addicts who suffer from additional psychiatric disorders. I hypothesize that this difference in patterns of use and relapse between the general and psychiatric populations can be explained (...)
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  25. J. P. Wright (2003). Hume's Enlightenment Tract: The Unity and Purpose of 'an Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding'. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (3):434 – 436.score: 18.0
    Book Information Hume's Enlightenment Tract: The Unity and Purpose of 'An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding'. By Stephen Buckle. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 2001. Pp. xi + 351. Hardback, 40.
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  26. Keith M. Parsons (2005). Evil and the Unknown Purpose Defense. Philo 8 (2):160-168.score: 18.0
    In his book Nonbelief & Evil, Theodore Drange argues that theists are likely to deploy the “unknown purpose defense” in the face of the existence of apparently gratuitous evils. That is, they will assert that God has morally sufficient reasons for permitting apparently gratuitous evil, but that humans do not know those reasons. Drange argues that by deploying the unknown purpose defense, and by challenging atheologians to prove that God does not have such unknown morally sufficient reasons, theists (...)
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  27. Eric L. Krakauer (1998). Prescriptions: Autonomy, Humanism and the Purpose of Health Technology. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (6):525-545.score: 18.0
    My purpose is to examine two of the foundations of medical ethics: the principle of autonomy and the concept of the human. I also investigate the extent to which health technology makes autonomy and humanness possible. I begin by underlining Illich's point that the same health technology designed to promote health and autonomy also is pathogenic. I proceed to analyse the Kantian concept of autonomy, a concept which is closely associated with health and which continues to determine current ethical (...)
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  28. Carolyn S. Price (2000). General-Purpose Content. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 14 (2):123-133.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I consider the objection, raised by Radu Bogdan, that a teleological theory of content is unable to ascribe content to a general-purpose, doxastic system. I begin by giving some attention to the notion of general-purpose representation, and suggest that this notion can best be understood as what I term "interest-independent" representation. I then outline Bogdan's objection in what I take to be its simplest form. I attempt to counter the objection by explaining how a teleologist (...)
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  29. James Barham (2007). The Reality of Purpose and the Reform of Naturalism. Philosophia Naturalis 44 (1):31-52.score: 18.0
    Whitehead and others have decried the ,,bifurcation of nature“, that is, the split between the world depicted by science, which lacks such phenomena as purpose, meaning, and value, and the world of human experience, which is largely constituted by those same phenomena. In order to guide our thinking about how this split might possibly be overcome, I propose three guiding principles, which I hope will be widely accepted: (1) The reality of the human world; (2) The cognitive excellence of (...)
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  30. L. Metcalf & S. Benn (2012). The Corporation is Ailing Social Technology: Creating a 'Fit for Purpose' Design for Sustainability. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 111 (2):195-210.score: 18.0
    Designed to facilitate economic development, the corporate form now threatens human survival. This article presents an argument that organisations are yet to be ‘fit for purpose’ and that the corporate form needs to be re-designed to reach sustainability. It suggests that organisations need to recognise their agent status amongst a much wider and highly complex array of interconnected, dynamic economic, environmental and social systems. Human Factors theory is drawn on to propose that business systems could be made sustainable through (...)
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  31. Kevin White (2007). Aquinas on Purpose. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 81:133-147.score: 18.0
    Starting from Summa Theologiae 1.2.3.obj.2, I consider some aspects of the term propositum as it occurs in his works. The objection divides “everything thatappears in the world” into what is natural and what is a proposito, and argues that each of these can be accounted for by causes other than God. I suggest that what is a proposito be called “the purposed,” and I try to clarify Aquinas’s understanding of purpose in relation to other notions in his writings, in (...)
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  32. Rosaria Burchielli (2006). The Purpose of Trade Union Values: An Analysis of the ACTU1 Statement of Values. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 68 (2):133 - 142.score: 18.0
    This paper uses the Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) statement of union values as its point of departure to explore the purpose and role of trade union values. Specifically, the paper questions whether the role of values is purely symbolic, serving as a guide to unions, or whether values have a broader role. Furthermore, the paper questions the scope of the ACTU statement, which is currently based on the public work of unions. In conducting this analysis, union values (...)
