Combating the identity problem is crucial and urgent as false identity has become a common denominator of many serious crimes, including mafia trafficking and terrorism. Without correct identification, it is very difficult for law enforcement authority to intervene, or even trace terrorists’ activities. Amongst several identity attributes, personal names are commonly, and effortlessly, falsified or aliased by most criminals. Typical approaches to detecting the use of false identity rely on the similarity measure of textual and other content-based characteristics, which are (...) usually not applicable in the case of highly deceptive, erroneous and unknown descriptions. This barrier can be overcome through analysis of link information displayed by the individual in communication behaviours, financial interactions and social networks. In particular, this paper presents a novel link-based approach that improves existing techniques by integrating multiple link properties in the process of similarity evaluation. It is utilised in a hybrid model that proficiently combines both text-based and link-based measures of examined names to refine the justification of their similarity. This approach is experimentally evaluated against other link-based and text-based techniques, over a terrorist-related dataset, with further generalization to a similar problem occurring in publication databases. The empirical study demonstrates the great potential of this work towards developing an effective identity verification system. (shrink)
This article investigates the development of research in the field of CSR in China. The justification for this is that (i) there is evidence that CSR is emerging as a management practice and management field internationally; (ii) there is a general interest in the distinctiveness or comparability of management and management research in Asia and China; (iii) there is evidence that CSR is growing as a management issue in China; and (iv) yet, the mainsprings of this are very different from (...) those in Western business systems. This article adopts a methodology used in wider analysis of CSR in management research (Lockett et al., Journal of Management Studies 43, 2006, 115) to bring forth comparisons over the salience, focus and nature of CSR in China research. It finds a rapidly growing salience of CSR in China research, albeit from a low base. It parallels Lockett et al.'s (2006) finding of a 'thickening' of CSR research focus from early concerns with Ethical issues only to greater attention to Social, Environmental and Stakeholder concerns. It also generally parallels Lockett et al.'s (2006) findings on the balance of research methodologies deployed. The significance of the findings for future CSR research in China is considered both for the notion of a CSR field of research and for our understanding of the development of CSR in China. (shrink)
To many, recent allegations of accounting fraud (or earnings management; EM) at Enron, coupled with similar ones at many other corporations, are a strong indication of a serious decay in business ethics. In academics, this raises the concern between EM and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Since it has neither been documented, nor globally tested whether CSR mitigates or increases the extent of EM, three kinds of EM are studied: earnings smoothing, earnings aggressiveness, and earnings losses and decreases avoidance. The extents (...) to which financial characteristics and institutional variables have an impact on the extent to which companies conduct EM are also tested. Our study investigates whether the CSR-related features of 1,653 corporations in 46 countries had a positive or negative effect on the quality of their publicly released financial information during the 1993-2002 period. There is no question that with a greater commitment to CSR, the extent of earnings smoothing is mitigated, that of earnings losses and decreases avoidance is reduced, but the extent of earnings aggressiveness is increased. (shrink)
Fully embracing previous achievements in the research of Taoist philosophy, this paper attempts to create a sound analysis and investigation of the value concern of Taoism and reconstruct a new set of Taoist philosophy conforming to the requirement of modern science from the perspective of modern philosophy. The author sincerely wishes that the preliminary understanding of the Taoist philosophy presented in this paper would contribute to the construction of the Taoist philosophy.
In this article, we examine the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on firms' financial performance (CSR-effect). Two competing hypotheses, social impact hypothesis and shift of focus hypothesis, are proposed to investigate this issue, where the former suggests that CSR has a positive relation with performance and the latter are opposite. In order to ensure the CSR-effect is not contaminated by other faeton or samples are randomly drawn, we employ four matching methods, Nearest, Caliper, Mahala and Mahala Caliper to match (...) the samples of CSR (CSR-firms) and without CSR (NonCSR-firms) with similar characteristics. Although four methods yield slightly different results, firms engaging in CSR activities tend to obtain significantly higher values on pretax income to net sales and profit margin, and adopting CSR at the very least not deteriorate the performance of firms, making our con clusion favors the social impact hypothesis and against shift of focus hypothesis in Taiwan. Thus, ambition and conscience are not conflicting with each other. (shrink)
This paper studies the relation between modern democracy and Chinese cultural patterns. It introducing the concept of 'Multiple Others' to explain how the classical concept of harmony can help integrating cultural and social differences within a social body, thus allowing social cohesion to integrate diversity. The main classical concepts of ren, li, and yi are analyzed in both Confucianism and Daoism, and compared to the concepts of recognition and dialogue developed by modern political theorists like Ch. Taylor and J. Habermas.
The bamboo slip essay Hengxian æå is historically valuable because it serves to further the ontological understanding and comprehension of issues related to the existence of the universe from the perspective of Laoziâs Daoist thought. Hengxian explores important propositions such as how Qi originated and activated itself and they came out of the same source but differed in nature from several aspects. The idea that Hengxian is âbeingâ without any definiteness responds to the issue of the relationship of difference and (...) identity of all things in the world, and thus examines the interdependent relationships between subjects and objects. It proposes that humans can further understand the existence of the universe through cognitive activities and practices such as analysis and comparison in which objective realities are checked. The issues discussed in Hengxian are consistent with Laoziâs Dao de jing, the works of Zhuangzi, Huangdi sijing é»å¸åç» (The Four Classics from the Emperor Yellow) and other Daoist works, and deserve significant attention. (shrink)
This paper argues that all discoveries, if they can be viewed as autonomous learning from the environment, share a common process. This is the process of model abstraction involving four steps: act, predict, surprise, and refine, all built on top of the discoverer's innate actions, percepts, and mental constructors. The evidence for this process is based on observations on various discoveries, ranging from children playing to animal discoveries of tools, from human problem solving to scientific discovery. Details of this process (...) can be studied with computer simulations of discovery in simulated environments. (shrink)
In three experiments, participants' visual span was measured in a comparative visual search task in which they had to detect a local match or mismatch between two displays presented side by side. Experiment 1 manipulated the dif®culty of the comparative visual search task by contrasting a mismatch detection task with a substantially more dif®cult match detection task. In Experiment 2, participants were tested in a single-task condition involving only the visual task and a dual-task condition in which they concurrently performed (...) an auditory task. Finally, in Experiment 3, participants performed two dual-task conditions, which differed in the dif®culty of the concurrent auditory task. Both the comparative search task dif®culty (Experiment 1) and the divided attention manipulation (Experiments 2 and 3) produced strong effects on visual span size. q 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. (shrink)
An investigation is reported of the thermal buckling and postbuckling of axially compressed double-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) subjected to a uniform temperature rise. The double-walled carbon nanotube is modeled as a nonlocal shear deformable cylindrical shell, which contains small-scale effects and van der Waals interaction forces. The governing equations are based on higher order shear deformation shell theory with a von Kármán?Donnell-type of kinematic nonlinearity and include thermal effects. Temperature-dependent material properties, which come from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and an (...) initial point defect, which is simulated as a dimple on the tube wall, are both taken into account. The small-scale parameter, e 0 a, is estimated by matching the buckling temperature of CNTs observed from the MD simulation results with the numerical results obtained from the nonlocal shear deformable shell model. The numerical illustrations concern the thermal postbuckling response of perfect and imperfect, single- and double-walled CNTs with different values of compressive load ratio. The results show that buckling temperature and postbuckling behavior of nanotubes are very sensitive to the small-scale parameter. The results reveal that temperature-dependent material properties have a significant effect on the thermal postbuckling behavior of both single- and double-walled CNTs. (shrink)
It is no doubt that philosophy is the important way of discourse of modernity and modernity is the contemporary context of philosophy. By examining the relationship between philosophy and modernity, we will discover that philosophy enables the complete establishment of modernity, and philosophy is theimportant driving force of the gradual evolution of modernity; Contemporary philosophy is the outcome of the crisis of modernity; The important mission of the contemporary Chinese philosophy is to answer the question that how it is possible (...) to adopt modernity in China. (shrink)
Adherence to ethical principles in clinical research and practice is becoming topical issue in China, where the prevalence of mental illness is rising, but treatment facilities remain underdeveloped. This paper reports on a study aiming to understand the ethical knowledge and attitudes of Chinese mental health professionals in relation to the process of diagnosis and treatment, informed consent, and privacy protection in clinical trials.
Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore the differences and similarities in values held by early adolescents in Mainland China and Taiwan. Samples of seventh graders (N = 707) were drawn from two cities in Mainland China and as many cities in Taiwan. The instruments for this study included the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) and the Chinese Value Survey (CVS). Many significant differences were found between adolescents in Mainland China and Taiwan, and between boys and girls. Early adolescents (...) in Mainland China tend to prefer values that are related to competence and personal effectiveness. In contrast, their counterparts in Taiwan are more people?orientated and value interpersonal relationships more. The two groups also emphasise different aspects of collectivism. The subjects in Mainland China prefer more task?orientated values which aim toward service to society and country. The subjects in Taiwan, on the other hand, focus more on family?related values. Significant differences between the sexes are also found. Girls demonstrate more concern for relationships than do boys. Similarities in value preferences are also found. Adolescents in both Mainland China and Taiwan show concern for the world, country, family, friends and virtues related to interpersonal relationships. They are also similar in showing little concern for some traditional Chinese values such as reputation and respect for tradition. Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the existing literature. (shrink)