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  33. Henry S. Leonard (1959). Authorship and Purpose. Philosophy of Science 26 (4):277-294.score: 18.0
    This paper approaches a theory relating authorship, meaning and purpose by semiformalized developments of two "presupposed theories": of purposeful behavior and of sign-reading. The theory of purposeful behavior is made to rest upon two undefined predicates. `Wt(a,p,q)' abbreviates the claim that at time t, person a works at bringing it about that p in order to bring it about that q. `Bt(a,p)' abbreviates the claim that at time t, person a brings it about that p. A number of definitions (...)
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  34. Stuart Macdonald & Tom Chrisp (2005). Acknowledging the Purpose of Partnership. Journal of Business Ethics 59 (4):307 - 317.score: 18.0
    The paper explores a case of partnership between a large pharmaceutical company and a national charity in the United Kingdom, a partnership from which the drug company sought improved public relations, and the charity money. Neither side was able to accept this reality. Managers of the partnership insisted that its only purpose was to improve the lifestyle of teenagers. They were supported by a literature on partnership that also tends to ignore the distinction between the task the partnership is (...)
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  35. Bruce Edmonds, The Purpose and Place of Formal Systems in the Development of Science.score: 18.0
    The aim of this paper is to re-emphasise that the purpose of formal systems is to provide something to map into and to stem the tide of unjustified formal systems. I start by arguing that expressiveness alone is not a sufficient justification for a new formal system but that it must be justified on pragmatic grounds. I then deal with a possible objection as might be raised by a pure mathematician and after that to the objection that theory can (...)
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  36. Kenneth R. Livingston (2006). Cultural Adaptation and Evolved, General-Purpose Cognitive Mechanisms Are Sufficient to Explain Belief in Souls. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (5):479-480.score: 18.0
    It is suggested that general-purpose cognitive modules are the proper endophenotypes on which evolution has operated, not special purpose belief modules. These general-purpose modules operate to extract adaptive cultural patterns. Belief in souls may be adaptive and based in evolved systems without requiring that a specific cognitive system has evolved to support just such beliefs.
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  37. Domènec Melé (2009). The View and Purpose of the Firm in Freeman's Stakeholder Theory. Philosophy of Management 8 (3):3-13.score: 18.0
    Stakeholder Theory (ST), presented by R. Edward Freeman, is a managerial theory which sees the firm as ‘connected networks of stakeholder interests’. The purpose of the firm in Freeman’s theory is ‘value creation and trade’ and ‘creation of value for each appropriate stakeholder’. This article argues that although ST presents important insights, its view of the firm is incomplete and its vision of the purpose of the business in society needs to be refined.
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  38. Eivind Storheim (1966). The Purpose of Analysis in Moore's Principia Ethica. Inquiry 9 (1-4):156 – 170.score: 18.0
    After distinguishing two senses of 'analysis', the author claims that the purpose of Moore's analytical (meta-ethical) program in Principia Ethica was to serve as an indispensable tool for avoiding false judgments in substantial ethics and for establishing true ones. It is shown that Moore's analyses and assumptions are not normatively neutral in that, (1) he disagreed with other philosophers about the extension (as well as the intension) of moral terms, (2) he disagreed in extension with 'common-sense' morality. Finally, an (...)
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  39. Elizabeth A. Ware & Susan A. Gelman (2014). You Get What You Need: An Examination of Purpose‐Based Inheritance Reasoning in Undergraduates, Preschoolers, and Biological Experts. Cognitive Science 38 (2):197-243.score: 18.0
    This set of seven experiments examines reasoning about the inheritance and acquisition of physical properties in preschoolers, undergraduates, and biology experts. Participants (N = 390) received adoption vignettes in which a baby animal was born to one parent but raised by a biologically unrelated parent, and they judged whether the offspring would have the same property as the birth or rearing parent. For each vignette, the animal parents had contrasting values on a physical property dimension (e.g., the birth parent had (...)
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  40. R. M. Martin (1963). Performance, Purpose, and Permission. Philosophy of Science 30 (2):122-137.score: 18.0
    In this paper we attempt to formulate logical foundations for a theory of actions or performance. Human beings act in various ways, and their actions are intimately interrelated with their use of language. But precisely how actions and the use of language are interrelated is not very clear. One of the reasons is perhaps that we have no precise vocabulary in terms of which such interrelations may be handled. There is need for developing a systematic theory in which different kinds (...)
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  41. Michel Weber (2013). Review of Luciano Boschiero (Ed.), On the Purpose of a University Education. [REVIEW] Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 9 (2):223-230.score: 18.0
    This is a review of Luciano Boschiero ed. On the Purpose of a University Education , Melbourne, Australian Scholarly Publishing, 2012, ISBN: 978-1-921875-85-4 pb, 137 pp. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ (...)
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  42. L. T. Hobhouse (1927/1969). Development and Purpose. Grosse Pointe, Mich.,Scholarly Press.score: 18.0
    purpose, the train of events which it sets up and the* ultimate end are seen as an ... Conversely, an organic whole is one which is determined by a purpose. ...
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  43. James Maclaurin & Tim Cochrane (2013). The Purpose of Progress: A Response to Schubert. Journal of Bioeconomics.score: 18.0
    This article responds to a commentary by Christian Schubert on our 'Evolvability and Progress in Evolutionary Economics'. Our response elaborates the key disagreement between Schubert and us, namely, our views about the purpose of an account of progress in evolutionary economics.
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  44. Pedro Tabensky (2004). Précis of "Happiness: Personhood, Community, Purpose" (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2003). South African Journal of Philosophy 23 (4):336-342.score: 18.0
    Happiness: Personhood, Community, Purpose (Happiness from now on) is, among other things, a book about the holistic interrelationship that exists between the concepts of happiness, rationality and ethics. The conception of happiness at issue is, in broad outline, Aristotle's, which is to say that it is about the meaning of life. He referred to this conception as eudaimonia. Perhaps the fundamental guiding question that has motivated me to write Happiness in the first place is ‘Why even bother about being (...)
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  45. Victoria N. Alexander (2009). The Poetics of Purpose. Biosemiotics 2 (1):77-100.score: 18.0
    Hackles have been raised in biosemiotic circles by T. L. Short’s assertion that semiosis, as defined by Peirce, entails “acting for purposes” and therefore is not found below the level of the organism (2007a:174–177). This paper examines Short’s teleology and theory of purposeful behavior and offers a remedy to the disagreement. Remediation becomes possible when the issue is reframed in the terms of the complexity sciences, which allows intentionality to be understood as the interplay between local and global aspects of (...)
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  46. Joseph A. Bracken (2010). God, Chance and Purpose. Process Studies 39 (1):106-116.score: 18.0
    In God, Chance and Purpose, David Bartholomew uses probability theory to show how Divine Providence can be active in a world governed by chance and necessity. At the micro-level of Nature God uses a statistical formula to control the outcome of seemingly random events; at the macro-level God influences but does not control the outcome of events. From a Whiteheadian perspective “the common element of form” of a society could be seen as the equivalent of Bartholomew’s statistical formula but (...)
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  47. Priya Satalkar & David Shaw (2013). Not Fit for Purpose: The Ethical Guidelines of the Indian Council of Medical Research. Developing World Bioethics 13 (2).score: 18.0
    In 2006, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) published its ‘Ethical guidelines for Biomedical Research on human participants’. The intention was to translate international ethical standards into locally and culturally appropriate norms and values to help biomedical researchers in India to conduct ethical research and thereby safeguard the interest of human subjects. Unfortunately, it is apparent that the guideline is not fit for purpose. In addition to problems with the structure and clarity of the guidelines, there are several (...)
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  48. Solveiga Cirtautienė & Dalia Vasarienė (2009). Social Purpose of Private Property. Jurisprudence 118 (4):105-122.score: 18.0
    Lithuania had a different experience in legal regulation of private property. There were periods when right to private ownership was denied and on the other hand – the periods when right to private ownership was respected and protected. Authors wanted to review today’s status of rights to private property in retrospective. The main purpose of the article is to reveal functions of private property in Lithuania. The article analyzes peculiarities of legal regulation of private property in Lithuania during different (...)
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  49. H. Davies, F. Wells & M. Czarkowski (2009). Standards for Research Ethics Committees: Purpose, Problems and the Possibilities of Other Approaches. Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (6):382-383.score: 18.0
    Criticism of ethical review of research continues and research ethics committees (RECs) need to demonstrate that they are “fit for purpose” by meeting acknowledged standards of process, debate and outcome. This paper reports a workshop in Warsaw in April 2008, organised by the European Forum for Good Clinical Practice, on the problems of setting standards for RECs in the European Union. Representatives from 27 countries were invited; 16 were represented. Problems identified were the limited and variable resources, difficulties of (...)
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