The elastic constants of an icosahedral-phase (i-phase) quasicrystal of Ti39.5Zr39.5Ni21 were measured over the temperature range 3?292?K using the technique of resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. Common elastic quantities were derived over this temperature range. Values at 290?K are: bulk modulus?= 116.8?GPa; shear modulus?=?37.0?GPa; Young's modulus?=?100.5?GPa; Poisson's ratio?=?0.356. The internal friction was also studied. A Debye temperature of 316.7?K was computed from the low-temperature elastic moduli. The present values for the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio compare well with ultrasonically-derived values reported earlier (...) for an i-phase Ti41.5Zr41.5Ni17 quasicrystal, but do not agree with recently reported results for i-phase forms of Ti40Zr40Ni20 and Ti52.8Zr26.2Ni21 obtained by pressure-volume measurements and conventional mechanical testing. (shrink)
Attending and responding to sound location generates increased activity in parietal cortex which may index auditory spatial working memory and/or goal-directed action. Here, we used an n-back task (Experiment 1) and an adaptation paradigm (Experiment 2) to distinguish memory-related activity from that associated with goal-directed action. In Experiment 1, participants indicated, in separate blocks of trials, whether the incoming stimulus was presented at the same location as in the previous trial (1-back) or two trials ago (2-back). Prior to a block (...) of trials, participants were told to use their left or right index finger. Accuracy and reaction times were worse for the 2-back than for the 1-back condition. The analysis of fMRI data revealed greater sustained task-related activity in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and superior frontal sulcus during 2-back than 1-back after accounting for response-related activity elicited by the targets. Target detection and response execution were also associated with enhanced activity in the IPL bilaterally, though the activation was anterior to that associated with sustained task-related activity. In Experiment 2, we used an event-related design in which participants listened (no response required) to trials that comprised four sounds presented either at the same location or at four different locations. We found larger IPL activation for changes in sound location than for sounds presented at the same location. The IPL activation overlapped with that observed during auditory spatial working memory task. Together, these results provide converging evidence supporting the role of parietal cortex in auditory spatial working memory which can be dissociated from response selection and execution. (shrink)
Bulk metallic glasses are known to have a composition formula [cluster](glue atom)1,3 within the framework of the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The key issue in applying the cluster formula is the determination of the right clusters and glue atoms. As examples, alloy phases in the glass-forming systems Al?Ni?Zr and B?Co?Si are analysed from the viewpoint of nearest coordination polyhedral clusters. These alloy phases are described by [effective cluster](glue atom) x , where the effective cluster refers to true cluster composition after taking account (...) of cluster-sharing in the phase structure. For each alloy phase, a principal cluster can be identified that features the local short-range order of that phase. It is pointed out that the principal clusters can express compositions with high glass-forming abilities, as verified by our experiments in Al?Ni?Zr and B?Co?Si?Ta. (shrink)
Composition formulae for ideal metallic glasses are explored by combining the cluster-plus-glue-atom model with the global resonance model, termed the cluster-resonance model for short. The former model gives the [cluster]1(glue atom) x cluster formulae, stressing the local cluster order of a glassy structure; the latter model extends the local cluster order to a medium-range one by introducing spherical periodicity that relates the cluster size with Fermi vector, k F. Such a correlation allows the calculation of Fermi energy, E F, and (...) electrochemical potential of electrons of the system from any local clusters. The cluster-resonance model also implies the equilibrium of the electrochemical potentials of electrons between different clusters so that the number of glue atoms matching one cluster (x in the cluster formula) can be determined. Examples in the Cu?Zr?Al and B?Co?Si?Ta systems are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed model and the resulting cluster formulae in interpreting multicomponent metallic-glass compositions as well as their relevant binary eutectic points. (shrink)
By direct quenching or post-annealing followed by quenching, we have successfully obtained a series of K x Fe2?y Se2 samples with different properties. It is found that the samples directly quenched in the cooling process of growth show superconductivity and the one cooled with a furnace is insulating even though their stoichiometries are similar. The sample cooled with the furnace can be tuned from insulating to superconducting by post-annealing and then quenching. Based on these two points, we conclude that the (...) superconducting state in K x Fe2?y Se2 is metastable, and quenching is the key point to achieve the superconducting state. The similar stoichiometries of all the non-superconducting and superconducting samples indicate that the iron valence does not play a decisive role in determining whether a K x Fe2?y Se2 sample is superconducting. Combining with the result obtained in the K x Fe2?y Se2 thin films prepared by molecular beam epitaxy, we argue that our superconducting sample partly corresponds to the phase without iron vacancies as evidenced by scanning tunneling microscopy and the insulating sample mainly corresponds to the phase with the vacancy order. Quenching may play the role of freezing the phase without iron vacancies. (shrink)
Quasicrystalline (QC) phases are often stable only within narrow composition domains. For this reason, the synthesis of larger amounts of single-phase quasicrystalline powders is difficult. Powder metallurgical approaches, based on mechanical milling followed by conventional heating, have been explored in the recent past. The manufacturing process for single-phase quasicrystals ? either in the form of powders or as bulk parts ? can be accelerated by orders of magnitude using rapid heating methods that involve pulsed electric currents and/or high-frequency electromagnetic fields. (...) Prior knowledge of the phase transformation sequence and transformation kinetics, as revealed by in situ time-resolved synchrotron radiation experiments, is crucial in obtaining single-phase quasicrystals. We report on the simultaneous synthesis and densification of bulk single-phase Al?Cu?Fe QCs by spark plasma sintering (SPS) within minutes and on the ultrafast synthesis of single-phase Al?Cu?Fe quasicrystalline powders by microwave heating within seconds. The effect of electric current application in the rapid processing of pre-alloyed powders is discussed in relation to the faster diffusion and enhanced phase transformation kinetics. (shrink)